Abstract

Spin photocurrent spectra induced by Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at inter-band excitation have been experimentally investigated in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at a temperature range of 80 to 290 K. It is found that, the sign of Rashba-type current reverses at low temperatures, while that of Dresselhaus-type remains unchanged. The temperature dependence of ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling parameters, increasing from −6.7 to 17.9, is obtained, and the possible reasons are discussed. We also develop a model to extract the Rashba-type effective electric field at different temperatures. It is demonstrated that excitonic effect will significantly influence the Rashba-type CPGE, while it has little effect on Dresselhaus-type CPGE.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. S. D. Ganichev and W. Prettl, “Spin photocurrents in quantum wells,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 15, R935–R983 (2003).
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  3. L. E. Golub, “Spin-splitting-induced photogalvanic effect in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235320 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. L. Yang, H. T. He, L. Ding, L. J. Cui, Y. P. Zeng, J. N. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “Spectral dependence of spin photocurrent and current-induced spin polarization in an InGaAs/InAlAs two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186605 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. S. Cho, C. T. Liang, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Spin-dependent photocurrent induced by Rashba-type spin splitting in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085327 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. N. S. Averkiev and L. E. Golub, “Spin relaxation anisotropy: microscopic mechanisms for 2D systems,” Semi-cond. Sci. Tech. 23, 114002 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. D. Ganichev and L. E. Golub, “Interplay of Rashba/Dresselhaus spin splittings probed by photogalvanic spectroscopy - a review,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 251, 1801–1823 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Cartoixa, D. Z. Y. Ting, and Y. C. Chang, “A resonant spin lifetime transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1462–1464 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. C. Hall, W. H. Lau, K. Gundogdu, M. E. Flatte, and T. F. Boggess, “Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2937–2939 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
    [Crossref]
  21. K. S. Cho, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Photogalvanic effects for interband absorption in AlGaN/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041909 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, and H. Ma, “Room-temperature spin photocurrent spectra at interband excitation and comparison with reflectance-difference spectroscopy in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053519 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, H. Ma, and L. P. Zhu, “Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quamtun wells and their behaviors under external strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 152110 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. S. Park and D. C. Reynolds, “Exciton structure in photoconductivity of CdS, CdSe, and CdS: Se single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2450–2457 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. A. Tarasenko, “Direct current driven by ac electric field in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 035313 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. J.-W. Luo, A. N. Chantis, M. van Schilfgaarde, G. Bester, and A. Zunger, “Discovery of a novel linear-in-k spin splitting for holes in the 2d GaAs/AlAs system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066405 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. V. Durnev, M. M. Glazov, and E. L. Ivchenko, “Spin-orbit splitting of valence subbands in semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 075430 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Nitta, T. Akazaki, H. Takayanagi, and T. Enoki, “Gate control of spin-orbit interaction in an inverted In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1335–1338 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  31. X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. N. S. Averkiev, L. E. Golub, A. S. Gurevich, V. P. Evtikhiev, V. P. Kochereshko, A. V. Platonov, A. S. Shkolnik, and Y. P. Efimov, “Spin-relaxation anisotropy in asymmetrical (001) Alx Ga1−x As quantum wells from hanle-effect measurements: Relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033305 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. E. A. de Andrada e Silva, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, “Spin-split subbands and magneto-oscillations in III–V asymmetric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8523–8533 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  35. I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, C. Deparis, J. Massies, G. Neu, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Temperature dependence of the radiative and nonradiative recombination time in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3115–3124 (1991).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. D. Ganichev and L. E. Golub, “Interplay of Rashba/Dresselhaus spin splittings probed by photogalvanic spectroscopy - a review,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 251, 1801–1823 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. V. Durnev, M. M. Glazov, and E. L. Ivchenko, “Spin-orbit splitting of valence subbands in semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 075430 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, H. Ma, and L. P. Zhu, “Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quamtun wells and their behaviors under external strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 152110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, and H. Ma, “Room-temperature spin photocurrent spectra at interband excitation and comparison with reflectance-difference spectroscopy in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053519 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Tarasenko, “Direct current driven by ac electric field in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 035313 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, P. Tan, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, “Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. H. Bub, J. Rudolph, F. Natali, F. Semond, and D. Hagele, “Temperature dependence of electron spin relaxation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155216 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, R. T. Phillips, R. Winkler, M. Henini, and D. Taylor, “Rashba spin-splitting of electrons in asymmetric quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 045317 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Luo, A. N. Chantis, M. van Schilfgaarde, G. Bester, and A. Zunger, “Discovery of a novel linear-in-k spin splitting for holes in the 2d GaAs/AlAs system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

N. S. Averkiev and L. E. Golub, “Spin relaxation anisotropy: microscopic mechanisms for 2D systems,” Semi-cond. Sci. Tech. 23, 114002 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
[Crossref]

I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cho, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Photogalvanic effects for interband absorption in AlGaN/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041909 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 153–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cho, C. T. Liang, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Spin-dependent photocurrent induced by Rashba-type spin splitting in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085327 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. L. Yang, H. T. He, L. Ding, L. J. Cui, Y. P. Zeng, J. N. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “Spectral dependence of spin photocurrent and current-induced spin polarization in an InGaAs/InAlAs two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186605 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Averkiev, L. E. Golub, A. S. Gurevich, V. P. Evtikhiev, V. P. Kochereshko, A. V. Platonov, A. S. Shkolnik, and Y. P. Efimov, “Spin-relaxation anisotropy in asymmetrical (001) Alx Ga1−x As quantum wells from hanle-effect measurements: Relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033305 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

S. D. Ganichev and W. Prettl, “Spin photocurrents in quantum wells,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 15, R935–R983 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. E. Golub, “Spin-splitting-induced photogalvanic effect in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235320 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Cartoixa, D. Z. Y. Ting, and Y. C. Chang, “A resonant spin lifetime transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1462–1464 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. C. Hall, W. H. Lau, K. Gundogdu, M. E. Flatte, and T. F. Boggess, “Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2937–2939 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Nitta, T. Akazaki, H. Takayanagi, and T. Enoki, “Gate control of spin-orbit interaction in an inverted In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1335–1338 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

E. A. de Andrada e Silva, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, “Spin-split subbands and magneto-oscillations in III–V asymmetric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8523–8533 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, C. Deparis, J. Massies, G. Neu, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Temperature dependence of the radiative and nonradiative recombination time in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3115–3124 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Y. A. Bychkov and E. I. Rashba, “Oscillatory effects and the magnetic susceptibility of carriers in inversion layers,” J. Phys. C Sol. State Phys. 17, 6039 (1984).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

Y. S. Park and D. C. Reynolds, “Exciton structure in photoconductivity of CdS, CdSe, and CdS: Se single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2450–2457 (1963).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

G. Dresselhaus, “Spin-orbit coupling effects in zinc blende structures,” Phys. Rev. 100, 580–586 (1955).
[Crossref]

Akazaki, T.

J. Nitta, T. Akazaki, H. Takayanagi, and T. Enoki, “Gate control of spin-orbit interaction in an inverted In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1335–1338 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ashley, T.

M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averkiev, N. S.

N. S. Averkiev and L. E. Golub, “Spin relaxation anisotropy: microscopic mechanisms for 2D systems,” Semi-cond. Sci. Tech. 23, 114002 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. S. Averkiev, L. E. Golub, A. S. Gurevich, V. P. Evtikhiev, V. P. Kochereshko, A. V. Platonov, A. S. Shkolnik, and Y. P. Efimov, “Spin-relaxation anisotropy in asymmetrical (001) Alx Ga1−x As quantum wells from hanle-effect measurements: Relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Awschalom, D. D.

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 153–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Back, C.

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bassani, F.

E. A. de Andrada e Silva, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani, “Spin-split subbands and magneto-oscillations in III–V asymmetric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8523–8533 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bel’kov, V. V.

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bester, G.

J.-W. Luo, A. N. Chantis, M. van Schilfgaarde, G. Bester, and A. Zunger, “Discovery of a novel linear-in-k spin splitting for holes in the 2d GaAs/AlAs system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boggess, T. F.

K. C. Hall, W. H. Lau, K. Gundogdu, M. E. Flatte, and T. F. Boggess, “Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2937–2939 (2003).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosacchi, A.

M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, C. Deparis, J. Massies, G. Neu, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Temperature dependence of the radiative and nonradiative recombination time in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3115–3124 (1991).
[Crossref]

Branford, W. R.

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K. C. Hall, W. H. Lau, K. Gundogdu, M. E. Flatte, and T. F. Boggess, “Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2937–2939 (2003).
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C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
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L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
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J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
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Kaestner, B.

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
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P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
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I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
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N. S. Averkiev, L. E. Golub, A. S. Gurevich, V. P. Evtikhiev, V. P. Kochereshko, A. V. Platonov, A. S. Shkolnik, and Y. P. Efimov, “Spin-relaxation anisotropy in asymmetrical (001) Alx Ga1−x As quantum wells from hanle-effect measurements: Relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033305 (2006).
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P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, R. T. Phillips, R. Winkler, M. Henini, and D. Taylor, “Rashba spin-splitting of electrons in asymmetric quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 045317 (2010).
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P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
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M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
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M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
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P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, R. T. Phillips, R. Winkler, M. Henini, and D. Taylor, “Rashba spin-splitting of electrons in asymmetric quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 045317 (2010).
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P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
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Li, Y.

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, C. T.

K. S. Cho, C. T. Liang, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Spin-dependent photocurrent induced by Rashba-type spin splitting in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085327 (2007).
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M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
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C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
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J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, H. Ma, and L. P. Zhu, “Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quamtun wells and their behaviors under external strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 152110 (2012).
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J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, and H. Ma, “Room-temperature spin photocurrent spectra at interband excitation and comparison with reflectance-difference spectroscopy in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053519 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.-W.

J.-W. Luo, A. N. Chantis, M. van Schilfgaarde, G. Bester, and A. Zunger, “Discovery of a novel linear-in-k spin splitting for holes in the 2d GaAs/AlAs system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
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J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, H. Ma, and L. P. Zhu, “Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quamtun wells and their behaviors under external strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 152110 (2012).
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J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, and H. Ma, “Room-temperature spin photocurrent spectra at interband excitation and comparison with reflectance-difference spectroscopy in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053519 (2011).
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Massies, J.

M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, C. Deparis, J. Massies, G. Neu, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Temperature dependence of the radiative and nonradiative recombination time in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3115–3124 (1991).
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I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
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Murdin, B. N.

M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
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J. H. Bub, J. Rudolph, F. Natali, F. Semond, and D. Hagele, “Temperature dependence of electron spin relaxation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155216 (2010).
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Neu, G.

M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, C. Deparis, J. Massies, G. Neu, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Temperature dependence of the radiative and nonradiative recombination time in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3115–3124 (1991).
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Ni, H.

L. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, P. Tan, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, “Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1–5 (2011).
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Nitta, J.

J. Nitta, T. Akazaki, H. Takayanagi, and T. Enoki, “Gate control of spin-orbit interaction in an inverted In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1335–1338 (1997).
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Niu, Z.

L. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, P. Tan, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, “Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1–5 (2011).
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Novak, V.

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
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Oestreich, M.

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
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Park, B. G.

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
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Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park and D. C. Reynolds, “Exciton structure in photoconductivity of CdS, CdSe, and CdS: Se single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2450–2457 (1963).
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Phillips, R. T.

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, R. T. Phillips, R. Winkler, M. Henini, and D. Taylor, “Rashba spin-splitting of electrons in asymmetric quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 045317 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
[Crossref]

Pidgeon, C. R.

M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Platonov, A. V.

N. S. Averkiev, L. E. Golub, A. S. Gurevich, V. P. Evtikhiev, V. P. Kochereshko, A. V. Platonov, A. S. Shkolnik, and Y. P. Efimov, “Spin-relaxation anisotropy in asymmetrical (001) Alx Ga1−x As quantum wells from hanle-effect measurements: Relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Prettl, W.

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
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S. D. Ganichev and W. Prettl, “Spin photocurrents in quantum wells,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 15, R935–R983 (2003).
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V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Qin, X.

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
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Reynolds, D. C.

Y. S. Park and D. C. Reynolds, “Exciton structure in photoconductivity of CdS, CdSe, and CdS: Se single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2450–2457 (1963).
[Crossref]

Rohlfing, F.

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, J.

J. H. Bub, J. Rudolph, F. Natali, F. Semond, and D. Hagele, “Temperature dependence of electron spin relaxation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155216 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Salis, G.

M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schneider, P.

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schuh, D.

M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

Semond, F.

J. H. Bub, J. Rudolph, F. Natali, F. Semond, and D. Hagele, “Temperature dependence of electron spin relaxation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155216 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Cho, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Photogalvanic effects for interband absorption in AlGaN/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041909 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cho, C. T. Liang, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Spin-dependent photocurrent induced by Rashba-type spin splitting in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085327 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shimotani, H.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirokov, S. S.

I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shkolnik, A. S.

N. S. Averkiev, L. E. Golub, A. S. Gurevich, V. P. Evtikhiev, V. P. Kochereshko, A. V. Platonov, A. S. Shkolnik, and Y. P. Efimov, “Spin-relaxation anisotropy in asymmetrical (001) Alx Ga1−x As quantum wells from hanle-effect measurements: Relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033305 (2006).
[Crossref]

Siegenthaler, U.

M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sinova, J.

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stahl, J.

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

Subbotin, I. A.

I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takayanagi, H.

J. Nitta, T. Akazaki, H. Takayanagi, and T. Enoki, “Gate control of spin-orbit interaction in an inverted In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1335–1338 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tan, P.

L. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, P. Tan, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, “Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. G.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, N.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y. Q.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cho, C. T. Liang, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Spin-dependent photocurrent induced by Rashba-type spin splitting in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085327 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cho, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Photogalvanic effects for interband absorption in AlGaN/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tarasenko, S. A.

S. A. Tarasenko, “Direct current driven by ac electric field in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 035313 (2011).
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Taylor, D.

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, R. T. Phillips, R. Winkler, M. Henini, and D. Taylor, “Rashba spin-splitting of electrons in asymmetric quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 045317 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
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Ting, D. Z. Y.

X. Cartoixa, D. Z. Y. Ting, and Y. C. Chang, “A resonant spin lifetime transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1462–1464 (2003).
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van Schilfgaarde, M.

J.-W. Luo, A. N. Chantis, M. van Schilfgaarde, G. Bester, and A. Zunger, “Discovery of a novel linear-in-k spin splitting for holes in the 2d GaAs/AlAs system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasilvskii, I. S.

I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vinattieri, A.

M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, C. Deparis, J. Massies, G. Neu, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Temperature dependence of the radiative and nonradiative recombination time in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3115–3124 (1991).
[Crossref]

Walser, M. P.

M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. N.

C. L. Yang, H. T. He, L. Ding, L. J. Cui, Y. P. Zeng, J. N. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “Spectral dependence of spin photocurrent and current-induced spin polarization in an InGaAs/InAlAs two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186605 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. G.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wegscheider, W.

M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weiss, D.

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winkler, R.

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, R. T. Phillips, R. Winkler, M. Henini, and D. Taylor, “Rashba spin-splitting of electrons in asymmetric quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 045317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wunderlich, J.

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, F. J.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. L.

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. L.

C. L. Yang, H. T. He, L. Ding, L. J. Cui, Y. P. Zeng, J. N. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “Spectral dependence of spin photocurrent and current-induced spin polarization in an InGaAs/InAlAs two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186605 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. J.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yin, C.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, C. M.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. L.

J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, H. Ma, and L. P. Zhu, “Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quamtun wells and their behaviors under external strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 152110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, and H. Ma, “Room-temperature spin photocurrent spectra at interband excitation and comparison with reflectance-difference spectroscopy in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053519 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuan, H.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zarbo, L. P.

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y. P.

C. L. Yang, H. T. He, L. Ding, L. J. Cui, Y. P. Zeng, J. N. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “Spectral dependence of spin photocurrent and current-induced spin polarization in an InGaAs/InAlAs two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186605 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. Y.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

L. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, P. Tan, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, “Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. P.

J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, H. Ma, and L. P. Zhu, “Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quamtun wells and their behaviors under external strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 152110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

L. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, P. Tan, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, “Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zunger, A.

J.-W. Luo, A. N. Chantis, M. van Schilfgaarde, G. Bester, and A. Zunger, “Discovery of a novel linear-in-k spin splitting for holes in the 2d GaAs/AlAs system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

X. Cartoixa, D. Z. Y. Ting, and Y. C. Chang, “A resonant spin lifetime transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1462–1464 (2003).
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K. C. Hall, W. H. Lau, K. Gundogdu, M. E. Flatte, and T. F. Boggess, “Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2937–2939 (2003).
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K. S. Cho, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Photogalvanic effects for interband absorption in AlGaN/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041909 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, H. Ma, and L. P. Zhu, “Spectra of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in GaAs/AlGaAs quamtun wells and their behaviors under external strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 152110 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, J. Yu, H. Gao, H. Ma, X. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Wu, and Y. Chen, “Spin depolarization under low electric fields at low temperatures in undoped InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 152103 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. Q. Tang, N. Tang, C. M. Yin, F. J. Xu, Z. J. Yang, G. Y. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, C. G. Tang, and Z. G. Wang, “Circular photogalvanic effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−x N/GaN heterostructures under uniaxial strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071912 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. L. Yu, Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Jiang, Y. Liu, and H. Ma, “Room-temperature spin photocurrent spectra at interband excitation and comparison with reflectance-difference spectroscopy in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053519 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. C Sol. State Phys. (1)

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[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter. (2)

S. D. Ganichev and W. Prettl, “Spin photocurrents in quantum wells,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 15, R935–R983 (2003).
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M. A. Leontiadou, K. L. Litvinenko, A. M. Gilbertson, C. R. Pidgeon, W. R. Branford, L. F. Cohen, M. Fearn, T. Ashley, M. T. Emeny, B. N. Murdin, and S. K. Clowes, “Experimental determination of the Rashba coefficient in InSb/InAlSb quantum wells at zero magnetic field and elevated temperatures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 23, 035801 (2011).
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Nano Lett. (1)

C. Yin, H. Yuan, X. Wang, S. Liu, S. Zhang, N. Tang, F. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Shimotani, Y. Iwasa, Y. Chen, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN,” Nano Lett. 13, 2024–2029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

L. Han, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, P. Tan, H. Ni, and Z. Niu, “Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 153–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Wunderlich, A. C. Irvine, J. Sinova, B. G. Park, L. P. Zarbo, X. L. Xu, B. Kaestner, V. Novak, and T. Jungwirth, “Spin-injection hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Phys. 5, 675–681 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. (2)

G. Dresselhaus, “Spin-orbit coupling effects in zinc blende structures,” Phys. Rev. 100, 580–586 (1955).
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Phys. Rev. B (12)

S. A. Tarasenko, “Direct current driven by ac electric field in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 035313 (2011).
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P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008). PRB.
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M. Gurioli, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, C. Deparis, J. Massies, G. Neu, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Temperature dependence of the radiative and nonradiative recombination time in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3115–3124 (1991).
[Crossref]

N. S. Averkiev, L. E. Golub, A. S. Gurevich, V. P. Evtikhiev, V. P. Kochereshko, A. V. Platonov, A. S. Shkolnik, and Y. P. Efimov, “Spin-relaxation anisotropy in asymmetrical (001) Alx Ga1−x As quantum wells from hanle-effect measurements: Relative strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033305 (2006).
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M. V. Durnev, M. M. Glazov, and E. L. Ivchenko, “Spin-orbit splitting of valence subbands in semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 075430 (2014).
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J. H. Bub, J. Rudolph, F. Natali, F. Semond, and D. Hagele, “Temperature dependence of electron spin relaxation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155216 (2010).
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L. E. Golub, “Spin-splitting-induced photogalvanic effect in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235320 (2003).
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K. S. Cho, C. T. Liang, Y. F. Chen, Y. Q. Tang, and B. Shen, “Spin-dependent photocurrent induced by Rashba-type spin splitting in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085327 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Giglberger, L. E. Golub, V. V. Bel’kov, S. N. Danilov, D. Schuh, C. Gerl, F. Rohlfing, J. Stahl, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, W. Prettl, and S. D. Ganichev, “Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells measured by spin photocurrents,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 035327 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, R. T. Phillips, R. Winkler, M. Henini, and D. Taylor, “Rashba spin-splitting of electrons in asymmetric quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 045317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. P. Walser, U. Siegenthaler, V. Lechner, D. Schuh, S. D. Ganichev, W. Wegscheider, and G. Salis, “Dependence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction on the quantum well width,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 195309 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. D. Ganichev, V. V. Bel’kov, L. E. Golub, E. L. Ivchenko, P. Schneider, S. Giglberger, J. Eroms, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, W. Wegscheider, D. Weiss, and W. Prettl, “Experimental separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Yang, H. T. He, L. Ding, L. J. Cui, Y. P. Zeng, J. N. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “Spectral dependence of spin photocurrent and current-induced spin polarization in an InGaAs/InAlAs two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186605 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nitta, T. Akazaki, H. Takayanagi, and T. Enoki, “Gate control of spin-orbit interaction in an inverted In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1335–1338 (1997).
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J.-W. Luo, A. N. Chantis, M. van Schilfgaarde, G. Bester, and A. Zunger, “Discovery of a novel linear-in-k spin splitting for holes in the 2d GaAs/AlAs system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066405 (2010).
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Phys. Stat. Solidi B (1)

S. D. Ganichev and L. E. Golub, “Interplay of Rashba/Dresselhaus spin splittings probed by photogalvanic spectroscopy - a review,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 251, 1801–1823 (2014).
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N. S. Averkiev and L. E. Golub, “Spin relaxation anisotropy: microscopic mechanisms for 2D systems,” Semi-cond. Sci. Tech. 23, 114002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Semiconductors (1)

I. S. Vasilvskii, G. B. Galiev, E. A. Klimov, V. G. Mokerov, S. S. Shirokov, R. M. Imamov, and I. A. Subbotin, “Electrical and structural properties of PHEMT heterostructures based on AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs and δ-doped on two sides,” Semiconductors 42, 1084–1091 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sol. State Commun. (1)

V. V. Bel’kov, S. D. Ganichev, P. Schneider, C. Back, M. Oestreich, J. Rudolph, D. Hagele, L. E. Golub, W. Wegscheider, and W. Prettl, “Circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in semiconductor quantum wells,” Sol. State Commun. 128, 283–286 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Geometries used to measure the CPGE current induced by (a) Rashba- and (b) Dresselhaus-type SOC. (c) Microscopic picture of the origin of the CPGE current induced by inter-band excitation in C 2v point group samples taking into account the splitting of conduction and valence bands in k-space. The left-hand circularly polarized light σ + irradiating obliquely on the sample induces the transition from s=−3/2 heavy holes to s=−1/2 electrons, while the right-hand circularly polarized light σ with oblique incidence triggers the transition from s=3/2 heavy holes to s=1/2 electrons. Due to spin splitting and optical selection rules, the transitions mentioned above will lead to unbalanced occupation of carriers in momentum space resulting in a spin-polarized electric current.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 CPGE spectra induced by (a) Rashba- and (b) Dresselhaus-type SOC normalized by the power of the light at different temperatures ranging from 80 to 290 K.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temperature dependence of (a) RD ratio and (b) the ratio of I SIA and I PC for the transition of 1H1E (filled squares) and the calculated results of αe (filled circles). The inset of (b) shows the temperature dependence of τ 0.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = e α 0 F + a ε x y + f ( U ) .
I PC = e E N 0 S μ ,
I SIA = e α e G τ p P c S μ ,
I SIA I PC = α e τ p E τ 0 ,

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