Abstract

Ptychography is a coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) method for extended objects in which diffraction patterns are acquired sequentially from overlapping coherent illumination spots. The object’s complex transmission function can be reconstructed from those diffraction patterns at a spatial resolution limited only by the scattering strength of the object and the detector geometry. Most experiments to date have positioned the illumination spots on the sample using a move-settle-measure sequence in which the move and settle steps can take longer to complete than the measure step. We describe here the use of a continuous “fly-scan” mode for ptychographic data collection in which the sample is moved continuously, so that the experiment resembles one of integrating the diffraction patterns from multiple probe positions. This allows one to use multiple probe mode reconstruction methods to obtain an image of the object and also of the illumination function. We show in simulations, and in x-ray imaging experiments, some of the characteristics of fly-scan ptychography, including a factor of 25 reduction in the data acquisition time. This approach will become increasingly important as brighter x-ray sources are developed, such as diffraction limited storage rings.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (9)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, Jordi Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nature Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Farm, E. Harkonen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep..  4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H. C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menze, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eriksson, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Quitmann, “Diffraction-limited storage rings–a window to the science of tomorrow,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 837–842 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Continuous scanning mode for ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6066–6069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Clark, X. Huang, R. Harder, and I. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nashed, D. Vine, T. Peterka, J. Deng, R. Ross, and C. Jacobsen, “Parallel ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express 22, 32082–32097 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nature Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “Eiger: Next generation single photon counting detector for x-ray application,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 650, 79–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Lombi, M. D. Jonge, E. Donner, C. G. Ryan, and D. Paterson, “Trends in hard x-ray fluorescence mapping: environmental applications in the age of fast detectors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1637–1644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp and C. G. Schroer, “Dose requirements for resolving a given feature in an object by coherent x-ray diffraction imaging,” New J. Phys..  12, 035016 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Contrast mechanisms in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043813 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Maiden and J. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Flewett, H. M. Quiney, C. Q. Tran, and K. A. Nugent, “Extracting coherent modes from partially coherent wavefields,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2198–2200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, P. Kraft, C. Brönnimann, E. Eikenberry, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 474–478 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Podorov, K. M. Pavlov, and D. M. Paganin, “A non-iterative reconstruction method for direct and unambiguous coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 9954–9962 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

W. Hoppe, “Diffraction in inhomogeneous primary wave fields. 1. principle of phase determination from electron diffraction interference,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

J. Z. Young and F. Roberts, “A flying-spot microscope,” Nature 167, 231 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amemiya, Y.

Baines, S.

Bartels, M.

Bech, M.

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, P. Kraft, C. Brönnimann, E. Eikenberry, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 474–478 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschi, A.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “Eiger: Next generation single photon counting detector for x-ray application,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 650, 79–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berry, A.

Bolbat, M.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brister, K.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brönnimann, C.

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, P. Kraft, C. Brönnimann, E. Eikenberry, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 474–478 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Farm, E. Harkonen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep..  4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H. C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menze, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Contrast mechanisms in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043813 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, P. Kraft, C. Brönnimann, E. Eikenberry, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 474–478 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cabana, Jordi

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, Jordi Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nature Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Celestre, R.

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Y. Nashed, D. Vine, T. Peterka, J. Deng, R. Ross, and C. Jacobsen, “Parallel ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express 22, 32082–32097 (2014).
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C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H. C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menze, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
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[Crossref]

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “Eiger: Next generation single photon counting detector for x-ray application,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 650, 79–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Contrast mechanisms in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043813 (2009).
[Crossref]

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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, Jordi Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nature Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
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Trapp, D.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trtik, P.

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

van der Veen, J. F.

M. Eriksson, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Quitmann, “Diffraction-limited storage rings–a window to the science of tomorrow,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 837–842 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vine, D.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Nashed, D. Vine, T. Peterka, J. Deng, R. Ross, and C. Jacobsen, “Parallel ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express 22, 32082–32097 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vine, D. J.

Vogt, S.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, D. Pelliccia, C. Holzner, S. Baines, A. Berry, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, A. G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Simultaneous x-ray fluorescence and ptychographic microscopy of Cyclotella meneghiniana,” Opt. Express 20, 18287–18296 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Von Osinski, J.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Warwick, T.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, Jordi Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nature Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, A.

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wepf, R.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilke, R. N.

R. N. Wilke, M. Priebe, M. Bartels, K. Giewekemeyer, A. Diaz, P. Karvinen, and T. Salditt, “Hard X-ray imaging of bacterial cells: nano-diffraction and ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express 20, 19232–19254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).
[Crossref]

Woloschak, G.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, K.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nature Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. L.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, Jordi Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nature Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Young, J. Z.

J. Z. Young and F. Roberts, “A flying-spot microscope,” Nature 167, 231 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.-S.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, Jordi Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nature Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zettsu, N.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nature Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

W. Hoppe, “Diffraction in inhomogeneous primary wave fields. 1. principle of phase determination from electron diffraction interference,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 495–501 (1969).
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Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

E. Lombi, M. D. Jonge, E. Donner, C. G. Ryan, and D. Paterson, “Trends in hard x-ray fluorescence mapping: environmental applications in the age of fast detectors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1637–1644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Radiat. Isot. (1)

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, P. Kraft, C. Brönnimann, E. Eikenberry, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 474–478 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2)

M. Eriksson, J. F. van der Veen, and C. Quitmann, “Diffraction-limited storage rings–a window to the science of tomorrow,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 837–842 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Deng, Y. Yuan, C. Flachenecker, R. Mak, B. Hornberger, Q. Jin, D. Shu, B. Lai, J. Maser, C. Roehrig, T. Paunesku, S. Gleber, D. Vine, L. Finney, J. Von Osinski, M. Bolbat, I. Spink, Z. Chen, J. Steele, D. Trapp, J. Irwin, M. Feser, E. Snyder, K. Brister, C. Jacobsen, G. Woloschak, and S. Vogt, “The Bionanoprobe: hard x-ray fluorescence nanoprobe with cryogenic capabilities,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 66–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

J. Z. Young and F. Roberts, “A flying-spot microscope,” Nature 167, 231 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (2)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, Jordi Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nature Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nature Photon. 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

A. Schropp and C. G. Schroer, “Dose requirements for resolving a given feature in an object by coherent x-ray diffraction imaging,” New J. Phys..  12, 035016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A (1)

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “Eiger: Next generation single photon counting detector for x-ray application,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 650, 79–83 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H. C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menze, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Podorov, K. M. Pavlov, and D. M. Paganin, “A non-iterative reconstruction method for direct and unambiguous coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 9954–9962 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nashed, D. Vine, T. Peterka, J. Deng, R. Ross, and C. Jacobsen, “Parallel ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express 22, 32082–32097 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Inoue, Y. Shinohara, A. Watanabe, and Y. Amemiya, “Effect of shot noise on x-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20, 26878–26887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, D. Pelliccia, C. Holzner, S. Baines, A. Berry, I. McNulty, S. Vogt, A. G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Simultaneous x-ray fluorescence and ptychographic microscopy of Cyclotella meneghiniana,” Opt. Express 20, 18287–18296 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Wilke, M. Priebe, M. Bartels, K. Giewekemeyer, A. Diaz, P. Karvinen, and T. Salditt, “Hard X-ray imaging of bacterial cells: nano-diffraction and ptychographic reconstruction,” Opt. Express 20, 19232–19254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Contrast mechanisms in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043813 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
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J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clark, X. Huang, R. Harder, and I. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Farm, E. Harkonen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep..  4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (4)

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard x-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Maiden and J. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comparison of step-scan and fly-scan ptychography. In step-scan mode (a), the probe moves relative to the sample in a move-settle-acquire sequence, where no signal is collected during the move-settle overhead time to ; the diffraction pattern is then collected over an exposure time of te , after which the detector becomes inactive for a dead time td for data transfer. In fly-scan mode (b), the probe moves at a constant velocity to the sample while data is acquired over exposure times te followed by brief detector dead times td . Outlines of both step-scan and fly-scan total beam footprints (assuming a round coherent probe with a diameter d) are shown as insets, with s representing the probe motion distance corresponding to the per-flyscan-point acquisition time te . (c) The diffraction intensities measured for scanning the same region in the two scan modes. Speckle visibility is reduced in fly-scan mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of fly-scan diffraction patterns (Eq. (4); left) with the summed intensity of discrete step-scan diffraction patterns (Eq. (6); right). Data from the same region of an Au test pattern were acquired using 5.2 keV x-rays (Sec. 4). The illumination probe (produced by the focus of a Fresnel zone plate) was measured to have a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) size of 103 nm. In (a), a fly-scan diffraction (left) was acquired while the sample was continuously moving over a distance of s = 100 nm during a time of te = 400 ms; step-scan diffraction patterns were recorded at 10 discrete positions each with 10 nm step size and te = 40 ms exposure time within the same scan region as the fly scan, so that their sum as shown at right contains the same number of photons. In (b), a similar procedure was followed using s = 200 nm with te =800 sec for the fly scan, and 20 discrete positions each with 10 nm step size and te = 40 sec. The speckle visibility V (Eq. (7)) was analyzed on the regions bounded by white dash-line boxes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reconstructions of simulated data with different values of the fly-scan pixel size s relative to an Airy beam FWHM of d = 100 nm, indicated by s/d. The probe mode number N shown here is the number above which the error of reconstruction (Eq. (8)) doesn’t decrease further. The inset at each panel shows the expected (green box) and recovered (magenta box) footprint (∝ s) of beam on the sample. The expected footprint was obtained through Eq. (5), while the recovered footprint is the sum of intensities of the reconstructed probe modes. Each reconstruction ran for 500 iterations. The scale bar for the footprints (lower right magenta box) is 200 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Alternative scan geometries tested to overcome the limit of fly-scan pixel size s in fly-scan ptychography with a beam diameter d = 100 nm, indicated by s/d. In the doubled scan approach (a), two ptychographic fly scans are acquired with a horizontal displacement of s/2 between them. The probe intensity is halved in these two scans to yield equivalent intensity on the sample as in other fly scans. Images with high fidelity are obtained with s/d = 2.50, while scans with s/d = 3.00 also show good contrast and visibility though some light stripes appear on the image. In the offset scan approach (b), a single scan is acquired with a displacement between odd and even scan lines. In this case, scans with s/d = 2.50 show fairly good results, while some artifacts begin to appear when using s/d = 3.00. In all cases the vertical step size is 50 nm, the same as in aforementioned fly scans. The insets show the expected (green box) and recovered (magenta box) footprints of the beam on the sample. The scale bar for the footprints (lower right magenta box) is 200 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized error E 0 of the reconstructions (Eq. (8)), and required probe mode number N, for simulated data with different fly-scan pixel sizes s using a beam size of d = 100 nm. Shown here are the errors for the reconstructions of Fig. 3 (red), and also for the doubled scan mode of Fig. 4(a) (green) and the offset scan mode of Fig. 4(c) (blue). The black square markers show the probe mode number N needed for the convergence of the reconstruction with a specific s.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reconstruction results of step-scan ptychography. (a) Phase of the reconstructed complex transmission function of the gold test pattern. (b) Retrieved probe function, the horizontal line profile of which is shown in (c). The measured probe has a FWHM size of 103 nm, with a profile close to the expected Airy pattern (with d ≃ 100 nm) at higher intensities.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The improvement of fly-scan reconstruction quality using multiple probe modes. Shown here are the phases of reconstructed transmission function of a gold test pattern. Images (a)–(d) were reconstructed from the same fly-scan dataset with s/d ≃ 2.50 (assuming d ≃ 100 nm) by using 1, 5, 10 and 15 probe modes, respectively. The first 5 individual probe modes in (d) case are shown in (f), along with the summed intensity of the total 15 modes at right (revealing the scan footprint). Even with s/d = 2.50, the fly-scan reconstruction (d) is similar in quality to the step scan image (e).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental fly-scan ptychography reconstructions with different s using multiple probe modes, all with d ≃ 100 nm. The fly-scan datasets were acquired with the same vertical step size of 50 nm, but with different s/d in horizontal direction as indicated. N shows the probe mode number needed for the convergence of the reconstruction, which we found to be N=2, 3, 4, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 15 in correspondence with the increased values of s/d. The insets are the sum of intensities of reconstructed probes, which represent the beam footprint on the sample. The scale bar for the footprints is 200 nm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Power spectrum of the reconstruction results for different s/d, with d ≃ 100 nm. (a) 2D power spectrum of the images shown in Fig. 8. (b) Vertical azimuthal power spectrum analyzed on the white region (azimuthal angle 30°) shown in (a). (c) Horizontal azimuthal power spectrum on the green region (azimuthal angle 30°) shown in (a).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Fly-scan ptychography reconstructions (s/d =1.00 with d ≃ 100 nm) with different scan speed characterized by the per-fly-scan pixel collection time te = 200 msec (a), 100 msec (b), 50 msec (c), and 20 msec (d). (e) Azimuthally averaged power spectra of reconstructed images (a)–(d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters for fly-scan ptychography data recording. The field of view was the same (4 μm×3 μm) as in the step scan. The exposure time per frame was 100 ms, and the focused flux was of the order of 3 × 108 photons/s.

Equations (9)

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w step = t o + t d t e + t o + t d .
w fly = t d t e + t d ,
I j ( k ) = | [ ψ j ] | 2 = | [ P ( r ) O ( r + r j ) ] | 2 ,
I j ( k ) = | [ 0 t e P ( r v t ) O ( r + r j ) d t ] | 2 .
P = 0 t e | P ( r v t ) | 2 d t ,
I j ( k ) = n = 0 N 1 | [ P ( r n v Δ t ) O ( r + r j ) ] | 2 Δ t .
V = 1 M N 1 m = 1 M n = 1 N ( I m n 1 M N m = 1 M n = 1 N I m n ) 2 ( 1 M N m = 1 M n = 1 N I m n ) ,
E 0 = r | O ( r ) γ O f ( r ) | 2 r | O ( r ) | 2
γ = r O ( r ) O f * ( r ) r | O f ( r ) | 2 .

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