Abstract

Using the precise mid field angular distribution model of the LED light source and the optical scattering surface property of the Harvey BSDF scattering model, we perform optical simulation to develop and design a novel solid plastic optical lens with freeform inner surface to achieve the optical performance of 89.89% light energy transmission optics for the sake of energy saving reason. The 70 degrees angular light distribution pattern defined at full width half maximum (FWHM) light energy level is performed and the optical utilization factor (OUF) of 51.8% is obtained within −45 degrees and 45 degrees range in the areas of interest with glare reduced for the down light illumination.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9055–9063 (2010).
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  11. T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).
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  13. W. R. Ryckaert, K. A. G. Smet, I. A. A. Roelandts, M. Van Gils, and P. Hanselaer, “Linear LED tubes versus fluorescent lamps: an evaluation,” Energy Build. 49, 429–436 (2012).
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  14. S. Song, Y. Sun, Y. Lin, and B. You, “A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 652–660 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (4)

Y. C. Lo, J. Y. Cai, M. S. Tasi, Z. Y. Tasi, and C. C. Sun, “Side-illuminating LED luminaires with accurate projection in high uniformity and high optical utilization factor for large-area field illumination,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A365–A375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chen, C. Y. Lin, C. M. Yeh, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Hsu, and H. C. Wang, “Anti-glare LED lamps with adjustable illumination light field,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5183–5195 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

2013 (2)

S. Song, Y. Sun, Y. Lin, and B. You, “A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 652–660 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, and C. C. Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10612–10621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2008 (1)

M. G. Turner and K. J. Garcia, “Optimization using rational Bézier control points and weighting factors,” Proc. SPIE 7061, 70610H (2008).

2006 (2)

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2193–2195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Nguyen, B. Terao, and J. Laski, “Realizing LED illumination lighting applications,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594105 (2005).

2002 (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. E. Harvey, “Light scattering characteristics of optical surfaces,” Stray Light Instrum. Eng. 107, 41–47 (1977).

Aizawa, D.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ayama, M.

T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cai, J. Y.

Chang, Y. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Chen, F.

Chen, H. X.

Chen, W. H.

Chen, Y. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Chen, Y. L.

Chen, Y. S.

Cheung, B.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(19), 1761–1765 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiang, C. W.

Chien, W. T.

Chung, T. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Garcia, K. J.

M. G. Turner and K. J. Garcia, “Optimization using rational Bézier control points and weighting factors,” Proc. SPIE 7061, 70610H (2008).

Glorieux, B.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Han, Y.

Hanselaer, P.

W. R. Ryckaert, K. A. G. Smet, I. A. A. Roelandts, M. Van Gils, and P. Hanselaer, “Linear LED tubes versus fluorescent lamps: an evaluation,” Energy Build. 49, 429–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harvey, J. E.

J. E. Harvey, “Light scattering characteristics of optical surfaces,” Stray Light Instrum. Eng. 107, 41–47 (1977).

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, S. L.

Hsieh, C. T.

Hsu, C. W.

Hsu, Y. K.

Huang, S. M.

Irikura, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).

Iwamoto, M.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(19), 1761–1765 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kasahara, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kawanobe, S.

T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).

Kohko, S.

T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).

Kuo, C. T.

Lai, K. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Laski, J.

F. Nguyen, B. Terao, and J. Laski, “Realizing LED illumination lighting applications,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594105 (2005).

Lee, T. X.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2193–2195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. B.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(19), 1761–1765 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, X. H.

Lee, Y. L.

Li, D. R.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Li, H.

Lin, C. C.

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, L. B.-S.

Lin, M. C.

Lin, Y.

S. Song, Y. Sun, Y. Lin, and B. You, “A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 652–660 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Liu, S.

Lo, Y. C.

Lu, C. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Ma, S. H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Minoda, T. K.

T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).

Moreno, I.

Moriyama, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, F.

F. Nguyen, B. Terao, and J. Laski, “Realizing LED illumination lighting applications,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594105 (2005).

Pan, J. W.

Qin, Z.

Roelandts, I. A. A.

W. R. Ryckaert, K. A. G. Smet, I. A. A. Roelandts, M. Van Gils, and P. Hanselaer, “Linear LED tubes versus fluorescent lamps: an evaluation,” Energy Build. 49, 429–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W. R.

W. R. Ryckaert, K. A. G. Smet, I. A. A. Roelandts, M. Van Gils, and P. Hanselaer, “Linear LED tubes versus fluorescent lamps: an evaluation,” Energy Build. 49, 429–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smet, K. A. G.

W. R. Ryckaert, K. A. G. Smet, I. A. A. Roelandts, M. Van Gils, and P. Hanselaer, “Linear LED tubes versus fluorescent lamps: an evaluation,” Energy Build. 49, 429–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

S. Song, Y. Sun, Y. Lin, and B. You, “A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 652–660 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

Y. C. Lo, J. Y. Cai, M. S. Tasi, Z. Y. Tasi, and C. C. Sun, “Side-illuminating LED luminaires with accurate projection in high uniformity and high optical utilization factor for large-area field illumination,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A365–A375 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, and C. C. Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10612–10621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Yu, Y. L. Chen, W. H. Chen, H. X. Chen, X. H. Lee, C. C. Lin, and C. C. Sun, “Bidirectional scattering distribution function by screen imaging synthesis,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1268–1280 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Lee, J. L. Tsai, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Surface-structured diffuser by iterative down-size molding with glass sintering technology,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6135–6145 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, W. T. Chien, I. Moreno, C. T. Hsieh, M. C. Lin, S. L. Hsiao, and X. H. Lee, “Calculating model of light transmission efficiency of diffusers attached to a lighting cavity,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6137–6148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2193–2195 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

S. Song, Y. Sun, Y. Lin, and B. You, “A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 652–660 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tashiro, T.

T. Tashiro, S. Kawanobe, T. K. Minoda, S. Kohko, T. Ishikawa, and M. Ayama, “Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–22 (2014).

Tasi, M. S.

Tasi, Z. Y.

Terao, B.

F. Nguyen, B. Terao, and J. Laski, “Realizing LED illumination lighting applications,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594105 (2005).

Ting, Z. Y.

C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

To, S.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik (Stuttg.) 121(19), 1761–1765 (2010).
[Crossref]

Toda, M.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
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M. G. Turner and K. J. Garcia, “Optimization using rational Bézier control points and weighting factors,” Proc. SPIE 7061, 70610H (2008).

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W. R. Ryckaert, K. A. G. Smet, I. A. A. Roelandts, M. Van Gils, and P. Hanselaer, “Linear LED tubes versus fluorescent lamps: an evaluation,” Energy Build. 49, 429–436 (2012).
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C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Song, Y. Sun, Y. Lin, and B. You, “A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 652–660 (2013).
[Crossref]

Energy Build. (1)

W. R. Ryckaert, K. A. G. Smet, I. A. A. Roelandts, M. Van Gils, and P. Hanselaer, “Linear LED tubes versus fluorescent lamps: an evaluation,” Energy Build. 49, 429–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

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T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Visual Environ. 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

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C. C. Sun, Y. Y. Chang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. C. Chen, T. X. Lee, D. R. Li, C. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Ting, B. Glorieux, Y. C. Chen, K. Y. Lai, and C. Y. Liu, “Packaging efficiency in phosphor-converted white LEDs and its impact to the limit of luminous efficacy,” J. Solid State Light. 1(19), 1–17 (2014).

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H. Wen and L. B.-S. Lin, “Improvement of illumination uniformity for LED flat panel light by using micro-secondary lens array,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A788–A798 (2012).
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X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, and C. C. Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10612–10621 (2013).
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Y. C. Lo, J. Y. Cai, M. S. Tasi, Z. Y. Tasi, and C. C. Sun, “Side-illuminating LED luminaires with accurate projection in high uniformity and high optical utilization factor for large-area field illumination,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A365–A375 (2014).
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Y. S. Chen, C. Y. Lin, C. M. Yeh, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Hsu, and H. C. Wang, “Anti-glare LED lamps with adjustable illumination light field,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5183–5195 (2014).
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Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The LED light source model PM2B-1LWE-R8. (b) The LED PC board module.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The angular light distribution patterns of LED light source ranging from the mid field region to the far field region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The measured 7 BRDF curves. (b) The 7 BRDF curves coincided to form a single curve.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The measured 7 BTDF curves. (b) The 7 BTDF curves coincided to form a single curve.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Front view of the transparent optical lens, and (b) back view of the transparent optical lens.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Front view of the plastic optical lens, and (b) back view of the plastic optical lens.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The down light with the plastic optical lens installed on the LED PC board module.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The polar plot of angular light distribution pattern. (b) The optical simulation intensity curve almost coincide with the measurement intensity curve.

Equations (2)

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P(t)= P j w j B n j ( t ) w j B n j ( t ) .
BSDF=b 0 [ 1+ ( sin θ l ) 2 ] s 2 .

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