Abstract

An ultra-compact optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) modal interference and ferrofluid (FF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The magnetic field sensor was fabricated by splicing a tapered germanium-doped index guided MOF with six big holes injected with FF to two conventional single-mode fibers. The transmission spectra of the proposed sensor under different magnetic field intensities have been measured and theoretically analyzed. Due to an efficient interaction between the magnetic nanoparticles in FF and the excited cladding mode, the magnetic field sensitivity reaches up to117.9pm/mT with a linear range from 0mT to 30mT. Moreover, the fabrication process of the proposed sensor is simple, easy and cost-effective. Therefore, it will be a promising candidate for military, aviation industry, and biomedical applications, especially, for the applications where the space is limited.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  21. L. Tomco, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, and P. Kopcansky, “The structuralization phenomena in magnetic fluid composites and their influence on transmissivity of light,” J. Phys. 49(6), 973–979 (1999).

2014 (3)

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Layeghi, H. Latifi, and O. Frazão, “Magnetic field sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1904–1907 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, D. H. Liu, and D. C. Li, “Magnetic field sensor based on asymmetric optical fiber taper and magnetic fluid,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 211, 55–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

X. Li and H. Ding, “All-fiber magnetic-field sensor based on microfiber knot resonator and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5187–5189 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and A. Wang, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253108 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Kruse, H. G. Krauthauser, A. Spanoudaki, and R. Pelster, “Agglomeration and chain formation in ferrofluids: Two-dimensional x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 67(9), 094206 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

1999 (1)

L. Tomco, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, and P. Kopcansky, “The structuralization phenomena in magnetic fluid composites and their influence on transmissivity of light,” J. Phys. 49(6), 973–979 (1999).

1998 (1)

T. Du and W. Luo, “Nonlinear optical effects in ferrofluids induced by temperature and concentration cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(3), 272–274 (1998).
[Crossref]

Argyros, A.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, L.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and A. Wang, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bock, W. J.

Candiani, A.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, C. S.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

W. J. Bock, T. A. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, “An inline core-cladding intermodal interferometer using a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(17), 3933–3939 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. H.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. F.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

Chieh, J. J.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deng, M.

M. Deng, D. H. Liu, and D. C. Li, “Magnetic field sensor based on asymmetric optical fiber taper and magnetic fluid,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 211, 55–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, H.

Dong, S.

Dong, X.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, T.

T. Du and W. Luo, “Nonlinear optical effects in ferrofluids induced by temperature and concentration cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(3), 272–274 (1998).
[Crossref]

Eftimov, T. A.

Fang, K. L.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

Frazão, O.

A. Layeghi, H. Latifi, and O. Frazão, “Magnetic field sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1904–1907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

Gupta, S.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, Q.

Hong, C. Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hong, C.-Y.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

Horng, H. E.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

Hu, L.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Jiang, Y.

Jin, Y.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kale, S. N.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kitture, R.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koneracka, M.

L. Tomco, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, and P. Kopcansky, “The structuralization phenomena in magnetic fluid composites and their influence on transmissivity of light,” J. Phys. 49(6), 973–979 (1999).

Kopcansky, P.

L. Tomco, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, and P. Kopcansky, “The structuralization phenomena in magnetic fluid composites and their influence on transmissivity of light,” J. Phys. 49(6), 973–979 (1999).

Krauthauser, H. G.

T. Kruse, H. G. Krauthauser, A. Spanoudaki, and R. Pelster, “Agglomeration and chain formation in ferrofluids: Two-dimensional x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 67(9), 094206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kruse, T.

T. Kruse, H. G. Krauthauser, A. Spanoudaki, and R. Pelster, “Agglomeration and chain formation in ferrofluids: Two-dimensional x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 67(9), 094206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lan, X.

Latifi, H.

A. Layeghi, H. Latifi, and O. Frazão, “Magnetic field sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1904–1907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Layeghi, A.

A. Layeghi, H. Latifi, and O. Frazão, “Magnetic field sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1904–1907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lew, W. S.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, D. C.

M. Deng, D. H. Liu, and D. C. Li, “Magnetic field sensor based on asymmetric optical fiber taper and magnetic fluid,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 211, 55–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and A. Wang, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li and H. Ding, “All-fiber magnetic-field sensor based on microfiber knot resonator and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5187–5189 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liew, H. F.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and A. Wang, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, D. H.

M. Deng, D. H. Liu, and D. C. Li, “Magnetic field sensor based on asymmetric optical fiber taper and magnetic fluid,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 211, 55–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and A. Wang, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, W.

T. Du and W. Luo, “Nonlinear optical effects in ferrofluids induced by temperature and concentration cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(3), 272–274 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lwin, R.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mikulic, P.

Nalawade, S. M.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pelster, R.

T. Kruse, H. G. Krauthauser, A. Spanoudaki, and R. Pelster, “Agglomeration and chain formation in ferrofluids: Two-dimensional x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 67(9), 094206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pissadakis, S.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pu, S.

Selleri, S.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spanoudaki, A.

T. Kruse, H. G. Krauthauser, A. Spanoudaki, and R. Pelster, “Agglomeration and chain formation in ferrofluids: Two-dimensional x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 67(9), 094206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thakur, H. V.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tomco, L.

L. Tomco, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, and P. Kopcansky, “The structuralization phenomena in magnetic fluid composites and their influence on transmissivity of light,” J. Phys. 49(6), 973–979 (1999).

Tse, W. S.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and A. Wang, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, N.

Wong, W. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

Yang, H. C.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

Yang, S. Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

Yun, D.

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

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L. Tomco, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, and P. Kopcansky, “The structuralization phenomena in magnetic fluid composites and their influence on transmissivity of light,” J. Phys. 49(6), 973–979 (1999).

Zhang, J.

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zu, P.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, X. Chen, D. Yun, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, and A. Wang, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253108 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Du and W. Luo, “Nonlinear optical effects in ferrofluids induced by temperature and concentration cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(3), 272–274 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(26), 4931–4933 (2002).

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Layeghi, H. Latifi, and O. Frazão, “Magnetic field sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1904–1907 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. (1)

L. Tomco, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, and P. Kopcansky, “The structuralization phenomena in magnetic fluid composites and their influence on transmissivity of light,” J. Phys. 49(6), 973–979 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

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M. Deng, D. H. Liu, and D. C. Li, “Magnetic field sensor based on asymmetric optical fiber taper and magnetic fluid,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 211, 55–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic diagram of the proposed sensor configuration; (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the MOF.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated energy profiles of the TMOF injected with FF under different waist diameters.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Close view of the TMOF without FF; (b) Close view of the TMOF filled with FF.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of the TMOF-based MZI sensor for different magnetic field intensities.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Wavelength shift as a function of the magnetic field intensity for the TMOF-based MZI sensor.

Equations (5)

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I ( r ) = I 0 [ η 01 F 01 ( r ) + η 0 p F 0 p ( r ) + 2 η 1 p F 1 p ( r ) cos ( Δ β L ) ]
Δ β = β 01 β 0 p = 2 π ( n c o r e n c l a d d i n g p ) λ
V = I m a x I m i n I m a x + I m i n = 2 η 1 p I 1 p η 01 I 01 + η 0 p I 0 p
λ m = 2 Δ n L 2 m + 1
Δ λ m = 2 ( Δ n ' Δ n ) L 2 m + 1

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