Abstract

Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (ErxSc2-xSiO5 and ErxSc2-xSi2O7) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF- sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. RBS, TEM, GIXD, and PL results show the presence of ErxSc2-xSiO5 with an emission peak at 1528 nm for annealing from 900 to 1100 °C, and ErxSc2-xSi2O7 with an emission peak at 1537 nm for higher annealing temperature. The PL intensity of the ErxSc2-xSi2O7 phase is five times stronger than that of the ErxSc2-xSiO5 phase at 1250 °C. From PLE and PL spectra of ErxSc2-xSi2O7 thin film, we schematically illustrate the Er3+ Stark energy levels of 4I13/2 to 4I15/2 manifolds due to the crystal field strength effect of Sc3+. Temperature-dependent PL of the ErxSc2-xSi2O7 phase exhibits a variation of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) from 1.1 to 2.3 nm. The narrow FWHM is due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+, which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of Sc silicate. A large excitation cross-section (σex) is equal to 3.0x10−20 cm2 at λex = 1527.6 nm.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

A. Najar, H. Omi, and T. Tawara, “Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

H. Omi, Y. Abe, M. Anagnosti, and T. Tawara, “Mixture formation of ErxYb2-xSi2O7 and ErxYb2-xO3 on Si for broadening the C-band in an optical amplifier,” AIP Advances 3(4), 042107 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Shakoor, P. Cardile, K. Welna, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, F. Priolo, and M. Galli, “Enhanced 1.54 μm emission in Y-Er disilicate thin films on silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10278–10288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Shin and M. Lee, “Reducing optical losses and energy-transfer upconversion in ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1801–1804 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, and R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

X. J. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Photoluminescence enhancement and high gain amplification of ErxY2−xSiO5 waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013506 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Suh, M. Lee, J. S. Chang, H. Lee, N. Park, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “Cooperative upconversion and optical gain in ion-beam sputter-deposited ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7724–7731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Trabelsi, R. Maâlej, M. Dammak, A. Lupei, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+ in Sc2O3 transparent ceramics,” J. Lumin. 130(6), 927–931 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. V. Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031107 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, N. Lorrain, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Er3+Doping conditions of planar porous silicon waveguides,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(3), 581–586 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Fabrication and characterization of Er silicates on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041906 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelengthinsensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13539–13546 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Najar, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, N. Lorrain, S. Haesaert, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Optical study of erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides,” Physica B 396(1), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. R. Stanek, K. J. McClennan, B. P. Uberuaga, and K. E. Sickafus, “Determining the site preference of trivalent dopants in bixbyite sesquioxides by atomic-scale simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(13), 134101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (6)

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, H. Elhouichet, N. Lorrain, and M. Oueslati, “Excitation mechanisms and localization sites of erbium-doped porous silicon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5808–5813 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, T. Kawaguchi, and T. Kimura, “The effect of annealing conditions on the crystallization of Er–Si–O formed by solid phase reaction,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 831–835 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Photo-detector with Self-ion Implantation Engineered Enhanced Infrared Response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Najar, J. Charrier, H. Ajlani, N. Lorrain, H. Elhouichet, M. Oueslati, and L. Hajim, “Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 245–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. D. Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. Antic-Fidancev, J. Holsa, and M. Lastusaari, “Crystal field strength in C-type cubic rare earth oxides,” J. Alloy. Comp. 341(1-2), 82–86 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, A. Polman, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Size-dependent electron-hole exchange interaction in Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 351–353 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, “Optical Properties of Si Nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(2), 871–932 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. Fornasiero, K. Petermann, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Er3+ in scandium silicates near 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater. 10(1), 9–17 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

F. Auzel and O. Malta, “A scalar crystal field strength parameter for rare-earth ions: meaning and usefulness,” J. Phys. 44(2), 201–206 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abe, Y.

H. Omi, Y. Abe, M. Anagnosti, and T. Tawara, “Mixture formation of ErxYb2-xSi2O7 and ErxYb2-xO3 on Si for broadening the C-band in an optical amplifier,” AIP Advances 3(4), 042107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ajlani, H.

A. Najar, N. Lorrain, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Er3+Doping conditions of planar porous silicon waveguides,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(3), 581–586 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, N. Lorrain, S. Haesaert, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Optical study of erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides,” Physica B 396(1), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, J. Charrier, H. Ajlani, N. Lorrain, H. Elhouichet, M. Oueslati, and L. Hajim, “Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 245–248 (2006).
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E. Antic-Fidancev, J. Holsa, and M. Lastusaari, “Crystal field strength in C-type cubic rare earth oxides,” J. Alloy. Comp. 341(1-2), 82–86 (2002).
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A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
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M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, A. Polman, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Size-dependent electron-hole exchange interaction in Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 351–353 (2000).
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A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, and R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
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S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. V. Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031107 (2009).
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N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
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J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
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Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
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Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13539–13546 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, J. D. B.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Photo-detector with Self-ion Implantation Engineered Enhanced Infrared Response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783 (2006).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, A. Polman, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Size-dependent electron-hole exchange interaction in Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 351–353 (2000).
[Crossref]

Buuren, T. V.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. V. Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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Cardile, P.

Chang, J. S.

Charrier, J.

A. Najar, N. Lorrain, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Er3+Doping conditions of planar porous silicon waveguides,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(3), 581–586 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, N. Lorrain, S. Haesaert, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Optical study of erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides,” Physica B 396(1), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, J. Charrier, H. Ajlani, N. Lorrain, H. Elhouichet, M. Oueslati, and L. Hajim, “Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 245–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. W.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

Cho, K. S.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

Dal Negro, L.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. V. Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031107 (2009).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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Daldosso, N.

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
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Dammak, M.

I. Trabelsi, R. Maâlej, M. Dammak, A. Lupei, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+ in Sc2O3 transparent ceramics,” J. Lumin. 130(6), 927–931 (2010).
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de Salvo, B.

Delacour, C.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dubinskii, M.

Elhouichet, H.

A. Najar, J. Charrier, H. Ajlani, N. Lorrain, H. Elhouichet, M. Oueslati, and L. Hajim, “Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 245–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, H. Elhouichet, N. Lorrain, and M. Oueslati, “Excitation mechanisms and localization sites of erbium-doped porous silicon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5808–5813 (2006).
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A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, and R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, A.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J. M.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
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Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, K. Petermann, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Er3+ in scandium silicates near 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater. 10(1), 9–17 (1998).
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D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. D. Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fromzel, V.

Galli, M.

Garcia, C.

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garrido, B.

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

Gotoh, H.

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gou, S. H.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Photo-detector with Self-ion Implantation Engineered Enhanced Infrared Response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gourbilleau, F.

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
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Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelengthinsensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
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Grosse, P.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, and R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haesaert, S.

A. Najar, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, N. Lorrain, S. Haesaert, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Optical study of erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides,” Physica B 396(1), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

Haji, L.

A. Najar, N. Lorrain, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Er3+Doping conditions of planar porous silicon waveguides,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(3), 581–586 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, N. Lorrain, S. Haesaert, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Optical study of erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides,” Physica B 396(1), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hajim, L.

A. Najar, J. Charrier, H. Ajlani, N. Lorrain, H. Elhouichet, M. Oueslati, and L. Hajim, “Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 245–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heckler, H.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, “Optical Properties of Si Nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(2), 871–932 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heumann, E.

L. Fornasiero, K. Petermann, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Er3+ in scandium silicates near 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater. 10(1), 9–17 (1998).
[Crossref]

Holsa, J.

E. Antic-Fidancev, J. Holsa, and M. Lastusaari, “Crystal field strength in C-type cubic rare earth oxides,” J. Alloy. Comp. 341(1-2), 82–86 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hozumi, T.

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

L. Fornasiero, K. Petermann, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Er3+ in scandium silicates near 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater. 10(1), 9–17 (1998).
[Crossref]

Iacona, F.

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. D. Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
[Crossref]

Isshiki, H.

X. J. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Photoluminescence enhancement and high gain amplification of ErxY2−xSiO5 waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013506 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Fabrication and characterization of Er silicates on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041906 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, T. Kawaguchi, and T. Kimura, “The effect of annealing conditions on the crystallization of Er–Si–O formed by solid phase reaction,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 831–835 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jessop, P. E.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Photo-detector with Self-ion Implantation Engineered Enhanced Infrared Response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jones, R.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13539–13546 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaji, R.

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamoun, M.

I. Trabelsi, R. Maâlej, M. Dammak, A. Lupei, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+ in Sc2O3 transparent ceramics,” J. Lumin. 130(6), 927–931 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, T.

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, T. Kawaguchi, and T. Kimura, “The effect of annealing conditions on the crystallization of Er–Si–O formed by solid phase reaction,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 831–835 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kenyon, A. J.

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kik, P. G.

M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, A. Polman, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Size-dependent electron-hole exchange interaction in Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 351–353 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-H.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-Y.

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

X. J. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Photoluminescence enhancement and high gain amplification of ErxY2−xSiO5 waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013506 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Fabrication and characterization of Er silicates on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041906 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, T. Kawaguchi, and T. Kimura, “The effect of annealing conditions on the crystallization of Er–Si–O formed by solid phase reaction,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 831–835 (2006).
[Crossref]

Knights, A. P.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Photo-detector with Self-ion Implantation Engineered Enhanced Infrared Response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783 (2006).
[Crossref]

Koch, B.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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Omi, H.

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A. Najar, N. Lorrain, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Er3+Doping conditions of planar porous silicon waveguides,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(3), 581–586 (2009).
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A. Najar, J. Charrier, H. Ajlani, N. Lorrain, H. Elhouichet, M. Oueslati, and L. Hajim, “Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 245–248 (2006).
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A. Najar, H. Elhouichet, N. Lorrain, and M. Oueslati, “Excitation mechanisms and localization sites of erbium-doped porous silicon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5808–5813 (2006).
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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
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Park, H.

Park, N.

Park, N.-M.

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N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
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D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, “Optical Properties of Si Nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(2), 871–932 (1999).
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Polman, A.

M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, A. Polman, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Size-dependent electron-hole exchange interaction in Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 351–353 (2000).
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Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Priolo, F.

Qin, G. G.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
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N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
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G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

Sada, C.

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
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Salvo, B.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
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T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
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Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakoor, A.

Shin, J. H.

J. H. Shin and M. Lee, “Reducing optical losses and energy-transfer upconversion in ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1801–1804 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Suh, M. Lee, J. S. Chang, H. Lee, N. Park, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “Cooperative upconversion and optical gain in ion-beam sputter-deposited ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7724–7731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sickafus, K. E.

C. R. Stanek, K. J. McClennan, B. P. Uberuaga, and K. E. Sickafus, “Determining the site preference of trivalent dopants in bixbyite sesquioxides by atomic-scale simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(13), 134101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sogawa, T.

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stanek, C. R.

C. R. Stanek, K. J. McClennan, B. P. Uberuaga, and K. E. Sickafus, “Determining the site preference of trivalent dopants in bixbyite sesquioxides by atomic-scale simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(13), 134101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Suh, K.

Sun, K.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Sung, G. Y.

K. Suh, M. Lee, J. S. Chang, H. Lee, N. Park, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “Cooperative upconversion and optical gain in ion-beam sputter-deposited ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7724–7731 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tawara, T.

A. Najar, H. Omi, and T. Tawara, “Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Omi, Y. Abe, M. Anagnosti, and T. Tawara, “Mixture formation of ErxYb2-xSi2O7 and ErxYb2-xO3 on Si for broadening the C-band in an optical amplifier,” AIP Advances 3(4), 042107 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

Trabelsi, I.

I. Trabelsi, R. Maâlej, M. Dammak, A. Lupei, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+ in Sc2O3 transparent ceramics,” J. Lumin. 130(6), 927–931 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uberuaga, B. P.

C. R. Stanek, K. J. McClennan, B. P. Uberuaga, and K. E. Sickafus, “Determining the site preference of trivalent dopants in bixbyite sesquioxides by atomic-scale simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(13), 134101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Urrios, D. N.

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelengthinsensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Q.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. M.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. J.

X. J. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Photoluminescence enhancement and high gain amplification of ErxY2−xSiO5 waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013506 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Fabrication and characterization of Er silicates on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Welna, K.

Wojdak, M.

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelengthinsensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W. J.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yerci, S.

S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. V. Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yin, T.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, G.

X. J. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Photoluminescence enhancement and high gain amplification of ErxY2−xSiO5 waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

X. J. Wang, G. Yuan, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Photoluminescence enhancement and high gain amplification of ErxY2−xSiO5 waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013506 (2010).
[Crossref]

AIP Advances (1)

H. Omi, Y. Abe, M. Anagnosti, and T. Tawara, “Mixture formation of ErxYb2-xSi2O7 and ErxYb2-xO3 on Si for broadening the C-band in an optical amplifier,” AIP Advances 3(4), 042107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
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M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, A. Polman, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Size-dependent electron-hole exchange interaction in Si nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 351–353 (2000).
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K. S. Cho, N.-M. Park, T.-Y. Kim, K.-H. Kim, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “High efficiency visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride using a transparent doping layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071909 (2005).
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S. Yerci, R. Li, S. O. Kucheyev, T. V. Buuren, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Energy transfer and 1.54 μm emission in amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031107 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Tawara, H. Omi, T. Hozumi, R. Kaji, S. Adachi, H. Gotoh, and T. Sogawa, “Population dynamics in epitaxial Er2O3 thin films grown on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241918 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wang, T. Nakajima, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Fabrication and characterization of Er silicates on SiO2/Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

A. Najar, N. Lorrain, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Er3+Doping conditions of planar porous silicon waveguides,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(3), 581–586 (2009).
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A. Najar, H. Elhouichet, N. Lorrain, and M. Oueslati, “Excitation mechanisms and localization sites of erbium-doped porous silicon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(16), 5808–5813 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Daldosso, D. N. Urrios, M. Melchiorri, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, C. Sada, G. Battaglin, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and L. Pavesi, “Er-coupled Si nanocluster waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1607–1617 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. H. Shin and M. Lee, “Reducing optical losses and energy-transfer upconversion in ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1801–1804 (2013).
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J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

E. Antic-Fidancev, J. Holsa, and M. Lastusaari, “Crystal field strength in C-type cubic rare earth oxides,” J. Alloy. Comp. 341(1-2), 82–86 (2002).
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[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (2)

A. Najar, J. Charrier, H. Ajlani, N. Lorrain, H. Elhouichet, M. Oueslati, and L. Hajim, “Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides,” J. Lumin. 121(2), 245–248 (2006).
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I. Trabelsi, R. Maâlej, M. Dammak, A. Lupei, and M. Kamoun, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+ in Sc2O3 transparent ceramics,” J. Lumin. 130(6), 927–931 (2010).
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F. Auzel and O. Malta, “A scalar crystal field strength parameter for rare-earth ions: meaning and usefulness,” J. Phys. 44(2), 201–206 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 µm photo- and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Photo-detector with Self-ion Implantation Engineered Enhanced Infrared Response,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24(3), 783 (2006).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

A. Najar, H. Omi, and T. Tawara, “Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelengthinsensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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Opt. Express (7)

K. Suh, M. Lee, J. S. Chang, H. Lee, N. Park, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “Cooperative upconversion and optical gain in ion-beam sputter-deposited ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7724–7731 (2010).
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M. Miritello, P. Cardile, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Energy transfer and enhanced 1.54 μm emission in Erbium-Ytterbium disilicate thin films,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20761–20772 (2011).
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R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Shakoor, P. Cardile, K. Welna, L. C. Andreani, D. Gerace, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, F. Priolo, and M. Galli, “Enhanced 1.54 μm emission in Y-Er disilicate thin films on silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10278–10288 (2013).
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T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
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H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13539–13546 (2007).
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A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, and R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (2)

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K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, T. Kawaguchi, and T. Kimura, “The effect of annealing conditions on the crystallization of Er–Si–O formed by solid phase reaction,” Opt. Mater. 28(6-7), 831–835 (2006).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

C. R. Stanek, K. J. McClennan, B. P. Uberuaga, and K. E. Sickafus, “Determining the site preference of trivalent dopants in bixbyite sesquioxides by atomic-scale simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(13), 134101 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
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Physica B (1)

A. Najar, H. Ajlani, J. Charrier, N. Lorrain, S. Haesaert, M. Oueslati, and L. Haji, “Optical study of erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides,” Physica B 396(1), 145–149 (2007).
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Other (1)

A. Najar, T. Tawara, and H. Omi, “Structural characterization and luminescence properties of ErxSc2-xSi2O7 prepared by RF sputtering,” in CLEO: Application and technology, paper JW2A. 61 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 RBS signal of as-grown and after annealing at 1100 and 1250 °C for 1 h in O2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The fabricated structure. (b)-(c) and (d) cross-sectional TEM images after deposition and after annealing at 1100 and 1250 °C, respectively, with SAED images in insets.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 GIXD profiles obtained from samples after deposition and after annealing at 1100 and 1250 °C for 1 h in O2, with the Joint Commission for Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) corresponding to the different compound.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PL spectra at room temperature obtained from the sample annealed from 900 to 1250 °C with λex = 980 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) PLE color plot measured at 4 K obtained from the sample annealed at 1250 °C. (b) PLE and PL spectra at 4K.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic illustration of main optical transitions of Er3+ in ErxSc2-xSi2O7. The observed absorption and emission transitions are indicated in red and blue, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variation of FWHM at 1537 nm as a function of temperature. Inset shows temperature dependent PL spectra of ErxSc2-xSi2O7 for λex = 1527.6 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Integrated PL intensity as a function of excitation power at 1527.6 nm.

Equations (2)

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N V = [ k,q 4π 2k+1 ( B q k ) 2 ] 1 2
I PL = I PLmax 1+ hc τ 1 σ ex p ex λ ex

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