Abstract

Satellite–ground quantum communication requires single-photon detectors of 850-nm wavelength with both high detection efficiency and large sensitive area. We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals, which acted as optical cavities to enhance the optical absorption, with a sensitive-area diameter of 50 μm. The fabricated multimode fiber coupled NbN SNSPDs exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency (DE) of up to 82% and a DE of 78% at a dark count rate of 100 Hz at 850-nm wavelength as well as a system jitter of 105 ps.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).
  8. Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
  11. S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. 23(4), 398–413 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. R. Clem and K. K. Berggren, “Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits,” Phys. Rev. B 84(17), 174510 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. K. Akhlaghi, H. Atikian, A. Eftekharian, M. Loncar, and A. H. Majedi, “Reduced dark counts in optimized geometries for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23610–23616 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (7)

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Akhlaghi, H. Atikian, A. Eftekharian, M. Loncar, and A. H. Majedi, “Reduced dark counts in optimized geometries for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23610–23616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. R. Clem and K. K. Berggren, “Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits,” Phys. Rev. B 84(17), 174510 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. 23(4), 398–413 (1985).
[Crossref]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

Anant, V.

Antipov, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atikian, H.

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bar, J.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bellei, F.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren, K. K.

Bitauld, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bohi, P.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Casaburi, A.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. J.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. Y.

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Lafon, R. E.

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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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Marsili, F.

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F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
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Miki, S.

Miller, A. J.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Milostnaya, I.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Minaeva, O.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moll, F.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, D. V.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Najafi, F.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, S. W.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nauerth, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nejad, S. J.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nötzel, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Okunev, O.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pagano, S.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, G.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. W.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearlman, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pellegrini, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peng, C. Z.

Peng, W.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Pernice, W. H. P.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rau, M.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, M.

Ren, X.

Rosenberg, D.

Rosfjord, K. M.

Sahin, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanjines, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, M.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulein, R. T.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Sergienko, A. V.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, M. D.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slysz, W.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, K.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sobolewski, R.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y. L.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanner, M. G.

Terai, H.

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verevkin, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B. M.

Wallace, A. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wan, C.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wan, Z.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Wang, J.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wegrzecki, M.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Willis, M. M.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Wu, G.

Wu, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yang, B.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H. Q.

Yang, J. K. W.

Yang, S.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, H. L.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yong, H. L.

You, L.

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

You, L. X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, L.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. J.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, B.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, N.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zwiller, V.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

AIP Advances (1)

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
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S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. 23(4), 398–413 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
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Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
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Nano Lett. (1)

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Opt. Express (10)

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
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M. K. Akhlaghi, H. Atikian, A. Eftekharian, M. Loncar, and A. H. Majedi, “Reduced dark counts in optimized geometries for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23610–23616 (2012).
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A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
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T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
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Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
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S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
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D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
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T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
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K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the SNSPD based on PC substrate. (b) TEM image of a cross section of the nanowire on the PC substrate. The PC structure was formed by multiple layers of alternating Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers on a Si substrate. (c) SEM of the active area with a diameter of 50 µm; (d) Magnified SEM image of nanowire with width w = 120 nm and pitch p = 200 nm. (e) Reflectivity of the PC based on Si substrate (blue) consisting of 13 bilayers composed of Ta2O5 and SiO2, absorptance of the nanowire for parallel polarization waves A ll (red), perpendicular polarization waves A (green) and the average absorptance A=( A ll + A )/2 (yellow) for normal incidence calculated using the RCWA method; (f) The calculated average absorptance A versus pitch and width of nanowire with thickness of 6.5 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 DE as a function of the bias current for different devices. The curves are marked with the size of the nanowire as thickness/width/fill factor.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Maximum measured DE extracted from Fig. 2 and simulated absorptance as functions of pitch. The simulated results are presented as solid lines, and the measured results are marked with diamonds and triangles. The sizes of the nanowire are marked as thickness/width (d/w).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) DE as a function of DCR for the SNSPD with the highest DE. The DE is approximately 78%/67% with DCR = 100 Hz/10 Hz. (b) Histograms of the time-correlated photon counts measured at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The red lines are the fitted curves using the Gaussian distribution. (c) Oscilloscope persistence map of the response at a bias current of 17.0 μA.

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