Abstract

The band-to-band absorption enhancement due to various types of light trapping structures is studied experimentally with photoluminescence (PL) on monocrystalline silicon wafers. Four basic light trapping structures are examined: reactive ion etched texture (RIE), metal-assisted etched texture (MET), random pyramid texture (RAN) and plasmonic Ag nanoparticles with a diffusive reflector (Ag/DR). We also compare two novel combined structures of front side RIE/rear side RAN and front side RIE/rear side Ag/DR. The use of photoluminescence allows us to measure the absorption due to band-to-band transitions only, and excludes parasitic absorption from free carriers and other sources. The measured absorptance spectra are used to calculate the maximum generation current for each structure, and the light trapping efficiency is compared to a recently-proposed figure of merit. The results show that by combining RIE with RAN and Ag/DR, we can fabricate two structures with excellent light trapping efficiencies of 55% and 52% respectively, which is well above previously reported values for similar wafer thicknesses. A comparison of the measured band-band absorption and the EQE of back-contact silicon solar cells demonstrates that PL extracted absorption provides a very good indication of long wavelength performance for high efficiency silicon solar cells.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1981), pp. 867–870.
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    [Crossref]
  5. U. Rau, U. W. Paetzold, and T. Kirchartz, “Thermodynamics of light management in photovoltaic devices,” Phys. Rev. B 90(3), 035211 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Barugkin, Y. Wan, D. Macdonald, and K. R. Catchpole, “Evaluating plasmonic light trapping with photoluminescence,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1292–1297 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Daub and P. Würfel, “Ultralow values of the absorption coefficient of Si obtained from luminescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(6), 1020–1023 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. Wurfel, “The chemical potential of radiation,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15(18), 3967–3985 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Trupke, E. Daub, and P. Würfel, “Absorptivity of silicon solar cells obtained from luminescence,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 53(1–2), 103–114 (1998).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. M. A. Green, “Analytical expressions for spectral composition of band photoluminescence from silicon wafers and bricks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131112 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, and U. Rau, “Note on the interpretation of electroluminescence images using their spectral information,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1621–1627 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  21. C. Barugkin, N. S. Zin, and K. R. Catchpole, “Photoluminescence enhancement towards high efficiency plasmonic solar cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 0025–0028.
    [Crossref]
  22. U. Rau, “Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electroluminescent emission of solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085303 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Experimental demonstration of 4n2 classical absorption limit in nanotextured ultrathin solar cells with dielectric omnidirectional back reflector,” ACS Photon. 1(3), 270–278 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

U. Rau, U. W. Paetzold, and T. Kirchartz, “Thermodynamics of light management in photovoltaic devices,” Phys. Rev. B 90(3), 035211 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Schuster, A. Bozzola, L. C. Andreani, and T. F. Krauss, “How to assess light trapping structures versus a Lambertian Scatterer for solar cells?” Opt. Express 22(5Suppl 2), A542–A551 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. K. Chong, K. Weber, K. Booker, and A. Blakers, “Optical and electronic properties of MAE textured nanoporous silicon,” Energy Procedia 55(0), 762–768 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Experimental demonstration of 4n2 classical absorption limit in nanotextured ultrathin solar cells with dielectric omnidirectional back reflector,” ACS Photon. 1(3), 270–278 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Barugkin, Y. Wan, D. Macdonald, and K. R. Catchpole, “Evaluating plasmonic light trapping with photoluminescence,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1292–1297 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. A. Green, “Analytical expressions for spectral composition of band photoluminescence from silicon wafers and bricks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, and U. Rau, “Note on the interpretation of electroluminescence images using their spectral information,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1621–1627 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Rüdiger, T. Trupke, P. Würfel, T. Roth, and S. W. Glunz, “Influence of photon reabsorption on temperature dependent quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements on crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 222112 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. Rau, “Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electroluminescent emission of solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085303 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Trupke, E. Daub, and P. Würfel, “Absorptivity of silicon solar cells obtained from luminescence,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 53(1–2), 103–114 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

E. Daub and P. Würfel, “Ultralow values of the absorption coefficient of Si obtained from luminescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(6), 1020–1023 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (3)

P. Wurfel, “The chemical potential of radiation,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15(18), 3967–3985 (1982).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[Crossref]

Aberle, A. G.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

Ballif, C.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barugkin, C.

C. Barugkin, Y. Wan, D. Macdonald, and K. R. Catchpole, “Evaluating plasmonic light trapping with photoluminescence,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1292–1297 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Barugkin, N. S. Zin, and K. R. Catchpole, “Photoluminescence enhancement towards high efficiency plasmonic solar cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 0025–0028.
[Crossref]

Blakers, A.

T. K. Chong, K. Weber, K. Booker, and A. Blakers, “Optical and electronic properties of MAE textured nanoporous silicon,” Energy Procedia 55(0), 762–768 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Booker, K.

T. K. Chong, K. Weber, K. Booker, and A. Blakers, “Optical and electronic properties of MAE textured nanoporous silicon,” Energy Procedia 55(0), 762–768 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bothe, K.

C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bozzola, A.

Brendel, R.

C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bugnon, G.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Catchpole, K. R.

C. Barugkin, Y. Wan, D. Macdonald, and K. R. Catchpole, “Evaluating plasmonic light trapping with photoluminescence,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1292–1297 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Barugkin, N. S. Zin, and K. R. Catchpole, “Photoluminescence enhancement towards high efficiency plasmonic solar cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 0025–0028.
[Crossref]

Chaumartin, A.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chong, T. K.

T. K. Chong, K. Weber, K. Booker, and A. Blakers, “Optical and electronic properties of MAE textured nanoporous silicon,” Energy Procedia 55(0), 762–768 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

Daub, E.

T. Trupke, E. Daub, and P. Würfel, “Absorptivity of silicon solar cells obtained from luminescence,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 53(1–2), 103–114 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Daub and P. Würfel, “Ultralow values of the absorption coefficient of Si obtained from luminescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(6), 1020–1023 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fave, A.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fejfar, A.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Franklin, E.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ganzerová, K.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Glunz, S. W.

M. Rüdiger, T. Trupke, P. Würfel, T. Roth, and S. W. Glunz, “Influence of photon reabsorption on temperature dependent quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements on crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 222112 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1981), pp. 867–870.

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Analytical expressions for spectral composition of band photoluminescence from silicon wafers and bricks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[Crossref]

Helbig, A.

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, and U. Rau, “Note on the interpretation of electroluminescence images using their spectral information,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1621–1627 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hinken, D.

C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ingenito, A.

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Experimental demonstration of 4n2 classical absorption limit in nanotextured ultrathin solar cells with dielectric omnidirectional back reflector,” ACS Photon. 1(3), 270–278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Isabella, O.

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Experimental demonstration of 4n2 classical absorption limit in nanotextured ultrathin solar cells with dielectric omnidirectional back reflector,” ACS Photon. 1(3), 270–278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, A.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kho, T.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kirchartz, T.

U. Rau, U. W. Paetzold, and T. Kirchartz, “Thermodynamics of light management in photovoltaic devices,” Phys. Rev. B 90(3), 035211 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, and U. Rau, “Note on the interpretation of electroluminescence images using their spectral information,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1621–1627 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kraiem, J.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

Ledinský, M.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lelievre, J. F.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lemiti, M.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Macdonald, D.

C. Barugkin, Y. Wan, D. Macdonald, and K. R. Catchpole, “Evaluating plasmonic light trapping with photoluminescence,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1292–1297 (2013).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, K.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meillaud, F.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moulin, E.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mueller, T.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nichiporuk, O.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paetzold, U. W.

U. Rau, U. W. Paetzold, and T. Kirchartz, “Thermodynamics of light management in photovoltaic devices,” Phys. Rev. B 90(3), 035211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Papet, P.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

Puzzer, T.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rau, U.

U. Rau, U. W. Paetzold, and T. Kirchartz, “Thermodynamics of light management in photovoltaic devices,” Phys. Rev. B 90(3), 035211 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, and U. Rau, “Note on the interpretation of electroluminescence images using their spectral information,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1621–1627 (2008).
[Crossref]

U. Rau, “Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electroluminescent emission of solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reetz, W.

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reuter, M.

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roth, T.

M. Rüdiger, T. Trupke, P. Würfel, T. Roth, and S. W. Glunz, “Influence of photon reabsorption on temperature dependent quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements on crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 222112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rozier, Y.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rüdiger, M.

M. Rüdiger, T. Trupke, P. Würfel, T. Roth, and S. W. Glunz, “Influence of photon reabsorption on temperature dependent quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements on crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 222112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schäffer, E.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schinke, C.

C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, J.

C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schuster, C. S.

Trupke, T.

M. Rüdiger, T. Trupke, P. Würfel, T. Roth, and S. W. Glunz, “Influence of photon reabsorption on temperature dependent quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements on crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 222112 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, E. Daub, and P. Würfel, “Absorptivity of silicon solar cells obtained from luminescence,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 53(1–2), 103–114 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vetushka, A.

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wan, Y.

C. Barugkin, Y. Wan, D. Macdonald, and K. R. Catchpole, “Evaluating plasmonic light trapping with photoluminescence,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1292–1297 (2013).
[Crossref]

Warta, W.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weber, K.

T. K. Chong, K. Weber, K. Booker, and A. Blakers, “Optical and electronic properties of MAE textured nanoporous silicon,” Energy Procedia 55(0), 762–768 (2014).
[Crossref]

Werner, J. H.

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wong, J.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wurfel, P.

P. Wurfel, “The chemical potential of radiation,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15(18), 3967–3985 (1982).
[Crossref]

Würfel, P.

M. Rüdiger, T. Trupke, P. Würfel, T. Roth, and S. W. Glunz, “Influence of photon reabsorption on temperature dependent quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements on crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 222112 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, E. Daub, and P. Würfel, “Absorptivity of silicon solar cells obtained from luminescence,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 53(1–2), 103–114 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Daub and P. Würfel, “Ultralow values of the absorption coefficient of Si obtained from luminescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(6), 1020–1023 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeman, M.

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Experimental demonstration of 4n2 classical absorption limit in nanotextured ultrathin solar cells with dielectric omnidirectional back reflector,” ACS Photon. 1(3), 270–278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zin, N.

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zin, N. S.

C. Barugkin, N. S. Zin, and K. R. Catchpole, “Photoluminescence enhancement towards high efficiency plasmonic solar cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 0025–0028.
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Experimental demonstration of 4n2 classical absorption limit in nanotextured ultrathin solar cells with dielectric omnidirectional back reflector,” ACS Photon. 1(3), 270–278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Ledinský, E. Moulin, G. Bugnon, K. Ganzerová, A. Vetushka, F. Meillaud, A. Fejfar, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Rüdiger, T. Trupke, P. Würfel, T. Roth, and S. W. Glunz, “Influence of photon reabsorption on temperature dependent quasi-steady-state photoluminescence lifetime measurements on crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 222112 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, “Analytical expressions for spectral composition of band photoluminescence from silicon wafers and bricks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Energy Procedia (2)

T. K. Chong, K. Weber, K. Booker, and A. Blakers, “Optical and electronic properties of MAE textured nanoporous silicon,” Energy Procedia 55(0), 762–768 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Zin, A. Blakers, E. Franklin, T. Kho, K. McIntosh, J. Wong, T. Mueller, A. G. Aberle, Y. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, and Q. Huang, “Progress in the development of all-back-contacted silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 25, 1–9 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovolt. (2)

C. Schinke, D. Hinken, J. Schmidt, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel, “Modeling the spectral luminescence emission of silicon solar cells and wafers,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(3), 1038–1052 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Barugkin, Y. Wan, D. Macdonald, and K. R. Catchpole, “Evaluating plasmonic light trapping with photoluminescence,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(4), 1292–1297 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. (1)

P. Wurfel, “The chemical potential of radiation,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 15(18), 3967–3985 (1982).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

U. Rau, “Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electroluminescent emission of solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 76(8), 085303 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. Rau, U. W. Paetzold, and T. Kirchartz, “Thermodynamics of light management in photovoltaic devices,” Phys. Rev. B 90(3), 035211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Daub and P. Würfel, “Ultralow values of the absorption coefficient of Si obtained from luminescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(6), 1020–1023 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

T. Kirchartz and U. Rau, “Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(12), 2737–2751 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, W. Reetz, M. Reuter, J. H. Werner, and U. Rau, “Reciprocity between electroluminescence and quantum efficiency used for the characterization of silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(6), 394–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

T. Trupke, E. Daub, and P. Würfel, “Absorptivity of silicon solar cells obtained from luminescence,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 53(1–2), 103–114 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, A. Helbig, and U. Rau, “Note on the interpretation of electroluminescence images using their spectral information,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1621–1627 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J. F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(15), 2319–2328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

C. Barugkin, N. S. Zin, and K. R. Catchpole, “Photoluminescence enhancement towards high efficiency plasmonic solar cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 0025–0028.
[Crossref]

T. Allen, J. Bullock, A. Cuevas, S. Baker-Finch, and F. Karouta, “Reactive ion etched black silicon texturing: A comparative study,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 0562–0566.
[Crossref]

A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1981), pp. 867–870.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of double side textured silicon wafer and SEM images of various types of texture structures: (1) metal-assisted etched texture (side view); (2) reactive ion etched texture (angle view); (3) random pyramid texture (side view) and (4) plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on silicon wafers (top view).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the system set-up for photoluminescence measurement.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (Right Y-axis) Photoluminescence spectra of a planar silicon wafer and the RIE/RAN sample as a function of wavelength. (Left Y-axis) The absorptivity of the two samples extracted from the PL spectra.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 External quantum efficiency (EQE, blue line) and spectrophotometer measured (R&T) absorptance (triangles), PL extracted absorptance (circles) of a back contact silicon solar cell.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a): Absorptance of wafers with various light trapping structures measured with a spectrophotometer. (b): Band-to-band absorptance extracted from photoluminescence spectra of wafers with different light trapping structures.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Light trapping efficiency of RIE only (orange downward triangle), RIE/RAN (red star) and RIE-Ag/DR (green upward triangle) on silicon wafers using the LTE figure of merit introduced by Schuster [16]. The blue colored circle, diamond and cross are LTE of solar cells calculated from the data from [15].

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I PL (ω)=Cexp( ε F.C ε F.V kT ) A BB * (ω) 2 exp( ω kT )d(ω)
J sc = λ 1 λ 2 q A BB ( λ )Φ( λ )d( λ )
LTE= J max    J ref J Lam    J MB

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