Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a novel approach for microwave frequency measurement utilizing birefringence effect in the highly non-linear fiber (HNLF). A detailed theoretical analysis is presented to implement the adjustable measurement range and resolution. By stimulating a complementary polarization-domain interferometer pair in the HNLF, a mathematical expression that relates the microwave frequency and amplitude comparison function is developed. We carry out a proof-to-concept experiment. A frequency measurement range of 2.5–30 GHz with a measurement error within 0.5 GHz is achieved except 16-17.5 GHz. This method is all-optical and requires no high-speed electronic components.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Anwajler, A. Zajdel, J. Kus, and J. Kampa, “High dynamic range octave-band microwave frequency measurement systems up to 18 GHz,” in 12th International Conference on Microwaves and Radar2, 653 - 657 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. B. Tsui, Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications (Academic, 1986).
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    [Crossref]
  4. L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. V. T. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Niu, S. Fu, K. Xu, J. Zhou, S. Aditya, J. Wu, P. P. Shum, and J. Lin, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement based on amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay loop and broadband incoherent light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 78–84 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
  10. H. Chi, Y. Chen, Y. Mei, X. Jin, S. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “Microwave spectrum sensing based on photonic time stretch and compressive sampling,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 136–138 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Reconfigurable Instantaneous Frequency Measurement System Based on Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 427–436 (2012).
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2014 (3)

2013 (3)

C. Wang and J. Yao, “Ultrahigh-resolution photonic-assisted microwave frequency identification based on temporal channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Chi, Y. Chen, Y. Mei, X. Jin, S. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “Microwave spectrum sensing based on photonic time stretch and compressive sampling,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 136–138 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Ultrahigh-Resolution Photonic-Assisted Microwave Frequency Identification Based on Temporal Channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Brillouin-assisted microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 166–168 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Reconfigurable Instantaneous Frequency Measurement System Based on Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 427–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

L. V. T. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tanemura and K. Kikuchi, “Circular-birefringence fiber for nonlinear optical signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4108–4119 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1982 (1)

Aditya, S.

Anwajler, W.

W. Anwajler, A. Zajdel, J. Kus, and J. Kampa, “High dynamic range octave-band microwave frequency measurement systems up to 18 GHz,” in 12th International Conference on Microwaves and Radar2, 653 - 657 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

Ashourian, M.

H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
[Crossref]

Botineau, J.

Byoung-Joon, S.

Chen, Y.

Chi, H.

H. Chi, Y. Chen, Y. Mei, X. Jin, S. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “Microwave spectrum sensing based on photonic time stretch and compressive sampling,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 136–138 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Emami, H.

H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fetterman, H. R.

Fu, S.

Hunter, D. B.

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

Jeehoon, H.

Jin, X.

Kampa, J.

W. Anwajler, A. Zajdel, J. Kus, and J. Kampa, “High dynamic range octave-band microwave frequency measurement systems up to 18 GHz,” in 12th International Conference on Microwaves and Radar2, 653 - 657 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

Kus, J.

W. Anwajler, A. Zajdel, J. Kus, and J. Kampa, “High dynamic range octave-band microwave frequency measurement systems up to 18 GHz,” in 12th International Conference on Microwaves and Radar2, 653 - 657 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Lin, J.

Mei, Y.

Nguyen, L. V. T.

L. V. T. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[Crossref]

Niu, J.

Shum, P. P.

Stolen, R. H.

Sun, W. H.

Tanemura, T.

Wang, C.

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Ultrahigh-Resolution Photonic-Assisted Microwave Frequency Identification Based on Temporal Channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wang and J. Yao, “Ultrahigh-resolution photonic-assisted microwave frequency identification based on temporal channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. X.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Reconfigurable Instantaneous Frequency Measurement System Based on Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 427–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Brillouin-assisted microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 166–168 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W. T.

Wu, J.

Xu, K.

Yan, H.

Yao, J.

C. Wang and J. Yao, “Ultrahigh-resolution photonic-assisted microwave frequency identification based on temporal channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yao, J. P.

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Ultrahigh-Resolution Photonic-Assisted Microwave Frequency Identification Based on Temporal Channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zajdel, A.

W. Anwajler, A. Zajdel, J. Kus, and J. Kampa, “High dynamic range octave-band microwave frequency measurement systems up to 18 GHz,” in 12th International Conference on Microwaves and Radar2, 653 - 657 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zheng, S.

Zhou, J.

Zhu, N. H.

Zou, X.

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

L. V. T. Nguyen and D. B. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. V. T. Nguyen, “Microwave photonic technique for frequency measurement of simultaneous signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 642–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zou and J. Yao, “An optical approach to microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1989–1991 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Reconfigurable Instantaneous Frequency Measurement System Based on Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 427–436 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (4)

X. Zou, H. Chi, and J. Yao, “Microwave frequency measurement based on optical power monitoring using a complementary optical filter pair,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(2), 505–511 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Emami and M. Ashourian, “Improved dynamic range microwave photonic instantaneous frequency measurement based on four-wave mixing,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(10), 2462–2470 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Wang and J. Yao, “Ultrahigh-resolution photonic-assisted microwave frequency identification based on temporal channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Ultrahigh-Resolution Photonic-Assisted Microwave Frequency Identification Based on Temporal Channelization,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4275–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (3)

W. Anwajler, A. Zajdel, J. Kus, and J. Kampa, “High dynamic range octave-band microwave frequency measurement systems up to 18 GHz,” in 12th International Conference on Microwaves and Radar2, 653 - 657 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. B. Tsui, Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications (Academic, 1986).

P. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2000).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of the proposed IFM system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The operation principle of the PDI.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured transmission responses when the center wavelengths are 1535, 1550 and 1565 nm; (b) corresponding optical powers after propagating TOF with modulation frequency from 0 to 40 GHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated transfer functions (solid line) at different θ.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured optical powers and theoretical values (solid line) under (a) P m =180mW (b) P m =240mW (c) P m =300mW and ACF under (d) P m =180mW (e) P m =240mW (f) P m =300mW .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured and theoretical (solid line) optical powers (a) under non-CS modulation and (b) CS modulation; ACF (c) under non-CS modulation and (d) CS modulation.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured and theoretical (solid line) optical powers when (a) sin(θ) = 0.6 and (b) sin(θ) = 0.9; ACF when (c) sin(θ) = 0.6 and (d) sin(θ) = 0.9.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Measured and theoretical (solid line) ACF when P m =270mW , P m =285mW and P m =300mW ; (b) Measured microwave frequencies when the input microwave frequency is tuned from 0 to 30 GHz; (c) Distribution of the measurement errors.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measurement Range For Different Pump Power

Equations (15)

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P m (t)= E 1 2 J 0 2 (β) cos 2 ( ϕ 0 /2 )+2 E 1 2 J 1 2 (β) sin 2 ( ϕ 0 /2 )
P f (t)= T 0 E 1 2 J 0 2 (β) cos 2 ( ϕ 0 /2 )+2 T 1 E 1 2 J 1 2 (β) sin 2 ( ϕ 0 /2 )
n x = n x,l +2 n 2 P f / A eff n y = n y,l +2b n 2 P f / A eff
Γ x = k P L eff n x = k P L eff n x,l +2γ L eff P f Γ y = k P L eff n y = k P L eff n y,l +2γ L eff P f /3
Γ= 4 3 γ L eff P f
M=[ cos 2 (ψ)exp(jΓ/2)+ sin 2 (ψ)exp(jΓ/2) jsin(Γ/2)sin(2ψ) jsin(Γ/2)sin(2ψ) sin 2 (ψ)exp(jΓ/2)+co s 2 (ψ)exp(jΓ/2) ]
C=[ cosθ sinθ sinθ cosθ ]
E out =CM E LD2
T= | E out | 2 / | E LD2 | 2
T x =[1+sin(2θ)cos(4γ L eff P f /3)]/2 T y =[1sin(2θ)cos(4γ L eff P f /3)]/2
ACF= 1+sin(2θ)cos(4γ L eff P f /3) 1sin(2θ)cos(4γ L eff P f /3)
E m (t)= E 1 { J 0 (β)cos( ϕ 0 /2 )exp(j w 1 t) J 1 (β)sin( ϕ 0 /2 )exp[j( w 1 + w RF )t] J 1 (β)sin( ϕ 0 /2 )exp[j( w 1 w RF )t] }
φ w 1 = β 0 L φ w 1 + w RF = β 0 L+ β 1 L w RF + β 2 L w RF 2 /2 φ w 1 w RF = β 0 L β 1 L w RF + β 2 L w RF 2 /2
E m ' (t)= E 1 { J 0 (β)cos( ϕ 0 /2 )exp(j w 1 t β 0 L) J 1 (β)sin( ϕ 0 /2 )exp[j( w 1 + w RF )t β 0 L β 1 L w RF β 2 L w RF 2 /2 ] J 1 (β)sin( ϕ 0 /2 )exp[j( w 1 w RF )t β 0 L+ β 1 L w RF β 2 L w RF 2 /2 ] }
P m ' = E 1 2 { J 0 2 (β) cos 2 ( ϕ 0 /2 )+2 J 1 2 (β) sin 2 ( ϕ 0 /2 ) 2 J 0 (β) J 1 (β)sin( ϕ 0 )cos( β 2 L w RF 2 /2 )cos[j w RF t β 1 L w RF ] +2 J 1 2 (β) sin 2 ( ϕ 0 /2 )cos(2j w RF t2 β 1 L w RF ) }

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