Abstract

New designs for electro-optical free-space and waveguided 2 x 2 switches are presented and analyzed at the 1.55 μm telecoms wavelength. The proposed devices employ a ~10 nm film of GeSe that is electrically actuated to transition the layer forth-and-back from the amorphous to the crystal phase, yielding a switch with two self-sustaining states. This phase change material was selected for its very low absorption loss at the operation wavelength, along with its electro-refraction Δn ~0.6. All switches are cascadeable into N x M devices. The free-space prism-shaped structures use III-V prism material to match the GeSe crystal index. The Si/GeSe/Si “active waveguides” are quite suitable for directional-coupler switches as well as Mach-Zehnder devices—all of which have an active length 16x less than that in the free-carrier art.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
    [Crossref]
  2. H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).
  3. G. H. Park, C. S. Hwang, S. Lee, and B. K. Cheong, “Threshold resistive and capacitive switching behavior in binary amorphous GeSe,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 102807 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Jarvis, R. W. Carpenter, M. Davis, and K. A. Campbell, “An investigation of amorphous Ge2Se3 structure for phase change memory devices using fluctuation electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083507 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).
  6. H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  7. J. Hendrickson, R. Soref, J. Sweet, and A. Majumdar, “Electro-optical 1 x 2, 1 x N and N x N fiber-optic and free-space switching over 1.5 to 3.0 μm using a Ge-Ge2Sb2Te5-Ge prism structure,” Opt. Express (to be published).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Choi, A. Singh, E. A. Davis, and S. J. Gurman, “Optical properties and structure of unhydrogenated, hydrogenated and zinc-alloyed a-GexSe1-x films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids198–200, 680–683 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. R. Romanyuk, I. S. Dutsyak, and A. G. Mikolaichuk, “Effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of amorphous GeSe films,” Inorg. Mater.43(6), 584–587 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. M. Elkorashy, “Optical constants of Germanium Selenide single crystals in the transparency region,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.149(2), 747–758 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. K. Bhadra, A. K. Maiti, and K. Goswami, “Photo-darkening in GeSe film by CW laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.18(19), 1543–1545 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Nedeljokvic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1 to 14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics Journal3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 x 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photonics Research2(5), 102–110 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 x 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photonics Research2(5), 102–110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

2012 (1)

G. H. Park, C. S. Hwang, S. Lee, and B. K. Cheong, “Threshold resistive and capacitive switching behavior in binary amorphous GeSe,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 102807 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Nedeljokvic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1 to 14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics Journal3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Jarvis, R. W. Carpenter, M. Davis, and K. A. Campbell, “An investigation of amorphous Ge2Se3 structure for phase change memory devices using fluctuation electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083507 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. R. Romanyuk, I. S. Dutsyak, and A. G. Mikolaichuk, “Effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of amorphous GeSe films,” Inorg. Mater.43(6), 584–587 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. K. Bhadra, A. K. Maiti, and K. Goswami, “Photo-darkening in GeSe film by CW laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.18(19), 1543–1545 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. Choi, A. Singh, E. A. Davis, and S. J. Gurman, “Optical properties and structure of unhydrogenated, hydrogenated and zinc-alloyed a-GexSe1-x films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids198–200, 680–683 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. M. Elkorashy, “Optical constants of Germanium Selenide single crystals in the transparency region,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.149(2), 747–758 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

Ahn, H. W.

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

Bhadra, S. K.

S. K. Bhadra, A. K. Maiti, and K. Goswami, “Photo-darkening in GeSe film by CW laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.18(19), 1543–1545 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bosse, J. L.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Cabrera, D.

S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).

Campbell, K. A.

K. Jarvis, R. W. Carpenter, M. Davis, and K. A. Campbell, “An investigation of amorphous Ge2Se3 structure for phase change memory devices using fluctuation electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083507 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).

Carpenter, R. W.

K. Jarvis, R. W. Carpenter, M. Davis, and K. A. Campbell, “An investigation of amorphous Ge2Se3 structure for phase change memory devices using fluctuation electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheong, B. K.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

G. H. Park, C. S. Hwang, S. Lee, and B. K. Cheong, “Threshold resistive and capacitive switching behavior in binary amorphous GeSe,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 102807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, A. Singh, E. A. Davis, and S. J. Gurman, “Optical properties and structure of unhydrogenated, hydrogenated and zinc-alloyed a-GexSe1-x films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids198–200, 680–683 (1996).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. G.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Davis, E. A.

J. Choi, A. Singh, E. A. Davis, and S. J. Gurman, “Optical properties and structure of unhydrogenated, hydrogenated and zinc-alloyed a-GexSe1-x films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids198–200, 680–683 (1996).
[Crossref]

Davis, M.

K. Jarvis, R. W. Carpenter, M. Davis, and K. A. Campbell, “An investigation of amorphous Ge2Se3 structure for phase change memory devices using fluctuation electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Devasia, A.

S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).

Dutsyak, I. S.

R. R. Romanyuk, I. S. Dutsyak, and A. G. Mikolaichuk, “Effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of amorphous GeSe films,” Inorg. Mater.43(6), 584–587 (2007).
[Crossref]

Elkorashy, A. M.

A. M. Elkorashy, “Optical constants of Germanium Selenide single crystals in the transparency region,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.149(2), 747–758 (1988).
[Crossref]

Goswami, K.

S. K. Bhadra, A. K. Maiti, and K. Goswami, “Photo-darkening in GeSe film by CW laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.18(19), 1543–1545 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grishin, I.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Gurman, S. J.

J. Choi, A. Singh, E. A. Davis, and S. J. Gurman, “Optical properties and structure of unhydrogenated, hydrogenated and zinc-alloyed a-GexSe1-x films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids198–200, 680–683 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, J.

J. Hendrickson, R. Soref, J. Sweet, and A. Majumdar, “Electro-optical 1 x 2, 1 x N and N x N fiber-optic and free-space switching over 1.5 to 3.0 μm using a Ge-Ge2Sb2Te5-Ge prism structure,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Huang, W.-P.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Huey, B. D.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Hwang, C. S.

G. H. Park, C. S. Hwang, S. Lee, and B. K. Cheong, “Threshold resistive and capacitive switching behavior in binary amorphous GeSe,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 102807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jarvis, K.

K. Jarvis, R. W. Carpenter, M. Davis, and K. A. Campbell, “An investigation of amorphous Ge2Se3 structure for phase change memory devices using fluctuation electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeong, D. S.

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

Kim, D.

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

Kim, S. D.

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

Kolosov, O. V.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

Kurinec, S.

S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).

Lee, H.

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

Lee, S.

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

G. H. Park, C. S. Hwang, S. Lee, and B. K. Cheong, “Threshold resistive and capacitive switching behavior in binary amorphous GeSe,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 102807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Liang, H.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

MacMahona, D.

S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).

Maiti, A. K.

S. K. Bhadra, A. K. Maiti, and K. Goswami, “Photo-darkening in GeSe film by CW laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.18(19), 1543–1545 (1999).
[Crossref]

Majumdar, A.

J. Hendrickson, R. Soref, J. Sweet, and A. Majumdar, “Electro-optical 1 x 2, 1 x N and N x N fiber-optic and free-space switching over 1.5 to 3.0 μm using a Ge-Ge2Sb2Te5-Ge prism structure,” Opt. Express (to be published).

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Mashanovich, G. Z.

M. Nedeljokvic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1 to 14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics Journal3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mikolaichuk, A. G.

R. R. Romanyuk, I. S. Dutsyak, and A. G. Mikolaichuk, “Effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of amorphous GeSe films,” Inorg. Mater.43(6), 584–587 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mu, J.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Nedeljokvic, M.

M. Nedeljokvic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1 to 14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics Journal3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, G. H.

G. H. Park, C. S. Hwang, S. Lee, and B. K. Cheong, “Threshold resistive and capacitive switching behavior in binary amorphous GeSe,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 102807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petkov, K.

K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raoux, S.

S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).

Romanyuk, R. R.

R. R. Romanyuk, I. S. Dutsyak, and A. G. Mikolaichuk, “Effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of amorphous GeSe films,” Inorg. Mater.43(6), 584–587 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shin, S. Y.

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

Singh, A.

J. Choi, A. Singh, E. A. Davis, and S. J. Gurman, “Optical properties and structure of unhydrogenated, hydrogenated and zinc-alloyed a-GexSe1-x films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids198–200, 680–683 (1996).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 x 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photonics Research2(5), 102–110 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljokvic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1 to 14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics Journal3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Hendrickson, R. Soref, J. Sweet, and A. Majumdar, “Electro-optical 1 x 2, 1 x N and N x N fiber-optic and free-space switching over 1.5 to 3.0 μm using a Ge-Ge2Sb2Te5-Ge prism structure,” Opt. Express (to be published).

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Soref, R. A.

Sweet, J.

J. Hendrickson, R. Soref, J. Sweet, and A. Majumdar, “Electro-optical 1 x 2, 1 x N and N x N fiber-optic and free-space switching over 1.5 to 3.0 μm using a Ge-Ge2Sb2Te5-Ge prism structure,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Tasseva, J.

K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
[Crossref]

Todorov, R.

K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vassilev, G.

K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vassilev, V.

K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. L. Bosse, I. Grishin, Y. G. Choi, B. K. Cheong, S. Lee, O. V. Kolosov, and B. D. Huey, “Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(5), 053109 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref]

H. W. Ahn, D. S. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, H. Lee, H. Lee, S. D. Kim, S. Y. Shin, D. Kim, and S. Lee, “Effect of density of localized states on the ovonic threshold switching characteristics of the amorphous GeSe films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(4), 042908 (2013).

IEEE Photonics Journal (1)

M. Nedeljokvic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1 to 14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics Journal3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

R. R. Romanyuk, I. S. Dutsyak, and A. G. Mikolaichuk, “Effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of amorphous GeSe films,” Inorg. Mater.43(6), 584–587 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. H. Park, C. S. Hwang, S. Lee, and B. K. Cheong, “Threshold resistive and capacitive switching behavior in binary amorphous GeSe,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 102807 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Jarvis, R. W. Carpenter, M. Davis, and K. A. Campbell, “An investigation of amorphous Ge2Se3 structure for phase change memory devices using fluctuation electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.106(8), 083507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (1)

S. K. Bhadra, A. K. Maiti, and K. Goswami, “Photo-darkening in GeSe film by CW laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett.18(19), 1543–1545 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Petkov, G. Vassilev, R. Todorov, J. Tasseva, and V. Vassilev, “Optical properties and structure of thin films from the system GeSe2-Sb2Se3-AgI,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2669–2674 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Choi, A. Singh, E. A. Davis, and S. J. Gurman, “Optical properties and structure of unhydrogenated, hydrogenated and zinc-alloyed a-GexSe1-x films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids198–200, 680–683 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Research (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 x 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photonics Research2(5), 102–110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

A. M. Elkorashy, “Optical constants of Germanium Selenide single crystals in the transparency region,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.149(2), 747–758 (1988).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Kurinec, A. Devasia, D. Cabrera, S. Raoux, D. MacMahona, and K. A. Campbell, “Stacked chalcogenide layers for phase change memory,” Proc. European Phase-Change and Ovonics Symposium (4 Sept. 2011).

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

J. Hendrickson, R. Soref, J. Sweet, and A. Majumdar, “Electro-optical 1 x 2, 1 x N and N x N fiber-optic and free-space switching over 1.5 to 3.0 μm using a Ge-Ge2Sb2Te5-Ge prism structure,” Opt. Express (to be published).

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