Abstract

In a passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser with large anomalous-dispersion, we experimentally demonstrate the formation of noise-like square-wave pulse, which shows quite different features from conventional dissipative soliton resonance (DSR). The corresponding temporal and spectral characteristics of a variety of operation states, including Q-switched mode-locking, continuous-wave mode-locking and Raman-induced noise-like pulse near the lasing threshold, are also investigated. Stable noise-like square-wave mode-locked pulses can be obtained at a fundamental repetition frequency of 195 kHz, with pulse packet duration tunable from 15 ns to 306 ns and per-pulse energy up to 200 nJ. By reducing the linear cavity loss, stable higher-order harmonic mode-locking had also been observed, with pulse duration ranging from 37 ns at the 21st order harmonic wave to 320 ns at the fundamental order. After propagating along a piece of long telecom fiber, the generated square-wave pulses do not show any obvious change, indicating that the generated noise-like square-wave pulse can be considered as high-energy pulse packet for some promising applications. These experimental results should shed some light on the further understanding of the mechanism and characteristics of noise-like square-wave pulses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

H. Lin, C. Guo, S. Ruan, and J. Yang, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped figure-eight fibre laser with tunable output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Mei, G. Chen, L. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Gu, B. Sun, and A. Wang, “Width and amplitude tunable square-wave pulse in dual-pump passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3235–3237 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

X. Li, X. Liu, X. Hu, L. Wang, H. Lu, Y. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Long-cavity passively mode-locked fiber ring laser with high-energy rectangular-shape pulses in anomalous dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3249–3251 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, and D. N. Maywar, “Optical square-wave clock generation based on an all-optical flip-flop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 489–491 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

X. Peng, B. Jordens, A. Hooper, B. W. Baird, W. Ren, L. Xu, and L. Sun, “Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 719324 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 033840 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5580–5584 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, and C. Lu, “Nanosecond square pulse generation in fiber lasers with normal dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 272(2), 431–434 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

1992 (2)

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, and M. N. Zervas, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring laser exploiting nonlinear polarization switching,” Opt. Commun. 92(1-3), 61–66 (1992).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, and D. N. Maywar, “Optical square-wave clock generation based on an all-optical flip-flop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 489–491 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aguilar, G.

Akhmediev, N.

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 033840 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ankiewicz, A.

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 033840 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Askins, C. G.

Baird, B. W.

X. Peng, B. Jordens, A. Hooper, B. W. Baird, W. Ren, L. Xu, and L. Sun, “Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 719324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brand, E.

Cai, Z. R.

Camacho-López, S.

Cao, W. J.

Chang, W.

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 033840 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Cheng, T. H.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, and C. Lu, “Nanosecond square pulse generation in fiber lasers with normal dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 272(2), 431–434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. C.

Dennis, M. L.

Duan, L.

Duling Iii, I. N.

Evans, R.

Feng, X. H.

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E. J.

Gu, C.

Guo, C.

H. Lin, C. Guo, S. Ruan, and J. Yang, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped figure-eight fibre laser with tunable output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hooper, A.

X. Peng, B. Jordens, A. Hooper, B. W. Baird, W. Ren, L. Xu, and L. Sun, “Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 719324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Horowitz, M.

Hu, X.

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jordens, B.

X. Peng, B. Jordens, A. Hooper, B. W. Baird, W. Ren, L. Xu, and L. Sun, “Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 719324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, A. M.

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, and D. N. Maywar, “Optical square-wave clock generation based on an all-optical flip-flop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 489–491 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

Keren, S.

Kwon, Y.

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

Levi, Y.

Levit, B.

Li, X.

Lin, C. H.

Lin, H.

H. Lin, C. Guo, S. Ruan, and J. Yang, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped figure-eight fibre laser with tunable output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z. B.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Lu, C.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, and C. Lu, “Nanosecond square pulse generation in fiber lasers with normal dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 272(2), 431–434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

Luo, A.

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z. C.

Mao, D.

Matsas, V. J.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, and M. N. Zervas, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring laser exploiting nonlinear polarization switching,” Opt. Commun. 92(1-3), 61–66 (1992).
[Crossref]

Maywar, D. N.

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, and D. N. Maywar, “Optical square-wave clock generation based on an all-optical flip-flop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 489–491 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mei, L.

Ming, H.

Newson, T. P.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, and M. N. Zervas, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring laser exploiting nonlinear polarization switching,” Opt. Commun. 92(1-3), 61–66 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ning, Q.

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ning, Q. Y.

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Wang, Q. Y. Ning, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2402–2407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

North, T.

Pan, C. L.

Peng, X.

X. Peng, B. Jordens, A. Hooper, B. W. Baird, W. Ren, L. Xu, and L. Sun, “Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 719324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Gutiérrez, F. G.

Putnam, M. A.

Ren, W.

X. Peng, B. Jordens, A. Hooper, B. W. Baird, W. Ren, L. Xu, and L. Sun, “Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 719324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rochette, M.

Ruan, S.

H. Lin, C. Guo, S. Ruan, and J. Yang, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped figure-eight fibre laser with tunable output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 033840 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

Sun, L.

X. Peng, B. Jordens, A. Hooper, B. W. Baird, W. Ren, L. Xu, and L. Sun, “Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 719324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5580–5584 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, and C. Lu, “Nanosecond square pulse generation in fiber lasers with normal dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 272(2), 431–434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vazquez-Zuniga, L. A.

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

Wang, C. L.

Wang, G.

Wang, L.

Wang, S. K.

Wang, Y.

Wu, X.

Xing, X. B.

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Xu, W.

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. C.

Yang, J.

H. Lin, C. Guo, S. Ruan, and J. Yang, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped figure-eight fibre laser with tunable output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085102 (2014).
[Crossref]

You, Y. J.

Zaytsev, A.

Zervas, M. N.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, and M. N. Zervas, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring laser exploiting nonlinear polarization switching,” Opt. Commun. 92(1-3), 61–66 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, L. M.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and L. M. Zhao, “Dissipative soliton resonance in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5580–5584 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, and C. Lu, “Nanosecond square pulse generation in fiber lasers with normal dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 272(2), 431–434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

Zheng, X.

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X. W.

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

X. W. Zheng, Z. C. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, Q. Y. Ning, M. Liu, X. H. Feng, X. B. Xing, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “High-energy noise-like rectangular pulse in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(4), 042701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Liu, X. Zheng, N. Zhao, Q. Ning, M. Liu, Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Generation of multiwavelength noise-like square-pulses in a fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(19), 1990–1993 (2014).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental schematic of the mode-locked fiber laser for square-wave pulse generation. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; SMF: single mode fiber; PC: polarization controller; PD-ISO: polarization-dependent isolator; OC: output coupler.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Temporal profiles for a variety of pulsed operating regimes at the lasing threshold. a: conventional solitons; b: Q-switched mode-locking square-wave pulses; c: continuous-wave mode-locking square-wave pulses; d: Raman-induced noise-like pulses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Corresponding output spectra for the various operating regimes at the lasing threshold, including the conventional mode-locked solitons (CS), Q-switched mode-locking square-wave pulses (QS ML square), continuous-wave mode-locking square-wave pulses (CW ML square) and Raman-induced noise-like pulses (Raman induced NL). Inset: zoomed spectrum of CS operating regime.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Corresponding autocorrelation traces for the various operating regimes at the lasing threshold, including the conventional mode-locked solitons (CS), Q-switched mode-locking square-wave pulses (QS ML square), and continuous-wave mode-locking square-wave pulses (CW ML square). Inset: corresponding autocorrelation traces under a small scanning range.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured square-wave pulse width and average output power as a function of the pump power.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Evolution of the single square-wave pulse under different pump powers.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 RF spectrum of the mode-locked noise-like square-wave pulses.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured output spectra at different pump powers.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Harmonic mode-locked square-wave pulse trains of different orders achieved at the same pump power of 805 mW.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 RF spectrum of the 21st order harmonic mode-locked square-wave pulses.

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