Abstract

We investigate the performance degradation mechanism of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells under bias voltage in air and nitrogen atmospheres using photoluminescence and electroluminescence techniques. When applying forward bias, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells decreased significantly in air, but showed no degradation in nitrogen atmosphere. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on these devices revealed that the application of forward bias in air accelerates the generation of non-radiative recombination centers in the perovskite layer buried in the device. We found a negative correlation between the electroluminescence intensity and the injected current intensity in air. The irreversible change of the perovskite grain surface in air initiates the degradation of the perovskite solar cells.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Yamada, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Spontaneous defect annihilation in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 482–486 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. A. Christians, P. A. Miranda Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the excited state and photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon controlled exposure to humidified air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled humidity environments using in situ techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  37. H.-S. Kim and N.-G. Park, “Parameters affecting I–V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(17), 2927–2934 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (17)

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Spontaneous defect annihilation in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 482–486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Christians, P. A. Miranda Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the excited state and photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon controlled exposure to humidified air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled humidity environments using in situ techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (11)

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photocarrier recombination dynamics in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 for solar cell applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(33), 11610–11613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Kim and N.-G. Park, “Parameters affecting I–V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(17), 2927–2934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abate, A.

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdellah, M.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adinolfi, V.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aharon, S.

R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiyama, H.

M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alarousu, E.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alcocer, M. J. P.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso, M. I.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Azarhoosh, P.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bakr, O. M.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ball, J. M.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, P. R. F.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bastiani, M. D.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bein, T.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, C.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowring, A. R.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buin, A.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burschka, J.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campoy-Quiles, M.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chabera, P.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.-H.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christians, J. A.

J. A. Christians, P. A. Miranda Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the excited state and photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon controlled exposure to humidified air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comin, R.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Credgington, D.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Bastiani, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Wolf, S.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deleporte, E.

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deschler, F.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Docampo, P.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Q.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, L.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dowben, P. A.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, H.-S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, M.

M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Spontaneous defect annihilation in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 482–486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photocarrier recombination dynamics in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 for solar cell applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(33), 11610–11613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eperon, G. E.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Etgar, L.

R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Even, J.

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.

Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grancini, G.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grätzel, M.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruverman, A.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, L.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanusch, F.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harlang, T.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayase, S.

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heo, J. H.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herz, L. M.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
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Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
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S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
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Hong, Z.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
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L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
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A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
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Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
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Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
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J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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Im, S. H.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
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Islam, A.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
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W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
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Jiang, T.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
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M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
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Kamat, P. V.

J. A. Christians, P. A. Miranda Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the excited state and photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon controlled exposure to humidified air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
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Kanemitsu, Y.

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
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Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
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Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
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Y. Yamada, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Spontaneous defect annihilation in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 482–486 (2015).
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M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
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Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
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Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photocarrier recombination dynamics in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 for solar cell applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(33), 11610–11613 (2014).
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Katan, C.

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
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Katsiev, K.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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Katz, E. A.

R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
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Kelly, T. L.

J. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled humidity environments using in situ techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
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Kepenekian, M.

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
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Kim, H.-S.

H.-S. Kim and N.-G. Park, “Parameters affecting I–V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(17), 2927–2934 (2014).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. C.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
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Kojima, A.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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Lai, M. L.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, Y. M.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
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Lauret, J.-S.

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
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Ledinsky, M.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-R.

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-B.

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. M.

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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Leguy, A. M. A.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leijtens, T.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leijtens, T. C.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S. S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

J. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled humidity environments using in situ techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löper, P.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Losovyj, Y.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lv, X.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandal, T. N.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchioro, A.

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martino, N.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, N.

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
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Mathews, N.

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T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
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S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
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Mhaisalkar, S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
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J. A. Christians, P. A. Miranda Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the excited state and photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon controlled exposure to humidified air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
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R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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Moon, S.-J.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
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J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
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Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
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A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
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Nakaike, Y.

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
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Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
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Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
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Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photocarrier recombination dynamics in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 for solar cell applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(33), 11610–11613 (2014).
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Nazeeruddin, M. K.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
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S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
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Nishimura, H.

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
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W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogomi, Y.

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
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M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
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H.-S. Kim and N.-G. Park, “Parameters affecting I–V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(17), 2927–2934 (2014).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pascher, T.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
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Pathak, S.

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
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Pazos, L. M.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedesseau, L.

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pellet, N.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, W.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Petrozza, A.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phuong, Q.

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponseca, C. S.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, M.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pullerits, T.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, C.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothenberger, A.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, S.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadhanala, A.

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saliba, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sapori, D.

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasamori, T.

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Savenije, T. J.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seok, S. I.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, G.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, Y.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, P.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, D.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirai, Y.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siempelkamp, B. D.

J. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled humidity environments using in situ techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
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T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
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Snaith, H. J.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
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Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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Song, H.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
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Song, T.-B.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
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S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
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Sum, T. C.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
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Sun, S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
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Sundström, V.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teshima, K.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teuscher, J.

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokitoh, N.

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
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van Schilfgaarde, M.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
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R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
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T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
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Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Spontaneous defect annihilation in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 482–486 (2015).
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M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photocarrier recombination dynamics in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 for solar cell applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(33), 11610–11613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, O. J.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weller, M. T.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wojciechowski, K.

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J.-P.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Z.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, G.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, Y.

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Spontaneous defect annihilation in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 482–486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photocarrier recombination dynamics in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 for solar cell applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(33), 11610–11613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled humidity environments using in situ techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W. S.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
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W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. M.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yartsev, A.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuda, T.

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoshita, M.

M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
[Crossref]

You, J.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, M.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
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J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, K.

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

L. Hu, G. Shao, T. Jiang, D. Li, X. Lv, H. Wang, X. Liu, H. Song, J. Tang, and H. Liu, “Investigation of the interaction between perovskite films with moisture via in situ electrical resistance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25113–25120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 degradation rates and mechanisms in controlled humidity environments using in situ techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Electron. Mater. (1)

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, H. Nishimura, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Fast free-carrier diffusion in CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals revealed by time-resolved one- and two-photon excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(3), 1500290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

T. Leijtens, E. T. Hoke, G. Grancini, D. J. Slotcavage, G. E. Eperon, J. M. Ball, M. D. Bastiani, A. R. Bowring, N. Martino, K. Wojciechowski, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Mapping electric field-induced switchable poling and structural degradation in hybrid lead halide perovskite thin films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(20), 1500962 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

M. Okano, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Degradation mechanism of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 diode devices studied by electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(10), 102302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Near-band-edge optical responses of solution-processed organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(3), 032302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Lett. (1)

A. Wakamiya, M. Endo, T. Sasamori, N. Tokitoh, Y. Ogomi, S. Hayase, and Y. Murata, “Reproducible fabrication of efficient perovskite-based solar cells: X-ray crystallographic studies on the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 layers,” Chem. Lett. 43(5), 711–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in films, single crystals, and solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

J. Liu, Y. Wu, C. Qin, X. Yang, T. Yasuda, A. Islam, K. Zhang, W. Peng, W. Chen, and L. Han, “A dopant-free hole-transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2963–2967 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photoelectronic responses in solution-processed perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by photoluminescence and photoabsorption spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 401–405 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (5)

C. S. Ponseca, T. J. Savenije, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, A. Yartsev, T. Pascher, T. Harlang, P. Chabera, T. Pullerits, A. Stepanov, J.-P. Wolf, and V. Sundström, “Organometal halide perovskite solar cell materials rationalized: ultrafast charge generation, high and microsecond-long balanced mobilities, and slow recombination,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(14), 5189–5192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photocarrier recombination dynamics in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 for solar cell applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(33), 11610–11613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, T. Yamada, Q. Phuong, N. Maruyama, H. Nishimura, A. Wakamiya, Y. Murata, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Dynamic optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals as revealed by one-and two-photon excited photoluminescence measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(33), 10456–10459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Christians, P. A. Miranda Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the excited state and photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon controlled exposure to humidified air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, C. Katan, M. Kepenekian, J.-S. Lauret, D. Sapori, and E. Deleporte, “Solid-state physics perspective on hybrid perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(19), 10161–10177 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (4)

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S.-J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F.-J. Haug, J.-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yamada, M. Endo, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Spontaneous defect annihilation in CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 482–486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Misra, S. Aharon, B. Li, D. Mogilyansky, I. Visoly-Fisher, L. Etgar, and E. A. Katz, “Temperature-and component-dependent degradation of perovskite photovoltaic materials under concentrated sunlight,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 326–330 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-S. Kim and N.-G. Park, “Parameters affecting I–V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(17), 2927–2934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mater. Horiz. (1)

Y. Zhang, M. Liu, G. E. Eperon, T. C. Leijtens, D. McMeekin, M. Saliba, W. Zhang, M. de Bastiani, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, H. Lin, and H. J. Snaith, “Charge selective contacts, mobile ions and anomalous hysteresis in organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells,” Mater. Horiz. 2(3), 315–322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. Pathak, A. Abate, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, Y. C. Kim, W. S. Yang, S. Ryu, and S. I. Seok, “Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 897–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and J. Huang, “Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices,” Nat. Mater. 14(2), 193–198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Z.-K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (7)

M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338(6107), 643–647 (2012).
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H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-B. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3.,” Science 342(6156), 344–347 (2013).
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W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Dong, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals,” Science 347(6225), 967–970 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) AM1.5 I-V curves recorded in intervals of 10 minutes under nitrogen and (b) air atmospheres. During each 10 minute break, a forward bias of 1 V was applied in the dark. Circles and triangles represent forward and reverse scans, respectively. (c) Summary of conversion efficiencies for open circuit and applied bias in nitrogen and air atmospheres at different times. (d) Evolution of the conversion efficiency under open circuit and forward bias voltage of 0.7 V in air atmosphere at different times.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Change of the PL decay curves under a forward bias of 1V in nitrogen and (b) air atmospheres. (c) PL intensity and average PL lifetime for nitrogen and (d) air atmospheres.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) PL (excitation at 648 nm) and EL (forward bias 1 V) spectra from a perovskite solar cell. (b) Time evolution of EL intensity and current density under 1 V bias in nitrogen and air atmospheres. (c) EL image for bias voltage of 1 V in air atmosphere after 30 s bias application.

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