Abstract

We demonstrate the first few-mode-fiber based passive optical network, effectively utilizing mode multiplexing to eliminate combining loss for upstream traffic. Error-free performance has been achieved for 20-km low-crosstalk 3-mode transmission in a commercial GPON system carrying live Ethernet traffic. The alternative approach of low modal group delay is also analyzed with simulation results over 10 modes.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Ning, L. Zhenxing, and F. J. Effenberger, “Large splitting and long reach passive optical networks with mode coupling receivers,” in Proc. ECOC’2010, paper Tu.5.B.3 (2010).
  2. M. Fujiwara, K. I. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, M. Oguma, and S. Soma, “Increasing Splitting Ratio of 10Gb/s-Class PONs by Using FW-DMF,” in Proc. OFC’2014, paper Tu.2.C.5 (2014).
  3. C. Xia, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, H. Wen, A. Schȕlzgen, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “TDMA Few-Mode PON,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics’2014, accepted (2014).
  4. C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).
  5. S. Yerolatsitis and T. A. Birks, “Tapered mode multiplexer based on standard single-mode fibre,” In Proc. ECOC’2013, paper PD1.C.1(2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in Proc. ECOC'2013, pp. 1–3.
    [Crossref]
  8. S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/fulltext.cfm?uri=oe-22-1-1036&id=276906 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-3-2668 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Randel, R. Ryf, C. Schmidt, M. A. Mestre, P. J. Winzer, and R. Essiambre, “MIMO processing for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, paper SpW3B. 4 (2012).
  11. T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, T. Yamamoto, and S. Tomita, “Differential mode delay managed transmission line for WDM-MIMO system using multi-step index fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(17), 2783–2787 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, T. Yamamoto, L. Ma, N. Hanzawa, S. Aozasa, K. Tsujikawa, and S. Tomita, “Transmission over large-core few-mode photonic crystal fiber using distance-independent modal dispersion compensation technique,” Opt. Express 19(26), B478–B485 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. Huang, C. Xia, G. Matz, N. Bai, and G. Li, “Structured directional coupler pair for multiplexing of degenerate modes,” in Proc. OFC’2013, paper JW2A. 25 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Labroille, B. Denolle, P. Jian, P. Genevaux, N. Treps, and J. F. Morizur, “Efficient and mode selective spatial mode multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15599–15607 (2014), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-22-13-15599 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-24-27123 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, J. Nicholson, D. Jakobsen, R. Lingle, and B. Palsdottir, “Few mode transmission fiber with low DGD, low mode coupling and low loss,” in Proc. OFC’2012, paper PDP5A.1 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. Silva, “Design of Few-Mode Fibers With Arbitrary and Flattened Differential Mode Delay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 438–441 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

F. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. Silva, “Design of Few-Mode Fibers With Arbitrary and Flattened Differential Mode Delay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 438–441 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

Amezcua-Correa, R.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Aozasa, S.

Bai, N.

Bickham, S.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Chand, N.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Denolle, B.

Effenberger, F.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Ercan, B.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/fulltext.cfm?uri=oe-22-1-1036&id=276906 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in Proc. ECOC'2013, pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Ferreira, F.

F. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. Silva, “Design of Few-Mode Fibers With Arbitrary and Flattened Differential Mode Delay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 438–441 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fonseca, D.

F. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. Silva, “Design of Few-Mode Fibers With Arbitrary and Flattened Differential Mode Delay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 438–441 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

Genevaux, P.

Gil, J. R. S.

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in Proc. ECOC'2013, pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Hanzawa, N.

Huang, Y.-K.

Ip, E.

Jian, P.

Labroille, G.

Lau, A. P.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, G.

Li, M.-J.

Liñares, J.

Liu, X.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Ma, L.

Man Chung, K.

Mateo, E.

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Mori, T.

Morizur, J. F.

Peng, G. D.

Prieto, X.

Ryf, R.

Sakamoto, T.

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Silva, H.

F. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. Silva, “Design of Few-Mode Fibers With Arbitrary and Flattened Differential Mode Delay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 438–441 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

Ten, S.

Tomita, S.

Treps, N.

Tse, V.

Tsujikawa, K.

Velázquez-Benítez, A. M.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Wang, T.

Wen, H.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Xia, C.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

Yamamoto, T.

Yaman, F.

Yerolatsitis, S.

Zhu, B.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Ferreira, D. Fonseca, and H. Silva, “Design of Few-Mode Fibers With Arbitrary and Flattened Differential Mode Delay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 438–441 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (6)

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, T. Yamamoto, L. Ma, N. Hanzawa, S. Aozasa, K. Tsujikawa, and S. Tomita, “Transmission over large-core few-mode photonic crystal fiber using distance-independent modal dispersion compensation technique,” Opt. Express 19(26), B478–B485 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Labroille, B. Denolle, P. Jian, P. Genevaux, N. Treps, and J. F. Morizur, “Efficient and mode selective spatial mode multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15599–15607 (2014), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-22-13-15599 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-24-27123 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/fulltext.cfm?uri=oe-22-1-1036&id=276906 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. Lau, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G. D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-3-2668 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

S. Randel, R. Ryf, C. Schmidt, M. A. Mestre, P. J. Winzer, and R. Essiambre, “MIMO processing for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, paper SpW3B. 4 (2012).

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in Proc. ECOC'2013, pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

C. Ning, L. Zhenxing, and F. J. Effenberger, “Large splitting and long reach passive optical networks with mode coupling receivers,” in Proc. ECOC’2010, paper Tu.5.B.3 (2010).

M. Fujiwara, K. I. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, M. Oguma, and S. Soma, “Increasing Splitting Ratio of 10Gb/s-Class PONs by Using FW-DMF,” in Proc. OFC’2014, paper Tu.2.C.5 (2014).

C. Xia, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, H. Wen, A. Schȕlzgen, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “TDMA Few-Mode PON,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics’2014, accepted (2014).

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of World’s First Few-Mode GPON”, in Proc. ECOC’2014, in review (2014).

S. Yerolatsitis and T. A. Birks, “Tapered mode multiplexer based on standard single-mode fibre,” In Proc. ECOC’2013, paper PD1.C.1(2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, J. Nicholson, D. Jakobsen, R. Lingle, and B. Palsdottir, “Few mode transmission fiber with low DGD, low mode coupling and low loss,” in Proc. OFC’2012, paper PDP5A.1 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, C. Xia, G. Matz, N. Bai, and G. Li, “Structured directional coupler pair for multiplexing of degenerate modes,” in Proc. OFC’2013, paper JW2A. 25 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 PON architectures with low upstream loss using (a) multiple feeder fibers and a multimode combiner (MC); and (b) a single FMF with a mode transforming coupler (MTC).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The cross-section of the mode-selective lantern output; (b) measured LP01, LP11a & LP11b intensity patterns at the lantern near-field, far-field and the end of lantern-to-20km FMF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Picture of the few-mode segment of the ODN; (b) measured LP01, LP11a and LP11b impulse responses of the few-mode ODN segment.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of a few-mode GPON system using a 20km FMF and a mode-selective lantern for upstream transmission. OLT: commercial optical line terminal; ONUs: commercial optical network units.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) BER measurements of the few-mode ODN segment; (b) eye diagrams of the cases of B2B (with SSMF), 20km LP01, LP11a and LP11b transmission.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation results of modal group delay for 10-mode fiber design of trench-assisted graded-index profile. Inset: the FMF index profile with parameters indicated.

Equations (2)

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I det (t)=a I s (t)+ i b i I s (t τ i )+ j c j I s (t τ j )+ , τ i,j τ MGD
n(r)={ n(0) [1 Δ 1 (r/ a 1 ) α n ] 1/2 , (r| a 1 |) n cl , (| a 1 |<r| a 2 |) n cl (1 Δ 2 ), (| a 2 |<r| a 3 |) n cl , (r>| a 3 |)

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