Abstract

The study investigates the optimal display luminance for viewing smartphones in conditions of low illuminance. This proposes a model of adaptive display in that display luminance changes gradually with the passage of watching time. It starts at a fairly low display luminance of 10 cd/m2, and after 10 seconds, the luminance increases slowly until it reaches 40 cd/m2 for 20 seconds and maintains the luminance. For the development of the model, an experiment was conducted to identify the optimal luminance for initial viewing and that for continuous viewing, as well as the change speed of display luminance. In order to validate the model, users’ subjective judgments and activation of alpha rhythm were observed, and the result confirmed the superiority of the adaptive display luminance compared to the current display luminance in terms of physiological comfort and psychological satisfaction. It is expected that this study contributes to the pleasing use of displays at night under low illuminance by applying to diverse types of display devices.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (1)

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. J. Park, H. C. Li, and S. S. Kim, “The effects of pixel density, sub-pixel structure, luminance, and illumination on legibility of smartphone,” Korean J. Sci. Emotion Sens. 17, 3–14 (2014).

N. Na and H. J. Suk, “Adaptive luminance contrast for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 113102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. J. Zele, M. L. Maynard, and B. Feigl, “Rod and cone pathway signaling and interaction under mesopic illumination,” J. Vis. 13(1), 21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wood, M. S. Rea, B. Plitnick, and M. G. Figueiro, “Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression,” Appl. Ergon. 44(2), 237–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. Schleicher, N. Galley, S. Briest, and L. Galley, “Blinks and saccades as indicators of fatigue in sleepiness warnings: looking tired?” Ergonomics 51(7), 982–1010 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Gowrisankaran, J. E. Sheedy, and J. R. Hayes, “Eyelid squint response to asthenopia-inducing conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(7), 611–619 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. Cajochen, K. Kräuchi, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep,” J. Neuroendocrinol. 15(4), 432–437 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

Y. Inoue and Y. Akitsuki, “The optimal illuminance for reading: effects of age and visual acuity on legibility and brightness,” J. Light Visual Environ. 22(1), 23–33 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. Morita and H. Tokura, “Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans,” Appl. Human Sci. 15(5), 243–246 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, and R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32(2), 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

W. J. Ray and H. W. Cole, “EEG alpha activity reflects attentional demands, and beta activity reflects emotional and cognitive processes,” Science 228(4700), 750–752 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vision Res. 22(10), 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

W. A. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture, 1962: visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 162(986), 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vision Res. 22(10), 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akitsuki, Y.

Y. Inoue and Y. Akitsuki, “The optimal illuminance for reading: effects of age and visual acuity on legibility and brightness,” J. Light Visual Environ. 22(1), 23–33 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bartenbach, C.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartlett, D. J.

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Begley, A. E.

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berga, S. L.

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bin, Y. S.

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brainard, G. C.

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briest, S.

R. Schleicher, N. Galley, S. Briest, and L. Galley, “Blinks and saccades as indicators of fatigue in sleepiness warnings: looking tired?” Ergonomics 51(7), 982–1010 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buysse, D. J.

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cajochen, C.

C. Cajochen, K. Kräuchi, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep,” J. Neuroendocrinol. 15(4), 432–437 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, A. T.

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Canazei, M.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalmers, A.

P. Ledda, L. P. Santos, and A. Chalmers, “A local model of eye adaptation for high dynamic range images,” in Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Computer graphics, virtual reality, visualisation and interaction in Africa (ACM, 2004), pp. 151–160.
[Crossref]

Choudhury, T.

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cole, H. W.

W. J. Ray and H. W. Cole, “EEG alpha activity reflects attentional demands, and beta activity reflects emotional and cognitive processes,” Science 228(4700), 750–752 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czeisler, C. A.

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Rozario, A. L.

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. B.

J. B. de Boer, “Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorist,” in Public Lighting, J. B. de Boer ed. (Cleaver-Hume, 1967).

Feigl, B.

A. J. Zele, M. L. Maynard, and B. Feigl, “Rod and cone pathway signaling and interaction under mesopic illumination,” J. Vis. 13(1), 21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Figueiro, M. G.

B. Wood, M. S. Rea, B. Plitnick, and M. G. Figueiro, “Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression,” Appl. Ergon. 44(2), 237–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galley, L.

R. Schleicher, N. Galley, S. Briest, and L. Galley, “Blinks and saccades as indicators of fatigue in sleepiness warnings: looking tired?” Ergonomics 51(7), 982–1010 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galley, N.

R. Schleicher, N. Galley, S. Briest, and L. Galley, “Blinks and saccades as indicators of fatigue in sleepiness warnings: looking tired?” Ergonomics 51(7), 982–1010 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamble, A. L.

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gooley, J. J.

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gowrisankaran, S.

S. Gowrisankaran, J. E. Sheedy, and J. R. Hayes, “Eyelid squint response to asthenopia-inducing conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(7), 611–619 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grunstein, R. R.

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammerer-Lercher, A.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayes, J. R.

S. Gowrisankaran, J. E. Sheedy, and J. R. Hayes, “Eyelid squint response to asthenopia-inducing conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(7), 611–619 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, and R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32(2), 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidrich, W.

R. Mantiuk, A. G. Rempel, and W. Heidrich, “Display considerations for night and low-illumination viewing,” in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (ACM, 2009), pp. 53–58.
[Crossref]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue and Y. Akitsuki, “The optimal illuminance for reading: effects of age and visual acuity on legibility and brightness,” J. Light Visual Environ. 22(1), 23–33 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jarrett, D. B.

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

J. J. Park, H. C. Li, and S. S. Kim, “The effects of pixel density, sub-pixel structure, luminance, and illumination on legibility of smartphone,” Korean J. Sci. Emotion Sens. 17, 3–14 (2014).

Koshel, R. J.

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, and R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32(2), 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kräuchi, K.

C. Cajochen, K. Kräuchi, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep,” J. Neuroendocrinol. 15(4), 432–437 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kronauer, R. E.

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuai, S.

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kupfer, D. J.

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, N. D.

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ledda, P.

P. Ledda, L. P. Santos, and A. Chalmers, “A local model of eye adaptation for high dynamic range images,” in Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Computer graphics, virtual reality, visualisation and interaction in Africa (ACM, 2004), pp. 151–160.
[Crossref]

Leichtfried, V.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin, M. E.

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, and R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32(2), 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H. C.

J. J. Park, H. C. Li, and S. S. Kim, “The effects of pixel density, sub-pixel structure, luminance, and illumination on legibility of smartphone,” Korean J. Sci. Emotion Sens. 17, 3–14 (2014).

Liu, K.

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lockley, S. W.

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mair, G.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mair-Raggautz, M.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mantiuk, R.

R. Mantiuk, A. G. Rempel, and W. Heidrich, “Display considerations for night and low-illumination viewing,” in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (ACM, 2009), pp. 53–58.
[Crossref]

Marshall, N. S.

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maynard, M. L.

A. J. Zele, M. L. Maynard, and B. Feigl, “Rod and cone pathway signaling and interaction under mesopic illumination,” J. Vis. 13(1), 21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miluzzo, E.

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Monk, T. H.

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morita, T.

T. Morita and H. Tokura, “Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans,” Appl. Human Sci. 15(5), 243–246 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Na, N.

N. Na and H. J. Suk, “Adaptive luminance contrast for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 113102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, J. J.

J. J. Park, H. C. Li, and S. S. Kim, “The effects of pixel density, sub-pixel structure, luminance, and illumination on legibility of smartphone,” Korean J. Sci. Emotion Sens. 17, 3–14 (2014).

Peebles, D.

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peng, S.

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Plitnick, B.

B. Wood, M. S. Rea, B. Plitnick, and M. G. Figueiro, “Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression,” Appl. Ergon. 44(2), 237–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajaratnam, S. M.

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, W. J.

W. J. Ray and H. W. Cole, “EEG alpha activity reflects attentional demands, and beta activity reflects emotional and cognitive processes,” Science 228(4700), 750–752 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rea, M. S.

B. Wood, M. S. Rea, B. Plitnick, and M. G. Figueiro, “Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression,” Appl. Ergon. 44(2), 237–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rempel, A. G.

R. Mantiuk, A. G. Rempel, and W. Heidrich, “Display considerations for night and low-illumination viewing,” in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (ACM, 2009), pp. 53–58.
[Crossref]

Reynolds, C. F.

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A.

W. A. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture, 1962: visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 162(986), 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, L. P.

P. Ledda, L. P. Santos, and A. Chalmers, “A local model of eye adaptation for high dynamic range images,” in Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Computer graphics, virtual reality, visualisation and interaction in Africa (ACM, 2004), pp. 151–160.
[Crossref]

Schaeffer, V.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schleicher, R.

R. Schleicher, N. Galley, S. Briest, and L. Galley, “Blinks and saccades as indicators of fatigue in sleepiness warnings: looking tired?” Ergonomics 51(7), 982–1010 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schobersberger, W.

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheedy, J. E.

S. Gowrisankaran, J. E. Sheedy, and J. R. Hayes, “Eyelid squint response to asthenopia-inducing conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(7), 611–619 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Suk, H. J.

N. Na and H. J. Suk, “Adaptive luminance contrast for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 113102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, M.

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Tokura, H.

T. Morita and H. Tokura, “Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans,” Appl. Human Sci. 15(5), 243–246 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirz-Justice, A.

C. Cajochen, K. Kräuchi, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep,” J. Neuroendocrinol. 15(4), 432–437 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, B.

B. Wood, M. S. Rea, B. Plitnick, and M. G. Figueiro, “Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression,” Appl. Ergon. 44(2), 237–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zele, A. J.

A. J. Zele, M. L. Maynard, and B. Feigl, “Rod and cone pathway signaling and interaction under mesopic illumination,” J. Vis. 13(1), 21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhou, X.

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Appl. Ergon. (2)

V. Leichtfried, M. Mair-Raggautz, V. Schaeffer, A. Hammerer-Lercher, G. Mair, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, and W. Schobersberger, “Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance,” Appl. Ergon. 46(Pt A), 54–59 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wood, M. S. Rea, B. Plitnick, and M. G. Figueiro, “Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression,” Appl. Ergon. 44(2), 237–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Human Sci. (1)

T. Morita and H. Tokura, “Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans,” Appl. Human Sci. 15(5), 243–246 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) (1)

Y. Shen, S. Kuai, W. Zhou, S. Peng, M. Tian, K. Liu, and X. Zhou, “Study of preferred background luminance in watching computer screen in children,” Chin. Med. J. (Engl.) 127(11), 2073–2077 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ergonomics (1)

R. Schleicher, N. Galley, S. Briest, and L. Galley, “Blinks and saccades as indicators of fatigue in sleepiness warnings: looking tired?” Ergonomics 51(7), 982–1010 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. T. Campbell, “A survey of mobile phone sensing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(9), 140–150 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1)

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Light Visual Environ. (1)

Y. Inoue and Y. Akitsuki, “The optimal illuminance for reading: effects of age and visual acuity on legibility and brightness,” J. Light Visual Environ. 22(1), 23–33 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Neuroendocrinol. (1)

C. Cajochen, K. Kräuchi, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep,” J. Neuroendocrinol. 15(4), 432–437 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sleep Res. (1)

T. H. Monk, D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds, S. L. Berga, D. B. Jarrett, A. E. Begley, and D. J. Kupfer, “Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions,” J. Sleep Res. 6(1), 9–18 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vis. (1)

A. J. Zele, M. L. Maynard, and B. Feigl, “Rod and cone pathway signaling and interaction under mesopic illumination,” J. Vis. 13(1), 21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korean J. Sci. Emotion Sens. (1)

J. J. Park, H. C. Li, and S. S. Kim, “The effects of pixel density, sub-pixel structure, luminance, and illumination on legibility of smartphone,” Korean J. Sci. Emotion Sens. 17, 3–14 (2014).

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Na and H. J. Suk, “Adaptive luminance contrast for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 113102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. Gowrisankaran, J. E. Sheedy, and J. R. Hayes, “Eyelid squint response to asthenopia-inducing conditions,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 84(7), 611–619 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

A. L. Gamble, A. L. D’Rozario, D. J. Bartlett, S. Williams, Y. S. Bin, R. R. Grunstein, and N. S. Marshall, “Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Big Sleep Survey,” PLoS ONE 9(11), e111700 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. (1)

W. A. Rushton, “The Ferrier lecture, 1962: visual adaptation,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 162(986), 20–46 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Transl. Med. (1)

J. J. Gooley, S. M. Rajaratnam, G. C. Brainard, R. E. Kronauer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light,” Sci. Transl. Med. 2(31), 31ra33 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. J. Ray and H. W. Cole, “EEG alpha activity reflects attentional demands, and beta activity reflects emotional and cognitive processes,” Science 228(4700), 750–752 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

M. M. Hayhoe, M. E. Levin, and R. J. Koshel, “Subtractive processes in light adaptation,” Vision Res. 32(2), 323–333 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vision Res. 22(10), 1299–1312 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (14)

P. Ledda, L. P. Santos, and A. Chalmers, “A local model of eye adaptation for high dynamic range images,” in Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Computer graphics, virtual reality, visualisation and interaction in Africa (ACM, 2004), pp. 151–160.
[Crossref]

S. N. Pattanaik, J. Tumblin, H. Yee, and D. P. Greenberg, “Time-dependent visual adaptation for fast realistic image display,” in Proceedings of the 27th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 2000), pp. 47–54.
[Crossref]

T. Y. Ma, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Hsu, C. W. Hu, and T. W. Hou, “Automatic brightness control of the handheld device display with low illumination,” in Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE),2012IEEE International Conference on (IEEE, 2012), pp. 382–385.
[Crossref]

P. S. Guterman, K. Fukuda, L. M. Wilcox, and R. S. Allison, “75.3: is brighter always better? The effects of display and ambient luminance on preferences for digital signage,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley Online Library, 2010), pp. 1116–1119.
[Crossref]

R. Mantiuk, A. G. Rempel, and W. Heidrich, “Display considerations for night and low-illumination viewing,” in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (ACM, 2009), pp. 53–58.
[Crossref]

T. Nick, “Using your smartphone before bedtime isn't a good idea, and here's why,” (PhoneArena, PhoneArena.com, 2012). http://www.phonearena.com/news/Using-your-smartphone-before-bedtime-isnt-a-good-idea-and-heres-why_id36772#3-

M. Scott and S. Sale, “Consumer smartphone usage 2014: OTT communication services,” (Analysys Mason, 2014). http://www.analysysmason.com/About-Us/News/Insight/consumers-smartphone-usage-May2014-RDMV0/

J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, Handbook of Visual Display Technology (Springer, 2012).

P. D. Calvert and C. L. Makino, “The time course of light adaptation in vertebrate retinal rods,” in Photoreceptors and Calcium (Springer, 2002), pp. 37–60.

N. Na, J. Jang, and H. J. Suk, “Dynamics of backlight luminance for using smartphone in dark environment,” in IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), pp. 90140I–90140I–90146.

J. B. de Boer, “Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorist,” in Public Lighting, J. B. de Boer ed. (Cleaver-Hume, 1967).

L. Spencer, J. Iacoponi, S. Shah, and G. Cairns, “P. 134L: Late News Poster: Resolution Limits for Smartphones—Video Playback,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley Online Library, 2013), pp. 1099–1102.

J. H. Kim, “The differences of stress index of frontal lobe brain wave and cortical activation indexes between risk drinking and normal drinking college students group,” in Department of Child Welfare (Namseoul University, 2012).

S. Swinkels, I. Heynderickx, D. Yeates, and M. Essers, “66.1: Ambient Light Control for Mobile Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Wiley Online Library, 2008), pp. 1006–1009.
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Stimuli for Experiment I, (b) Experimental environment
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Adaptive display luminance: it starts at a luminance of 10 cd/m2, and 10 seconds later, the luminance increases for 20 seconds until it reaches 40 cd/m2 and maintains the intensity continuously.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Positions of the four electrodes for electroencephalogram

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Luminance and CIE xy chromaticity of the five luminance stimuli for Experiment I*

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Table 2 The mean scores of the evaluations to find optimal luminance for initial viewing and that for continuous viewing (the standard deviations in parentheses)

Tables Icon

Table 3 The mean scores of the preference evaluation

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Table 4 Three luminance stimuli for Experiment II

Tables Icon

Table 5 The mean scores of the validation test (the standard deviations in parentheses)

Metrics