Abstract

A maskless RGB color patterning technique based on diffusion of luminescent dopant molecules is proposed here for vacuum-deposited small molecule OLED displays. The proposed maskless color patterning technique enables us to overcome challenging issues in OLED display manufacturing arising from shadow mask limitations. This approach utilizes selective diffusion of luminescent dopant molecules from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate. Results show that sufficiently high doping levels can be achieved through this technique and that devices with performance similar to those produced by standard co-deposition can be easily produced. Red, green and blue OLEDs are successfully fabricated side by side on one substrate using this technique.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Recent progress in phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2013(34), 7653–7663 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
  8. S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).
  9. S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by control of laser imaging condition,” Org. Electron. 13(5), 833–839 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L1143 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, “Recent developments in the synthesis of red dopants for Alq3 hosted electroluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 363(1-2), 327–331 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. S. Xu, J. B. Xu, and J. An, “Visualization of thermally activated morphology evolution of N, N’-di (naphthalene-1-yl)-N, N’-diphthalbenzidine films on ITO/copper phthalocyanine underlying layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(6), 1151–1156 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Recent progress in phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2013(34), 7653–7663 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by control of laser imaging condition,” Org. Electron. 13(5), 833–839 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

M. S. Xu, J. B. Xu, and J. An, “Visualization of thermally activated morphology evolution of N, N’-di (naphthalene-1-yl)-N, N’-diphthalbenzidine films on ITO/copper phthalocyanine underlying layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(6), 1151–1156 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

2002 (2)

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, “Recent developments in the synthesis of red dopants for Alq3 hosted electroluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 363(1-2), 327–331 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L1143 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

An, J.

M. S. Xu, J. B. Xu, and J. An, “Visualization of thermally activated morphology evolution of N, N’-di (naphthalene-1-yl)-N, N’-diphthalbenzidine films on ITO/copper phthalocyanine underlying layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(6), 1151–1156 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baetzold, J. P.

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Bellmann, E.

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Bollman, B.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. H.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, “Recent developments in the synthesis of red dopants for Alq3 hosted electroluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 363(1-2), 327–331 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by control of laser imaging condition,” Org. Electron. 13(5), 833–839 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Geffroy, B.

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Graves-Abe, T.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gu, G.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hirose, S.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hoffend, T. R.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jin, H. Z.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jones, V.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Recent progress in phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2013(34), 7653–7663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Klubek, K. P.

C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, “Recent developments in the synthesis of red dopants for Alq3 hosted electroluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 363(1-2), 327–331 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lamansky, S.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Le, H.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

Le Roy, P.

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. M.

S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by control of laser imaging condition,” Org. Electron. 13(5), 833–839 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Long, K.

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, M. H.

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mizukami, M.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, A.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Onoda, M.

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L1143 (1999).
[Crossref]

Prat, C.

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pschenitzka, F.

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
[Crossref]

Register, R. A.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roberts, R. R.

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Recent progress in phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2013(34), 7653–7663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Savvateev, V.

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Shen, Z.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, “Recent developments in the synthesis of red dopants for Alq3 hosted electroluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 363(1-2), 327–331 (2000).
[Crossref]

Staral, J. S.

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

Sturm, J. C.

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suh, M. C.

S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by control of laser imaging condition,” Org. Electron. 13(5), 833–839 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tada, K.

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L1143 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tada, T.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. H. Chen, C. W. Tang, J. Shi, and K. P. Klubek, “Recent developments in the synthesis of red dopants for Alq3 hosted electroluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 363(1-2), 327–331 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectrum 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tolbert, W. A.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wolk, M. B.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

M. B. Wolk, J. P. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).

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S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 503702 (2005).

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (4701 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic diagram illustrating the steps of the procedure followed for introducing luminescent dopant from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 UV-Vis absorption spectra of the acceptor host films after contact with the donor substrate for 30min (a), 60min (b), 90min (c) and 105min (d). The dotted traces represent spectra collected from the non-contacted areas for reference.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) UV-Vis absorption spectra of the acceptor host films after contact with the donor substrate for the various times after subtracting the background absorption by NPB and the substrate. (b) The corresponding absorbance at 510nm vs contact time (bottom axis). The absorbance of 5nm NPB films doped with various DCJTB concentrations at the same wavelength after subtracting absorption from NPB and substrate background are shown for comparison (top axis). The absorption spectra of the reference films before subtracting the back ground absorption are shown in the Appendix.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A schematic diagram illustrating the steps of the procedure followed for fabricating OLEDs. (ii) and (iii) illustrate the steps of introducing the dopant via diffusion.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Red, green and blue colored solid lines: EL spectra of the devices fabricated following the procedure in Fig. 4 for various contact times. Black lines: EL spectra of reference devices with 0, 2, 4, 8 and 100% DCJTB fabricated by conventional co-deposition.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Red, green and blue colored solid lines: J-V and L-V characteristics of devices fabricated following the procedure in Fig. 5. Black lines: those of reference devices with 2, 4, 8 and 100% DCJTB concentration.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PL spectra of the NPB/DCJTB bilayer stack before and after the acetone vapor exposure. The spectra are collected under 360nm excitation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PL images of the NPB/DCJTB bilayer stack before (a) and after (b) the acetone vapor exposure. Transition is shown in Visualization 1.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 A schematic diagram illustrating the steps of the procedure followed for fabricating red, green and blue OLEDs. (ii) and (iv) show the Joule heating steps used to induce the diffusion for introducing the red and green dopants selectively in devices x and y, respectively.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) EL images and (b) EL spectra of the devices fabricated following the procedure in Fig. 9.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The absorption spectra of 5nm of NPB films doped with various DCJTB concentrations (0–16%).

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