Abstract

We demonstrate low-voltage germanium waveguide avalanche photodetectors (APDs) with a gain × bandwidth product above 100GHz. A photonic receiver based on such a Ge APD, including a 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS low-noise trans-impedance amplifier and a limiting amplifier, is realized. A 5.8dB sensitivity improvement is demonstrated at −5.9V bias at an avalanche gain of 6 through bit error ratio measurements. The absolute sensitivity in avalanche mode is −23.4dBm and −24.4dBm at a bit error ratio of 1 × 10−12 and 1 × 10−9 respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Campbell, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 109–121 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. P. Pearsall, H. Temkyn, J. C. Bean, and S. Luryi, “Avalanche gain in GeSi/Si infrared waveguide detectors,” Electron. Device Lett. 7(5), 330–332 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Melchior and W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high-speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 13(12), 829–838 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1–1.6 μm,” J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).
  11. X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).
  12. M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
    [Crossref]
  13. P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, H. Chen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Dumon, A. Masood, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Highly uniform 25 Gb/s Si photonics platform for high-density, low-power WDM optical interconnects,” in Advanced Photonics for Communications, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper IW3A.4.
  15. M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Effect of dead space on gain and noise of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 39(3), 546–552 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. C. Liew, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. Marshall, and J. P. R. David, “Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in InAlAs avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013114 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche-photodiode frequency response,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(9), 3705–3714 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. J. McIntyre, “The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: theory,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-19(6), 703–713 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

2014 (1)

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

2011 (1)

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

2010 (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. C. Liew, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. Marshall, and J. P. R. David, “Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in InAlAs avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2002 (1)

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Effect of dead space on gain and noise of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 39(3), 546–552 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

T. P. Pearsall, H. Temkyn, J. C. Bean, and S. Luryi, “Avalanche gain in GeSi/Si infrared waveguide detectors,” Electron. Device Lett. 7(5), 330–332 (1986).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1–1.6 μm,” J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: theory,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-19(6), 703–713 (1972).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche-photodiode frequency response,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(9), 3705–3714 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

H. Melchior and W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high-speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 13(12), 829–838 (1966).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Ando, H.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1–1.6 μm,” J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauwelinck, J.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Bean, J. C.

T. P. Pearsall, H. Temkyn, J. C. Bean, and S. Luryi, “Avalanche gain in GeSi/Si infrared waveguide detectors,” Electron. Device Lett. 7(5), 330–332 (1986).
[Crossref]

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J.

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

Bowers, J. E.

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J.

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

Campbell, J. C.

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 109–121 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, F.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. W.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozat, P.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, J. P. R.

S. C. Liew, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. Marshall, and J. P. R. David, “Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in InAlAs avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013114 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Coster, J.

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Meyer, K.

M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Emmons, R. B.

R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche-photodiode frequency response,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(9), 3705–3714 (1967).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillis, J.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Goh, Y. L.

S. C. Liew, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. Marshall, and J. P. R. David, “Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in InAlAs avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayat, M. M.

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Effect of dead space on gain and noise of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 39(3), 546–552 (1992).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

Ingels, M.

M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kanbe, H.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1–1.6 μm,” J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kaneda, T.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1–1.6 μm,” J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1–1.6 μm,” J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[Crossref]

Krimmel, H.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

Krimmel, H. G.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Kuo, Y. H.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwon, O. H.

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liew, S. C.

S. C. Liew, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. Marshall, and J. P. R. David, “Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in InAlAs avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Litski, S.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. D.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luryi, S.

T. P. Pearsall, H. Temkyn, J. C. Bean, and S. Luryi, “Avalanche gain in GeSi/Si infrared waveguide detectors,” Electron. Device Lett. 7(5), 330–332 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lynch, W. T.

H. Melchior and W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high-speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 13(12), 829–838 (1966).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, A. R.

S. C. Liew, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. Marshall, and J. P. R. David, “Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in InAlAs avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mcintosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

McIntyre, R. J.

R. J. McIntyre, “The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: theory,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-19(6), 703–713 (1972).
[Crossref]

Melchior, H.

H. Melchior and W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high-speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 13(12), 829–838 (1966).
[Crossref]

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

W. S. Zaoui, H. W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840 GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641–12649 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pearsall, T. P.

T. P. Pearsall, H. Temkyn, J. C. Bean, and S. Luryi, “Avalanche gain in GeSi/Si infrared waveguide detectors,” Electron. Device Lett. 7(5), 330–332 (1986).
[Crossref]

Put, J.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Qiu, X. Z.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Rakowski, M.

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

Saado, Y.

Y. Kang, Z. Huang, Y. Saado, J. Campbell, A. Pauchard, J. Bowers, and M. J. Paniccia, “High performance Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes development in Intel,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. 12, OWZ1 (2011).

Saleh, B. E. A.

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Effect of dead space on gain and noise of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 39(3), 546–552 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sfar Zaoui, W.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Steyaert, M.

M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. H.

S. C. Liew, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. Marshall, and J. P. R. David, “Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in InAlAs avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hayat, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Effect of dead space on gain and noise of double-carrier multiplication avalanche photodiodes,” Trans. Electron Devices 39(3), 546–552 (1992).
[Crossref]

Temkyn, H.

T. P. Pearsall, H. Temkyn, J. C. Bean, and S. Luryi, “Avalanche gain in GeSi/Si infrared waveguide detectors,” Electron. Device Lett. 7(5), 330–332 (1986).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

van Veen, D.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

Vandewege, J.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Verbrugghe, J.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Verheyen, P.

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2785–2792 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vetter, P.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

Virot, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Boundary effects on multiplication noise in thin heterostructure avalanche photodiodes: theory and experiment,” Trans. Electron Devices 49(12), 2114–2123 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaoka, T.

H. Ando, H. Kanbe, T. Kimura, T. Yamaoka, and T. Kaneda, “Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1–1.6 μm,” J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 804–809 (1978).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

Yu, H.

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

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JOCN (1)

X. Yin, X. Z. Qiu, J. Gillis, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. Krimmel, D. van Veen, P. Vetter, and F. Chang, “Experiments on 10Gb/s fast settling high sensitivity burst-mode receiver with on-chip auto-reset for 10G-GPONs [Invited],” JOCN 4, B68–B76 (2012).

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L. Virot, P. Crozat, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects,” Nat Commun 5, 4957 (2014).
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Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. Sfar Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. Mcintosh, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Other (6)

M. Pantouvaki, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, H. Yu, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “20Gb/s silicon ring modulator co-integrated with a Ge monitor photodetector,” ECOC Conference2013, London, United Kingdom, We.3.B.2.
[Crossref]

P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, H. Chen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Dumon, A. Masood, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Highly uniform 25 Gb/s Si photonics platform for high-density, low-power WDM optical interconnects,” in Advanced Photonics for Communications, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper IW3A.4.

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High responsivity low-voltage 28Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, M. Rakowski, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Low-voltage Ge avalanche photodetector for highly sensitive 10Gb/s Si photonic receivers,” Proc. 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 106–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rakowski, M. Ingels, K. De Meyer, M. Steyaert, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Highly sensitive, low-power, 10-20Gb/s transimpedance amplifier based on cascaded CMOS inverter gain stages,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference, 115–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H. G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75ns settling time,” IEEE ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers.416–417 (2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic cross section of the Ge waveguide APD with the Ge layer dimensions. (b) TEM longitudinal cross-section image. (c) Doping distribution in the Ge layer generated from Monte-Carlo ion implantation simulation. (d) Simulated electric field distribution in the Ge layer at –5.5V applied bias voltage.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) I-V characteristics of a 14μm-long Ge APD (in the dark and under an input optical power of −19.6dBm). (b) Avalanche gain extracted from the static measurements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Small-signal RF measurement of S21 parameter for various bias voltages. As the reverse bias is increased beyond −2V, a substantial increase in the S21 parameter can be observed up to an optimum bias of −6.3V, after which the S21 parameter (and hence the gain) starts to drop instead.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Avalanche gain extracted from small-signal RF measurements as a function of bias voltage. (b) Measured 3dB opto-electrical bandwidth versus avalanche gain extracted from the S21 RF curves. (c) gain × bandwidth product as a function of bias voltage.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The excess noise factor as a function of gain with an input optical power of (a) −23.8dBm and (b) −18.8dBm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Optical receiver with Ge APD wire-bonded to a TIA. (b) 10Gb/s optical eye diagram from modulator. (c) 10Gb/s eye diagram of the electrical signal from LA DATA port with differential BER of 1 × 10−12 at −5.9V bias voltage (input optical power is −23.4dBm). (d) 10Gb/s eye diagram of the electrical signal from LA XDATA port with differential BER of 1 × 10−12 at −5.9V bias voltage (input optical power is −23.4dBm).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured bit error ratio as a function of input optical power for various bias voltages.

Equations (2)

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PSD=2×q×I× M 2 ×F( M )
 F( M )= k eff M+( 21/M )×( 1 k eff )

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