Abstract

We propose GeOx passivation by plasma post-oxidation for dark-current suppression in a germanium (Ge) photodetector (PD). A GeOx/Ge interface exhibits a significantly lower interface trap density than SiO2/Ge and Al2O3/Ge interfaces. GeOx passivation on a Ni/Ge Schottky diode decreases the dark current under −1 V bias by more than one order of magnitude compared with Al2O3 passivation, which is attributed to the reduction in the surface leakage current. We also evaluated the Ge surface potential to study its effect on the surface leakage current. It was found that the surface leakage is suppressed when the accumulation condition of the Ge surface is enhanced as a result of fixed charges in the passivation layer. Thus, we have revealed the importance of a low interface trap density at the Ge surface and a suitable number of fixed charges in the passivation layer for achieving a low dark current in Ge metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Finally, we have examined the effect of GeOx passivation on a normal-incidence Ge MSM PD. We observed a significant decrease in the dark current in the GeOx-passivated samples, and a dark current of 97 nA under −1 V bias was achieved under the optimal GeOx passivation conditions.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. T. Sameshima, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tsunoda, and T. Saitoh, “Improvement of SiO2 properties and silicon surface passivation by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. Terman, “An investigation of surface states at a silicon/silicon oxide interface employing metal-oxide-silicon diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 5(5), 285–299 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. G. Aberle, S. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Impact of illumination level and oxide parameters on Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the Si/SiO2 interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(9), 4422 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  29. N. C. Harris, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E.-J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Noise characterization of a waveguide-coupled MSM photodetector exceeding unity quantum efficiency,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 23–27 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, T. Iwasaki, N. Taoka, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks with low interface trap density fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma postoxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 112902 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. Oniki, H. Koumo, Y. Iwazaki, and T. Ueno, “Evaluation of GeO desorption behavior in the metal/GeO2/Ge structure and its improvement of the electrical characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(12), 124113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. V. Afanas’ev, Y. G. Fedorenko, and A. Stesmans, “Interface traps and dangling-bond defects in (100) Ge/HfO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 032107 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

2002 (1)

D. Buca, S. Winnerl, S. Lenk, S. Mantl, and C. Buchal, “Metal–germanium–metal ultrafast infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7599 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Sameshima, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tsunoda, and T. Saitoh, “Improvement of SiO2 properties and silicon surface passivation by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

V. E. Drozd, A. P. Baraban, and I. O. Nikiforova, “Electrical properties of Si-Al2O3 structures grown by ML-ALE,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82-83, 583–586 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. G. Aberle, S. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Impact of illumination level and oxide parameters on Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the Si/SiO2 interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(9), 4422 (1992).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

E. Nicollian and A. Goetzberger, “The Si-SiO2 interface electrical properties as determined by the metal-insulator-silicon conductance technique,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 46(6), 1055–1133 (1967).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

L. Terman, “An investigation of surface states at a silicon/silicon oxide interface employing metal-oxide-silicon diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 5(5), 285–299 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aberle, A. G.

A. G. Aberle, S. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Impact of illumination level and oxide parameters on Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the Si/SiO2 interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(9), 4422 (1992).
[Crossref]

Afanas’ev, V. V.

V. V. Afanas’ev, Y. G. Fedorenko, and A. Stesmans, “Interface traps and dangling-bond defects in (100) Ge/HfO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 032107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Akiyama, S.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Ang, K.-W.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Banerjee, S. K.

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baraban, A. P.

V. E. Drozd, A. P. Baraban, and I. O. Nikiforova, “Electrical properties of Si-Al2O3 structures grown by ML-ALE,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82-83, 583–586 (1994).
[Crossref]

Beals, M.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Buca, D.

D. Buca, S. Winnerl, S. Lenk, S. Mantl, and C. Buchal, “Metal–germanium–metal ultrafast infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Buchal, C.

D. Buca, S. Winnerl, S. Lenk, S. Mantl, and C. Buchal, “Metal–germanium–metal ultrafast infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cannon, D.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-Y.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Cheng, C. H.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-C.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. C.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chien, C.-H.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chin, A.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. P.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chua, K. T.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Crozat, P.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Damlencourt, J. F.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drozd, V. E.

V. E. Drozd, A. P. Baraban, and I. O. Nikiforova, “Electrical properties of Si-Al2O3 structures grown by ML-ALE,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82-83, 583–586 (1994).
[Crossref]

El Melhaoui, L.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fedorenko, Y. G.

V. V. Afanas’ev, Y. G. Fedorenko, and A. Stesmans, “Interface traps and dangling-bond defects in (100) Ge/HfO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 032107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Giziewicz, W.

Glunz, S.

A. G. Aberle, S. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Impact of illumination level and oxide parameters on Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the Si/SiO2 interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(9), 4422 (1992).
[Crossref]

Goetzberger, A.

E. Nicollian and A. Goetzberger, “The Si-SiO2 interface electrical properties as determined by the metal-insulator-silicon conductance technique,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 46(6), 1055–1133 (1967).
[Crossref]

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Harris, N. C.

Hartmann, J. M.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hoarau, C.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Hong, C. Y.

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Hsiao, C. N.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, C.-N.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. L.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Iwasaki, T.

R. Zhang, T. Iwasaki, N. Taoka, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks with low interface trap density fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma postoxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 112902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iwazaki, Y.

Y. Oniki, H. Koumo, Y. Iwazaki, and T. Ueno, “Evaluation of GeO desorption behavior in the metal/GeO2/Ge structure and its improvement of the electrical characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(12), 124113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jhou, K. Y.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kei, C.-C.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Kolev, S.

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Koumo, H.

Y. Oniki, H. Koumo, Y. Iwazaki, and T. Ueno, “Evaluation of GeO desorption behavior in the metal/GeO2/Ge structure and its improvement of the electrical characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(12), 124113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.-L.

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Le Roux, X.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenk, S.

D. Buca, S. Winnerl, S. Lenk, S. Mantl, and C. Buchal, “Metal–germanium–metal ultrafast infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Liu, D.-R.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Liu, J.-C.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, G.-L.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mangeney, J.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

D. Buca, S. Winnerl, S. Lenk, S. Mantl, and C. Buchal, “Metal–germanium–metal ultrafast infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

Matsubara, H.

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

McAlister, S. P.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Morii, K.

Nakano, Y.

Nicollian, E.

E. Nicollian and A. Goetzberger, “The Si-SiO2 interface electrical properties as determined by the metal-insulator-silicon conductance technique,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 46(6), 1055–1133 (1967).
[Crossref]

Nikiforova, I. O.

V. E. Drozd, A. P. Baraban, and I. O. Nikiforova, “Electrical properties of Si-Al2O3 structures grown by ML-ALE,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82-83, 583–586 (1994).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oniki, Y.

Y. Oniki, H. Koumo, Y. Iwazaki, and T. Ueno, “Evaluation of GeO desorption behavior in the metal/GeO2/Ge structure and its improvement of the electrical characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(12), 124113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Pan, H. C.

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pascal, D.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Rouvière, M.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saini, S.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Saitoh, T.

T. Sameshima, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tsunoda, and T. Saitoh, “Improvement of SiO2 properties and silicon surface passivation by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, K.

T. Sameshima, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tsunoda, and T. Saitoh, “Improvement of SiO2 properties and silicon surface passivation by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sameshima, T.

T. Sameshima, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tsunoda, and T. Saitoh, “Improvement of SiO2 properties and silicon surface passivation by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sandland, J. G.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Sasada, T.

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sparacin, D.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Stesmans, A.

V. V. Afanas’ev, Y. G. Fedorenko, and A. Stesmans, “Interface traps and dangling-bond defects in (100) Ge/HfO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 032107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, M.

Takagi, S.

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Dark current reduction of Ge photodetector by GeO₂ surface passivation and gas-phase doping,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8718–8725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, T. Iwasaki, N. Taoka, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks with low interface trap density fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma postoxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 112902 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, M.

M. Takenaka, K. Morii, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Dark current reduction of Ge photodetector by GeO₂ surface passivation and gas-phase doping,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8718–8725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, T. Iwasaki, N. Taoka, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks with low interface trap density fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma postoxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 112902 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taoka, N.

R. Zhang, T. Iwasaki, N. Taoka, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks with low interface trap density fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma postoxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 112902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Terman, L.

L. Terman, “An investigation of surface states at a silicon/silicon oxide interface employing metal-oxide-silicon diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 5(5), 285–299 (1962).
[Crossref]

Tsunoda, Y.

T. Sameshima, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tsunoda, and T. Saitoh, “Improvement of SiO2 properties and silicon surface passivation by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tu, K. Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Ueno, T.

Y. Oniki, H. Koumo, Y. Iwazaki, and T. Ueno, “Evaluation of GeO desorption behavior in the metal/GeO2/Ge structure and its improvement of the electrical characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(12), 124113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Wang, J.

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Warta, W.

A. G. Aberle, S. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Impact of illumination level and oxide parameters on Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the Si/SiO2 interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(9), 4422 (1992).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Winnerl, S.

D. Buca, S. Winnerl, S. Lenk, S. Mantl, and C. Buchal, “Metal–germanium–metal ultrafast infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7599 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.-H.

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yi, Y.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

Yu, M.-B.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, T. Iwasaki, N. Taoka, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks with low interface trap density fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma postoxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 112902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.-Y.

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, C. Hoarau, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, S. Laval, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. M. Hartmann, and S. Kolev, “Ultrahigh speed germanium-on-silicon-on-insulator photodetectors for 1.31 and 1.55μm operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231109 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. V. Afanas’ev, Y. G. Fedorenko, and A. Stesmans, “Interface traps and dangling-bond defects in (100) Ge/HfO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(3), 032107 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Matsubara, T. Sasada, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Evidence of low interface trap density in GeO2/Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated by thermal oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, T. Iwasaki, N. Taoka, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks with low interface trap density fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma postoxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 112902 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. E. Drozd, A. P. Baraban, and I. O. Nikiforova, “Electrical properties of Si-Al2O3 structures grown by ML-ALE,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82-83, 583–586 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, and M. R. Watts, “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” Chapter in Silicon Photonics, Top. Appl. Phys. 94, 89–120 (2004).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (3)

K. C. Chiang, C. H. Cheng, K. Y. Jhou, H. C. Pan, C. N. Hsiao, C. P. Chou, S. P. McAlister, A. Chin, and H. L. Hwang, “Use of a high-work-function Ni electrode to improve the stress reliability of analog SrTiO3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(8), 694–696 (2007).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, S.-Y. Zhu, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel silicon-carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer for dark-current suppression in Ge-on-SOI MSM photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 704–707 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, M.-B. Yu, S.-Y. Zhu, K. T. Chua, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel NiGe MSM photodetector featuring asymmetrical Schottky barriers using sulfur co-implantation and segregation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 708–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 581–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Oniki, H. Koumo, Y. Iwazaki, and T. Ueno, “Evaluation of GeO desorption behavior in the metal/GeO2/Ge structure and its improvement of the electrical characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(12), 124113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Buca, S. Winnerl, S. Lenk, S. Mantl, and C. Buchal, “Metal–germanium–metal ultrafast infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7599 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. G. Aberle, S. Glunz, and W. Warta, “Impact of illumination level and oxide parameters on Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the Si/SiO2 interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(9), 4422 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Bell Syst. Tech. (1)

E. Nicollian and A. Goetzberger, “The Si-SiO2 interface electrical properties as determined by the metal-insulator-silicon conductance technique,” J. Bell Syst. Tech. 46(6), 1055–1133 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

C.-C. Cheng, C.-H. Chien, G.-L. Luo, J.-C. Liu, C.-C. Kei, D.-R. Liu, C.-N. Hsiao, C.-H. Yang, and C.-Y. Chang, “Characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 high-k dielectric films grown on Ge substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(10), G203–G208 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Sameshima, K. Sakamoto, Y. Tsunoda, and T. Saitoh, “Improvement of SiO2 properties and silicon surface passivation by heat treatment with high-pressure H2O vapor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 12A), L1452–L1454 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C. Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Sensors (Basel) (1)

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

L. Terman, “An investigation of surface states at a silicon/silicon oxide interface employing metal-oxide-silicon diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 5(5), 285–299 (1962).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

Y. Taur and T. Ning, Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices (Cambridge University, 1998).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. Rice, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated 40GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., OMR4 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Claeys and E. Simoen, Germanium-Based Technologies: From Materials to Devices (Elsevier, 2007).

A. Saha and N. Manna, Optoelectronics and Optical Communication (University Science, 2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Process flow of GeOx passivation, (b) Dit distributions of capacitors with different passivation layers: (1) 20 nm Al2O3, (2) 20 nm Al2O3/1.2 nm GeOx, (3) 20 nm SiO2, and (4) 20 nm SiO2/1 nm Al2O3/1.2 nm GeOx. The Dit distribution of a capacitor with thermally grown GeO2 passivation performed at 550°C is also plotted for reference.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 I-V characteristics of Schottky diodes with the same junction pattern and different passivation layers of (1) 20 nm Al2O3 and (2) 20 nm Al2O3/1.2 nm GeOx.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Extraction of leakage component from the total dark current under −1 V bias and (b) JS values obtained from the slopes of the plots in (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Energy band diagram when Ge surface is under accumulation condition. The fixed charges in the passivation layer induce charges on the Ge surface, resulting in the bending of the Ge surface potential ψs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Ideal and measured C-V curves of the MOS capacitor with the passivation layer of 20 nm Al2O3/1.2 nm GeOx and (b) plot of Qs and Qox as a function of ψs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Evaluated ψs and (b) measured JS as a function of passivation layer thickness and (c) plot of JS as a function of ψs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Dark current of MSM PDs with different passivation layers and (b) photocurrent of MSM PD with 10 nm Al2O3/1.2 nm GeOx passivation layer under 0 dBm light input at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I Dark Current  = J S × L Peripheral + J B × S Area .
Q ox = Q s ,
Q s =± 2 ε Ge kT N d [   n i 2 N d 2 ( e q ψ s kT + q ψ s kT 1 )+( e q ψ s kT q ψ s kT 1 ) ] 1 2
Q ox = C ox ×Δ V g ,

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