Abstract

PbS quantum dot (QD)-doped glass was prepared by the heat treatment of as-prepared glass, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Choosing the glass heat treatment at 600°C for 24h as a representative sample, steady-state and transient-state PL, lifetime and time-resolve emission spectra (TRES) of PbS QD-doped glass were studied in detail. The results indicated that the lifetime spectra showed a similar variation tendency with the PL spectra. The steady-state, transient-state PL and TRES results first revealed the energy transfer process from smaller QDs with higher energy to bigger QDs with lower energy in the PbS QD-doped glass.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  3. M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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  10. G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).
  11. S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “A solution-processed 1.53 mum quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3273–3281 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  29. K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).
  31. K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  36. N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. S. Ghamsari, M. H. Majles Ara, S. Radiman, and X. H. Zhang, “Colloidal lead sulfide nanocrystals with strong green emission,” J. Lumin. 137, 241–244 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Pang, X. Sun, H. Guo, J. Yan, J. Wang, X. Zeng, Z. Chen, and T. Wang, “A PbS quantum dots fiber amplifier excited by evanescent wave,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14024–14030 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

E. H. Sargent, “Infrared photovoltaics made by solution processing,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 325–331 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Novel nano-structured glasses containing semiconductor quantum dots: controlling the photoluminescence with phonons and photons,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(1), 282–285 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

O. Qasaimeh, “Effect of doping on the optical characteristics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27(12), 1978–1984 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. Liu, J. Heo, X. H. Zhang, and J. L. Adam, “Photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots doped in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 618–623 (2008).

2007 (3)

P. Bhattacharya and Z. Mi, “Quantum-dot optoelectronic devices,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1723–1740 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “A solution-processed 1.53 mum quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3273–3281 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, “Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 171–173 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Schaller, V. M. Agranovich, and V. I. Klimov, “High-efficiency carrier multiplication through direct photogeneration of multi-excitons via virtual single-exciton states,” Nat. Phys. 1(3), 189–194 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloida PbS nanocrystals with size tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Wise, “Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33(11), 773–780 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271(5251), 933–937 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

E. Hanamura, “Very large optical nonlinearity of semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(3), 1273–1279 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Y. Wang, A. Suna, W. Mahler, and R. Kasowski, “PbS in polymers. From molecules to bulk solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(12), 7315–7322 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

A. I. Ekimov, A. L. Efros, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Quantum size effect in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Commun. 88(11), 947–950 (1985).

1982 (1)

A. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16(7), 772–775 (1982).

Adam, J. L.

C. Liu, J. Heo, X. H. Zhang, and J. L. Adam, “Photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots doped in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 618–623 (2008).

Agranovich, V. M.

R. D. Schaller, V. M. Agranovich, and V. I. Klimov, “High-efficiency carrier multiplication through direct photogeneration of multi-excitons via virtual single-exciton states,” Nat. Phys. 1(3), 189–194 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ahrenkiel, S. Ph.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271(5251), 933–937 (1996).
[Crossref]

Allan, G.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auxier, J.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Auxier, J. M.

J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).

K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bakueva, L.

Bauer, H. D.

R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

P. Bhattacharya and Z. Mi, “Quantum-dot optoelectronic devices,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1723–1740 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bohme, T.

R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, N. F.

J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bottcher, H.

R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cataluna, M. A.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cauchi, S.

Chai, G.

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. D.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Dantas, N. O.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
[Crossref]

De Muynck, D.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delerue, C.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donegan, J. F.

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, G.

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Dong, G. P.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Efros, A. L.

A. I. Ekimov, A. L. Efros, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Quantum size effect in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Commun. 88(11), 947–950 (1985).

A. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16(7), 772–775 (1982).

A. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16(7), 772–775 (1982).

Eisler, H.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekimov, A. I.

A. I. Ekimov, A. L. Efros, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Quantum size effect in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Commun. 88(11), 947–950 (1985).

Ellingson, R. J.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Fan, X.

F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feurer, T.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Gaponenko, M. S.

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghamsari, M. S.

M. S. Ghamsari, M. H. Majles Ara, S. Radiman, and X. H. Zhang, “Colloidal lead sulfide nanocrystals with strong green emission,” J. Lumin. 137, 241–244 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gorelikov, I.

Guo, H.

Hanamura, E.

E. Hanamura, “Very large optical nonlinearity of semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(3), 1273–1279 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hens, Z.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Novel nano-structured glasses containing semiconductor quantum dots: controlling the photoluminescence with phonons and photons,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(1), 282–285 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, J. Heo, X. H. Zhang, and J. L. Adam, “Photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots doped in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 618–623 (2008).

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hines, M. A.

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloida PbS nanocrystals with size tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoogland, S.

Howard, I.

Johnson, J. C.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, I.

Kasowski, R.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, W. Mahler, and R. Kasowski, “PbS in polymers. From molecules to bulk solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(12), 7315–7322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Klimov, V. I.

R. D. Schaller, V. M. Agranovich, and V. I. Klimov, “High-efficiency carrier multiplication through direct photogeneration of multi-excitons via virtual single-exciton states,” Nat. Phys. 1(3), 189–194 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumacheva, E.

Kutovoi, S. A.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Kwon, Y. K.

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Novel nano-structured glasses containing semiconductor quantum dots: controlling the photoluminescence with phonons and photons,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(1), 282–285 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Labio, L. D.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Lambert, K.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levina, L.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Novel nano-structured glasses containing semiconductor quantum dots: controlling the photoluminescence with phonons and photons,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(1), 282–285 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, J. Heo, X. H. Zhang, and J. L. Adam, “Photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots doped in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 618–623 (2008).

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luthy, W.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Lutich, A. A.

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Mahler, W.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, W. Mahler, and R. Kasowski, “PbS in polymers. From molecules to bulk solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(12), 7315–7322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Majles Ara, M. H.

M. S. Ghamsari, M. H. Majles Ara, S. Radiman, and X. H. Zhang, “Colloidal lead sulfide nanocrystals with strong green emission,” J. Lumin. 137, 241–244 (2013).
[Crossref]

Malko, A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malyarevich, A. M.

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martins, J. C.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mi, Z.

P. Bhattacharya and Z. Mi, “Quantum-dot optoelectronic devices,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1723–1740 (2007).
[Crossref]

Micic, O. I.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molinari, M.

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Monte, A. F. G.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morais, P. C.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moreels, I.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, J. E.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musikhin, S.

Nabiev, I.

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nollet, T.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norman, A. G.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nozik, A. J.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oleinikov, V.

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Onushchenko, A. A.

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

A. I. Ekimov, A. L. Efros, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Quantum size effect in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Commun. 88(11), 947–950 (1985).

Pang, F.

Peng, M.

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Peng, M. Y.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petrov, E. P.

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).

K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pötting, S.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Qasaimeh, O.

O. Qasaimeh, “Effect of doping on the optical characteristics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27(12), 1978–1984 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Qiu, J. R.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qu, F.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Radiman, S.

M. S. Ghamsari, M. H. Majles Ara, S. Radiman, and X. H. Zhang, “Colloidal lead sulfide nanocrystals with strong green emission,” J. Lumin. 137, 241–244 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rakovich, A.

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rakovich, Y. P.

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reiche, R.

R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, V. M. Agranovich, and V. I. Klimov, “High-efficiency carrier multiplication through direct photogeneration of multi-excitons via virtual single-exciton states,” Nat. Phys. 1(3), 189–194 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schlafer, D.

R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scholes, G. D.

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloida PbS nanocrystals with size tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schülzgen, A.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).

K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Sibbett, W.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Silva, R. S.

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sirotkin, A. A.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Smeets, D.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. W.

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sukhanova, A.

A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sukhovatkin, V.

Sun, X.

Suna, A.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, W. Mahler, and R. Kasowski, “PbS in polymers. From molecules to bulk solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(12), 7315–7322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tan, W. B.

F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thielsch, R.

R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tolstik, N. A.

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vanhaecke, F.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vantomme, A.

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlasov, V. I.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Wang, F.

F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, M.

F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006).
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Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

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G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Wu, B. T.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, E.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, G.

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

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K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).

K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

Yu, P.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yumashev, K. V.

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Zavartsev, Y. D.

A. A. Sirotkin, L. D. Labio, A. I. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, V. I. Vlasov, W. Luthy, T. Feurer, A. A. Onushchenko, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Mode-locked diode-pumped vanadate lasers operated with PbS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 375–379 (2009).

Zeng, X.

Zhang, F.

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Zhang, F. T.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. L.

G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. H.

M. S. Ghamsari, M. H. Majles Ara, S. Radiman, and X. H. Zhang, “Colloidal lead sulfide nanocrystals with strong green emission,” J. Lumin. 137, 241–244 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, J. Heo, X. H. Zhang, and J. L. Adam, “Photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots doped in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 618–623 (2008).

Zhang, Y.

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

F. W. Wise, “Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33(11), 773–780 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3023–3030 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Room-temperature gain at 1.3 um in PbS-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(20), 3060 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
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C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

CLEO 2000 Technical Digest (1)

J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “Luminescence and gain around 1.3 um in PbS quantum dots,” CLEO 2000 Technical Digest 385, 1–2 (2000).

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G. P. Dong, B. T. Wu, F. T. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, M. Y. Peng, D. D. Chen, E. Wu, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.55 μm and 1.33 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. Fan, G. Wu, Y. Zhang, G. Chai, Z. Ma, J. Qiu, and G. Dong, “Novel visible emission and mechanism investigation from PbS nanoclusters-doped borosilicate glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(1), 173–178 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. Ph. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, A. Suna, W. Mahler, and R. Kasowski, “PbS in polymers. From molecules to bulk solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(12), 7315–7322 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

M. S. Ghamsari, M. H. Majles Ara, S. Radiman, and X. H. Zhang, “Colloidal lead sulfide nanocrystals with strong green emission,” J. Lumin. 137, 241–244 (2013).
[Crossref]

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C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Novel nano-structured glasses containing semiconductor quantum dots: controlling the photoluminescence with phonons and photons,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(1), 282–285 (2009).
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N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, J. Heo, X. H. Zhang, and J. L. Adam, “Photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots doped in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 618–623 (2008).

N. O. Dantas, F. Qu, A. F. G. Monte, R. S. Silva, and P. C. Morais, “Optical properties of IV–VI quantum dots doped in glass: Size-effects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32–35), 3525–3529 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383(1), 192–195 (2004).

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A. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, V. Oleinikov, M. Molinari, A. Sukhanova, I. Nabiev, and Y. P. Rakovich, “Linear and nonlinear optical effects induced by energy transfer from semiconductor nanoparticles to photosynthetic biological systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 20, 17–32 (2014).
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R. Thielsch, T. Bohme, R. Reiche, D. Schlafer, H. D. Bauer, and H. Bottcher, “Quantum-size effects of PbS nanocrystallites in evaporated composite films,” Nanostruct. Mater. 10(2), 131 (1998).
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F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology 17(1), R1–R13 (2006).
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M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. A. Onushchenko, A. M. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125320 (2010).
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V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Absorption spectra of glass heated at different temperatures for 24h. (b) PL spectra of glass heated at different temperatures for 24h excited at 468nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) TEM image of glass heated at 600°C for 24 h. The inset shows the HR-TEM image of a PbS QD. (b) The size distribution of PbS QDs in glasses corresponding to TEM image.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The decay profiles of the QD-doped glass heat-treated at 580°C, 600°C and 620°C detected at 1010nm, 1270nm and 1420nm emission, respectively. (b) Measured lifetime of PbS QD-doped glass heat-treated at 600°C for 24h as function of wavelength at intervals of 25nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The time-resolve PL spectra for the QD-doped glass heat-treated at 600°C for 24h. (b) The transient-state and steady-state PL spectra for the QD-doped glass heat-treated at 600°C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic energy transfer process between PbS QDs with different size.

Equations (2)

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( E g ( R ) ) 2 = E g 2 + ( 2 2 E g m ) ( π R ) 2
τ = 1 k F + k i

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