Abstract

Using orbital angular momentum (OAM) conservation in second-order nonlinear interaction processes, we create a classical to quantum optical network link in the OAM degrees of freedom of light via sum frequency generation, followed by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Coherent OAM-carrying beams at 1550nm are up-converted to 525.5-nm OAM-carrying beams in the first crystal, and are used to pump a second crystal to generate non-degenerate OAM entangled photon pairs at 795nm and 1550nm. By switching the OAM carried by the classical part, OAM correlation in the quantum part is shifted. High-level OAM entanglements in two-dimensional subspaces are verified.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (2)

2014 (7)

Z.-Y. Zhou, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Shi, X.-S. Wang, and B.-S. Shi, “Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching crystals,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20298–20310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, and B.-S. Shi, “Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5098–5101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Highly efficient second harmonic generation of a light carrying orbital angular momentum in an external cavity,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23673–23678 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vallone, V. D’Ambrosio, A. Sponselli, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and P. Villoresi, “Free-space quantum key distribution by rotation-invariant twisted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(6), 060503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Buono, L. F. C. Moraes, J. A. O. Huguenin, C. E. R. Souza, and A. Z. Khoury, “Arbitrary orbital angular momentum addition in second harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 093041 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Gariepy, J. Leach, K. T. Kim, T. J. Hammond, E. Frumker, R. W. Boyd, and P. B. Corkum, “Creating high-harmonic beams with controlled orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(15), 153901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, M. Huber, R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Generation and confirmation of a (100 × 100)-dimensional entangled quantum system,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(17), 6243–6247 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D’Ambrosio, F. Cardano, E. Karimi, E. Nagali, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, and F. Sciarrino, “Test of mutually unbiased bases for six-dimensional photonic quantum systems,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2726 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Slussarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, X.-B. Zou, and G.-C. Guo, “Image transfer through two sequential four-wave-mixing processes in hot atomic vapour,” Phys. Rev. A 85(5), 053815 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Trans-spectral orbital angular momentum transfer via four-wave mixing in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 243601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 012334 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. M. Miatto, D. Giovannini, J. Romero, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Bounds and optimisation of orbital angular momentum bandwidths within parametric down-conversion systems,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(7), 178 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338(6107), 640–643 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y.-X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(5), 053601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia and T. Cizmar, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Di Lorenzo Pires, H. C. B. Florijn, and M. P. van Exter, “Measurement of the spiral spectrum of entangled two-photon states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 020505 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Jack, A. M. Yao, J. Leach, J. Romero, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of modes within two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043844 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Romero, J. Leach, B. Jack, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Violation of Leggett inequalities in orbital angular momentum subspaces,” New J. Phys. 12(12), 123007 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

B. Jack, J. Leach, H. Ritsch, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Precise quantum tomography of photon pairs with entangled orbital angular momentum,” New J. Phys. 11(10), 103024 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a Bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8287–8293 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Q.-F. Chen, B.-S. Shi, Y.-S. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, “Entanglement of orbital angular momentum states of photon pairs generated in a hot atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053810 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. P. Walborn, A. N. de Oliveira, R. S. Thebaldi, and C. H. Monken, “Entanglement and conservation of orbital angular momentum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 023811 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 64(5), 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

S. J. Freedman and J. F. Clauser, “Experimental test of local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(14), 938–941 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y.-X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(5), 053601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, E.

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aolita, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Slussarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).
[PubMed]

Arnold, A. S.

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Trans-spectral orbital angular momentum transfer via four-wave mixing in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 243601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, S.

Barnett, S. M.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 012334 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. M. Miatto, D. Giovannini, J. Romero, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Bounds and optimisation of orbital angular momentum bandwidths within parametric down-conversion systems,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(7), 178 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Wu, W.

Wu, Z.-J.

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
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B. Jack, A. M. Yao, J. Leach, J. Romero, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of modes within two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043844 (2010).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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M. Krenn, M. Huber, R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Generation and confirmation of a (100 × 100)-dimensional entangled quantum system,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(17), 6243–6247 (2014).
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Zhang, W.

Zhang, Y.-S.

Q.-F. Chen, B.-S. Shi, Y.-S. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, “Entanglement of orbital angular momentum states of photon pairs generated in a hot atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 78(5), 053810 (2008).
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Zhou, Z.-Y.

Zou, X.-B.

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Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

F. M. Miatto, D. Giovannini, J. Romero, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Bounds and optimisation of orbital angular momentum bandwidths within parametric down-conversion systems,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66(7), 178 (2012).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. The simplified upper diagram shows the information transfer direction. M1–M9: mirrors; VPP: vortex phase plate; F1–F3: filters; DM: dichromatic mirror; PPKTP1, 2: periodically poled KTP crystals; SMF1, 2: single mode fibers; L1–L3:150-mm lenses; L4, L7:200-mm lenses; L5, L6:100-mm lenses; PZT: piezoelectric transducer; SLMA, SLMB: spatial light modulators.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental results for measurementof the orbital angular momentum(OAM) correlation between the signal and idler photons for different pump OAMs at 1550nm. (a) and (c) show the coincidence counts in 10 s for signal and idler OAMs ranging from −5 to 5 for pump OAMs of 0 and−1, respectively; (b) and (d) show the coincidence counts when the signal and idler OAMs sum to give pump OAMs of 0 and −1, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental results for characterizationof the entanglement in two-dimensional subspaces.(a) and (b) show the coincidence counts of the signal and the idler as a function of phase mask angle θ A when the phase mask angle θ B =0,π/4l (l = 1, 2); (c) and (d) show the real and imaginary parts of the reconstructed density matrix for |Φ 2 .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Holograms used in the experimental measurements. (a) and (b) are the holograms for the single OAM states that were used in the measurements of Fig. 1; (c) and (d) show the definitions of θ A and θ B ; (e)–(h) show holograms that were used for quantum tomography measurements.

Equations (6)

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|Φ= m s = m s =+ c m s | m s , λ s | l p m s , λ i .
|θ= 1 2 ( e ilθ |l+ e ilθ | l ).
C( θ A , θ B )= | θ A | θ B ||Φ | 2 cos 2 [l( θ A θ B )].
|Φ l = 1 2 (| l,795 | l,1550 +| l,795 | l,1550 ).
S=E( θ A , θ B )E( θ A , θ B )+E( θ A , θ B )+E( θ A , θ B ).
E( θ A , θ B )= C( θ A , θ B )+C( θ A + π 2l , θ B + π 2l )C( θ A + π 2l , θ B )C( θ A , θ B + π 2l ) C( θ A , θ B )+C( θ A + π 2l , θ B + π 2l )+C( θ A + π 2l , θ B )+C( θ A , θ B + π 2l ) .

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