Abstract

Precise alignment of femtosecond laser tracks in standard single mode optical fiber is shown to enable controllable optical tapping of the fiber core waveguide light with fiber cladding photonic circuits. Asymmetric directional couplers are presented with tunable coupling ratios up to 62% and bandwidths up to 300 nm at telecommunication wavelengths. Real-time fiber monitoring during laser writing permitted a means of controlling the coupler length to compensate for micron-scale alignment errors and to facilitate tailored design of coupling ratio, spectral bandwidth and polarization properties. Laser induced waveguide birefringence was harnessed for polarization dependent coupling that led to the formation of in-fiber polarization-selective taps with 32 dB extinction ratio. This technology enables the interconnection of light propagating in pre-existing waveguides with laser-formed devices, thereby opening a new practical direction for the three-dimensional integration of optical devices in the cladding of optical fibers and planar lightwave circuits.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22, 29855–29861 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

2007 (5)

2006 (2)

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559–2561 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Vector bending sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 472–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (4)

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, and E. M. Dianov, “Inscription of fiber Bragg gratings by ultraviolet femtosecond radiation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2171–2173 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. Rayner, V. Bhardwaj, and P. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of nanostructures in silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1043–1045 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1996 (2)

1993 (4)

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Single-excimer-pulse writing of fiber gratings by use of a zero-order nulled phase mask: grating spectral response and visualization of index perturbations,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1277–1279 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–455 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Directional couplers made of nonidentical asymmetric slabs. Part II: Grating-assisted couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 268–273 (1987).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

Aitchison, J.

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

Albert, J.

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Single-excimer-pulse writing of fiber gratings by use of a zero-order nulled phase mask: grating spectral response and visualization of index perturbations,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1277–1279 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[Crossref]

Archambault, J.-L.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–455 (1993).
[Crossref]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Labelfree, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkins, R.

P. J. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Becker, R. G.

Bennion, I.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559–2561 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Vector bending sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 472–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bergh, R.

R. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, V.

Bhatia, V.

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Single-excimer-pulse writing of fiber gratings by use of a zero-order nulled phase mask: grating spectral response and visualization of index perturbations,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1277–1279 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, N. F.

Bowers, J. E.

Brilland, L.

Brueckner, S.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).

Camci-Unal, G.

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

Carmon, T.

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond laser micromachining, vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

Cuttica, D. F.

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Désévédavy, F.

Dianov, E. M.

Ding, H.

Dokmeci, M. R.

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dragomir, A.

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Vector bending sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 472–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S.

H. Zhang, S. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2559–2561 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S. M.

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 357, 2387–2391 (2011).
[Crossref]

El-Amraoui, M.

Erdogan, T.

Fatome, J.

Fernandes, L. A.

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. V. S. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Strong birefringence tuning of optical waveguides with femtosecond laser irradiation of bulk fused silica and single mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3563–3569 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser writing of optical edge filters in fused silica optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 21, 4493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. S. Marques, “Stress induced birefringence tuning in femtosecond laser fabricated waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 24103–241114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19, 11992–11999 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Grenier, M. Haque, L. A. Fernandes, K. Lee, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser inscription of photonic and optofluidic devices in fiber cladding, appearing in Springer Series in Optical Sciences 189” G. Marowsky, ed. pp. 67–110 (2015).

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, P. V. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Optical circuits in fiber cladding: femtosecond laser-written Bragg grating waveguides,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMZ1.

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Labelfree, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortier, C.

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Labelfree, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freier, E.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

Fujimoto, J.

Gadret, G.

Gao, W.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Gibson, B.

Grenier, J. R.

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser writing of optical edge filters in fused silica optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 21, 4493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. V. S. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Strong birefringence tuning of optical waveguides with femtosecond laser irradiation of bulk fused silica and single mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3563–3569 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. S. Marques, “Stress induced birefringence tuning in femtosecond laser fabricated waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 24103–241114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19, 11992–11999 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Grenier, M. Haque, L. A. Fernandes, K. Lee, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser inscription of photonic and optofluidic devices in fiber cladding, appearing in Springer Series in Optical Sciences 189” G. Marowsky, ed. pp. 67–110 (2015).

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, P. V. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Optical circuits in fiber cladding: femtosecond laser-written Bragg grating waveguides,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMZ1.

Grobnic, D.

Groothoff, N.

Gross, S.

Haque, M.

J. R. Grenier, M. Haque, L. A. Fernandes, K. Lee, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser inscription of photonic and optofluidic devices in fiber cladding, appearing in Springer Series in Optical Sciences 189” G. Marowsky, ed. pp. 67–110 (2015).

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herman, P. R.

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser writing of optical edge filters in fused silica optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 21, 4493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. V. S. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Strong birefringence tuning of optical waveguides with femtosecond laser irradiation of bulk fused silica and single mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3563–3569 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. S. Marques, “Stress induced birefringence tuning in femtosecond laser fabricated waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 24103–241114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19, 11992–11999 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 357, 2387–2391 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2559–2561 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grenier, M. Haque, L. A. Fernandes, K. Lee, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser inscription of photonic and optofluidic devices in fiber cladding, appearing in Springer Series in Optical Sciences 189” G. Marowsky, ed. pp. 67–110 (2015).

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, P. V. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Optical circuits in fiber cladding: femtosecond laser-written Bragg grating waveguides,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMZ1.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Single-excimer-pulse writing of fiber gratings by use of a zero-order nulled phase mask: grating spectral response and visualization of index perturbations,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1277–1279 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

Huntington, S.

Ippen, E.

Iyer, R.

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Single-excimer-pulse writing of fiber gratings by use of a zero-order nulled phase mask: grating spectral response and visualization of index perturbations,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1277–1279 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jovanovic, N.

Jules, J. C.

Kazansky, P.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khademhosseini, A.

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Vector bending sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 472–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kobelke, J.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).

Kotler, G.

R. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kowalevicz, A.

Krämer, R. G.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

Kryukov, P. G.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Labelfree, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, Y.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559–2561 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Vector bending sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 472–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

J. R. Grenier, M. Haque, L. A. Fernandes, K. Lee, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser inscription of photonic and optofluidic devices in fiber cladding, appearing in Springer Series in Optical Sciences 189” G. Marowsky, ed. pp. 67–110 (2015).

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Liem, A.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

Lu, P.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Single-excimer-pulse writing of fiber gratings by use of a zero-order nulled phase mask: grating spectral response and visualization of index perturbations,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1277–1279 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Marcuse, “Directional couplers made of nonidentical asymmetric slabs. Part II: Grating-assisted couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 268–273 (1987).
[Crossref]

Marques, P. V.

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19, 11992–11999 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, P. V. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Optical circuits in fiber cladding: femtosecond laser-written Bragg grating waveguides,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMZ1.

Marques, P. V. S.

Marshall, G. D.

Martelli, C.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Vector bending sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 472–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messaddeq, Y.

Mihailov, S. J.

Minoshima, K.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ng, M. L.

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 357, 2387–2391 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

Nolte, S.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19, 325–341 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohishi, Y.

Oiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivero, P.

Osellame, R.

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 357, 2387–2391 (2011).
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R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond laser micromachining, vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 2012).
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Ostby, E. P.

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond laser micromachining, vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 2012).
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Rayner, D.

Reed, W.

P. J. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Reekie, L.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–455 (1993).
[Crossref]

Richter, D.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

Riesen, N.

Russell, P.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–455 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, T.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

Schuster, K.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).

Schwotzer, G.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).

Shaw, H.

R. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sheem, S. K.

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shevchenko, Y.

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

Sipe, J. E.

Skripatchev, I.

Smektala, F.

Smelser, C. W.

Steel, M. J.

Streltsov, A. M.

Suzuki, T.

Taylor, R.

Thomas, J.

Thomas, J. U.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Troles, J.

Tünnermann, A.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19, 325–341 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unruh, J.

Vahala, K. J.

T. Carmon, S. Y. T. Wang, E. P. Ostby, and K. J. Vahala, “Wavelength-independent coupler from fiber to an on-chip cavity, demonstrated over an 850nm span,” Opt. Express 15, 7677–7681 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Labelfree, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Voigtländer, C.

R. G. Krämer, C. Voigtländer, E. Freier, A. Liem, J. U. Thomas, D. Richter, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse inscription of a selective mode filter in large mode area fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86010S (2013).

Walker, R. B.

Wang, S. Y. T.

Wang, Z.

Williams, R. J.

Willsch, R.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).

Withford, M. J.

Zagorulko, K. A.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “Single-step writing of Bragg grating waveguides in fused silica with an externally modulated femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2559–2561 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559–2561 (2006).
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Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[Crossref]

Biosens. and Bioelectron. (1)

Y. Shevchenko, G. Camci-Unal, D. F. Cuttica, M. R. Dokmeci, J. Albert, and A. Khademhosseini, “Surface plasmon resonance fiber sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of cellular behavior,” Biosens. and Bioelectron. 56, 359–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (5)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1170–1172 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. Russell, “100% reflectivity Bragg reflectors produced in optical fibres by single excimer laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 453–455 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260–261 (1980).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, Y. Lai, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Vector bending sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 472–474 (2005).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174–2176 (2006).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 357, 2387–2391 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
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Opt. Express (9)

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs,” Opt. Express 18, 19844–19859 (2010).
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T. Carmon, S. Y. T. Wang, E. P. Ostby, and K. J. Vahala, “Wavelength-independent coupler from fiber to an on-chip cavity, demonstrated over an 850nm span,” Opt. Express 15, 7677–7681 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19, 325–341 (2011).
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N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22, 29855–29861 (2014).
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J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser writing of optical edge filters in fused silica optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 21, 4493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. S. Marques, “Stress induced birefringence tuning in femtosecond laser fabricated waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 24103–241114 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19, 11992–11999 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond laser micromachining, vol. 123 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 2012).
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J. R. Grenier, M. Haque, L. A. Fernandes, K. Lee, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser inscription of photonic and optofluidic devices in fiber cladding, appearing in Springer Series in Optical Sciences 189” G. Marowsky, ed. pp. 67–110 (2015).

J. R. Grenier, L. A. Fernandes, P. V. Marques, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, “Optical circuits in fiber cladding: femtosecond laser-written Bragg grating waveguides,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CMZ1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Femtosecond laser writing of an asymmetric DC in an SMF with an oil-immersion lens. An optical micrograph (lower right corner) under backlighting shows the input cross-section of an SMF with a laser-formed waveguide (left) written with the laser incident from the top, and offset laterally by 9 μm from the core waveguide (right).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Real-time recording plotted as DC length of the normalized optical transmissions of 1550 nm light through an SMF core waveguide during laser writing of a parallel waveguide offset by 15 μm (blue line) and 12 μm (green line), forming in-fiber asymmetric DCs. The dashed line shows the data fitted to Eq. (3).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured effective coupling coefficient (κ′) for unpolarized input light into asymmetric DCs consisting of a laser-formed waveguide placed (a) horizontally to the left (green squares) and right (blue squares) and (b) vertically above (blue squares) and below (green squares) the SMF core waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured optical transmission spectra of (a) unpolarized (black) and (b) linearly polarized vertical (blue) and horizontal (green) light in the bar (solid lines) and cross (dashed lines) ports of an L = 0.680 mm length coupler with an S = 9 μm offset distance. Inset, an optical mode profile relative to the SMF core waveguide (black +) and laser-formed waveguide (white +) positions, for a cleaved DC with 1526 nm light launched into the SMF core waveguide.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured optical transmission spectra of linearly polarized vertical (blue) and horizontal (green) light in the bar (solid lines) and cross (dashed lines) ports of an L = 16.88 mm length coupler with an S = 12 μm offset distance. Insets, an optical mode profile relative to the SMF core waveguide (black +) and laser-formed waveguide (white +) positions, for a cleaved DC with (b) 1550 nm and (c) 1580 nm light launched into the SMF core waveguide.

Equations (3)

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r H , V ( λ ) = σ H , V 2 ( λ ) sin 2 [ κ H , V ( λ ) σ H , V ( λ ) L ] ,
σ H , V ( λ ) = 1 1 + ( Δ β H , V ( λ ) 2 κ H , V ( λ ) ) 2 .
T ( L ) = ( 1 I L ( r V + r H 2 ) ) e α L .

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