Abstract

We present a systematic study of spectral and temporal structure of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by solving accurately the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen atom in the multiphoton regime where the Keldysh parameter is greater unity. Combining with a time-frequency transform and an extended semiclassical analysis, we explore the role of quantum trajectory in HHG. We find that the time-frequency spectra of the HHG plateau near cutoff exhibit a decrease in intensity associated with the short- and long-trajectories when the ionization process is pushed from the multiphoton regime into the tunneling regime. This implies that the harmonic emission spectra in the region of the HHG plateau near and before the cutoff are suppressed. To see the generality of this prediction, we also present a time-dependent density-functional theoretical study of the effect of correlated multi-electron responses on the spectral and temporal structure of the HHG plateau of the Ar atom.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
A quantitative S-Matrix approach to high-order harmonic generation from multiphoton to tunneling regimes.

L. Plaja and J. A. Pérez-Hernández
Opt. Express 15(7) 3629-3634 (2007)

Timing analysis of infrared-driven high-order harmonic generation with above-ionization attosecond pulses

Han Chieh Lee and Tsin Fu Jiang
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(5) 1294-1302 (2013)

High-order harmonic generation in a partially ionized medium

Pablo Moreno, Luis Plaja, and Luis Roso
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(2) 430-435 (1996)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60(4), 389–486 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).
  4. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Super-Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) III. (Plenum, 1993).
  12. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).
  13. S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Cricchio, E. Fiordilino, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Momentum partition between constituents of exotic atoms during laser-induced tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023408 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Topcu and F. Robicheaux, “Dichotomy between tunneling and multiphoton ionization in atomic photoionization: Keldysh parameter γ versus scaled frequency Ω,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053407 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083001 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Dynamical origin of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation of Cs in an intense mid-infrared laser field,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7178(2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. P. Flandrin, Time-Frequency/Time-Scale Analysis (Academic, 1999).
  21. J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Time-dependent density-functional theory for strong-field multiphoton processes: Application to the study of the role of dynamical electron correlation in multiple high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 452–461 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of He, Ne, and Ar atoms in intense pulsed laser fields: Self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theoretical approach,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013417 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217(2), 119–130 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. A. Telnov, K. E. Sosnova, E. Rozenbaum, and S. I. Chu, “Exterior complex scaling method in time-dependent density-functional theory: Multiphoton ionization and high-order-harmonic generation of Ar atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053406 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. A. Telnov, K. Nasiri Avanaki, and S. I. Chu, “Subcycle transient structures in time-dependent multiphoton-ionization rates,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043404 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Role of laser-driven electron-multirescattering in resonance-enhanced below-threshold harmonic generation in He atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 041401 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. Cricchio, E. Fiordilino, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Momentum partition between constituents of exotic atoms during laser-induced tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023408 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Dynamical origin of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation of Cs in an intense mid-infrared laser field,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7178(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

D. A. Telnov, K. Nasiri Avanaki, and S. I. Chu, “Subcycle transient structures in time-dependent multiphoton-ionization rates,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043404 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Role of laser-driven electron-multirescattering in resonance-enhanced below-threshold harmonic generation in He atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 041401 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. A. Telnov, K. E. Sosnova, E. Rozenbaum, and S. I. Chu, “Exterior complex scaling method in time-dependent density-functional theory: Multiphoton ionization and high-order-harmonic generation of Ar atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053406 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Topcu and F. Robicheaux, “Dichotomy between tunneling and multiphoton ionization in atomic photoionization: Keldysh parameter γ versus scaled frequency Ω,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053407 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of He, Ne, and Ar atoms in intense pulsed laser fields: Self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theoretical approach,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013417 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Time-dependent density-functional theory for strong-field multiphoton processes: Application to the study of the role of dynamical electron correlation in multiple high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 452–461 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217(2), 119–130 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60(4), 389–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).

Agostini, P.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boutu, W.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caillat, J.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carrera, J. J.

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Catoire, F.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Cheng, Y.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Chirilä, C. C.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S. I.

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Dynamical origin of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation of Cs in an intense mid-infrared laser field,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7178(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Telnov, K. Nasiri Avanaki, and S. I. Chu, “Subcycle transient structures in time-dependent multiphoton-ionization rates,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043404 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Role of laser-driven electron-multirescattering in resonance-enhanced below-threshold harmonic generation in He atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 041401 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

D. A. Telnov, K. E. Sosnova, E. Rozenbaum, and S. I. Chu, “Exterior complex scaling method in time-dependent density-functional theory: Multiphoton ionization and high-order-harmonic generation of Ar atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053406 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of He, Ne, and Ar atoms in intense pulsed laser fields: Self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theoretical approach,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013417 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Time-dependent density-functional theory for strong-field multiphoton processes: Application to the study of the role of dynamical electron correlation in multiple high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 452–461 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217(2), 119–130 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cocke, C. L.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cricchio, D.

D. Cricchio, E. Fiordilino, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Momentum partition between constituents of exotic atoms during laser-induced tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, E.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

DiMauro, L. F.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Diveki, Z.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiordilino, E.

D. Cricchio, E. Fiordilino, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Momentum partition between constituents of exotic atoms during laser-induced tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Flandrin, P.

P. Flandrin, Time-Frequency/Time-Scale Analysis (Academic, 1999).

Gaarde, M. B.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, E.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giovanetti-Teixeira, C.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, H.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haessler, S.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cricchio, E. Fiordilino, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Momentum partition between constituents of exotic atoms during laser-induced tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haworth, C. A.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heslar, J.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Hostetter, J. A.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keitel, C. H.

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60(4), 389–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).

Klaiber, M.

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60(4), 389–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krause, J. L.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Super-Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) III. (Plenum, 1993).

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krushelnick, K.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Super-Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) III. (Plenum, 1993).

Laughlin, C.

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Dynamical origin of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation of Cs in an intense mid-infrared laser field,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7178(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Role of laser-driven electron-multirescattering in resonance-enhanced below-threshold harmonic generation in He atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 041401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lein, M.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P. C.

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Dynamical origin of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation of Cs in an intense mid-infrared laser field,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7178(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Role of laser-driven electron-multirescattering in resonance-enhanced below-threshold harmonic generation in He atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 041401 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Maquet, A.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marangos, J. P.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

March, A. M.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nasiri Avanaki, K.

D. A. Telnov, K. Nasiri Avanaki, and S. I. Chu, “Subcycle transient structures in time-dependent multiphoton-ionization rates,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paul, A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Power, E. P.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Protopapas, M.

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60(4), 389–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ranitovic, P.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robicheaux, F.

T. Topcu and F. Robicheaux, “Dichotomy between tunneling and multiphoton ionization in atomic photoionization: Keldysh parameter γ versus scaled frequency Ω,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053407 (2012).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozenbaum, E.

D. A. Telnov, K. E. Sosnova, E. Rozenbaum, and S. I. Chu, “Exterior complex scaling method in time-dependent density-functional theory: Multiphoton ionization and high-order-harmonic generation of Ar atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruchon, T.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sandhu, A. S.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Super-Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) III. (Plenum, 1993).

Seres, E.

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seres, J.

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sheu, Y. L.

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Dynamical origin of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation of Cs in an intense mid-infrared laser field,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7178(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Role of laser-driven electron-multirescattering in resonance-enhanced below-threshold harmonic generation in He atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 041401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sistrunk, E.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. A.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sosnova, K. E.

D. A. Telnov, K. E. Sosnova, E. Rozenbaum, and S. I. Chu, “Exterior complex scaling method in time-dependent density-functional theory: Multiphoton ionization and high-order-harmonic generation of Ar atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

Streli, Ch.

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strickland, D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taïeb, R.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tate, J. L.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Telnov, D. A.

D. A. Telnov, K. Nasiri Avanaki, and S. I. Chu, “Subcycle transient structures in time-dependent multiphoton-ionization rates,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043404 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

D. A. Telnov, K. E. Sosnova, E. Rozenbaum, and S. I. Chu, “Exterior complex scaling method in time-dependent density-functional theory: Multiphoton ionization and high-order-harmonic generation of Ar atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tobey, R.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of He, Ne, and Ar atoms in intense pulsed laser fields: Self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theoretical approach,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013417 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Time-dependent density-functional theory for strong-field multiphoton processes: Application to the study of the role of dynamical electron correlation in multiple high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 452–461 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217(2), 119–130 (1997).
[Crossref]

Topcu, T.

T. Topcu and F. Robicheaux, “Dichotomy between tunneling and multiphoton ionization in atomic photoionization: Keldysh parameter γ versus scaled frequency Ω,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053407 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Wang, X.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Weiman, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wobrauschek, P.

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

Yakovlev, V. S.

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217(2), 119–130 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Dynamical origin of near- and below-threshold harmonic generation of Cs in an intense mid-infrared laser field,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7178(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (3)

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photon. 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, H. Wang, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, P. C. Li, J. Heslar, D. A. Telnov, S. I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states,” Nat. Photon. 8, 437–441 (2014).

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nat. Photon. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

J. Seres, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Seres, Ch. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Coherent superposition of laser-driven soft-X-ray harmonics from successive sources,” Nat. Phys. 3, 878–883 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature 421, 51–54 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (9)

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Cricchio, E. Fiordilino, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Momentum partition between constituents of exotic atoms during laser-induced tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023408 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Topcu and F. Robicheaux, “Dichotomy between tunneling and multiphoton ionization in atomic photoionization: Keldysh parameter γ versus scaled frequency Ω,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 053407 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. Telnov, K. E. Sosnova, E. Rozenbaum, and S. I. Chu, “Exterior complex scaling method in time-dependent density-functional theory: Multiphoton ionization and high-order-harmonic generation of Ar atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053406 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. A. Telnov, K. Nasiri Avanaki, and S. I. Chu, “Subcycle transient structures in time-dependent multiphoton-ionization rates,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043404 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Li, Y. L. Sheu, C. Laughlin, and S. I. Chu, “Role of laser-driven electron-multirescattering in resonance-enhanced below-threshold harmonic generation in He atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 041401 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carrera, X. M. Tong, and S. I. Chu, “Creation and control of a single coherent attosecond xuv pulse by few-cycle intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74(2), 023404 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Time-dependent density-functional theory for strong-field multiphoton processes: Application to the study of the role of dynamical electron correlation in multiple high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 57(1), 452–461 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of He, Ne, and Ar atoms in intense pulsed laser fields: Self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theoretical approach,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Klaiber, K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, “Tunneling dynamics in multiphoton ionization and attoclock calibration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60(4), 389–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317, 1374–1378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilä, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).

Other (2)

P. Flandrin, Time-Frequency/Time-Scale Analysis (Academic, 1999).

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Super-Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) III. (Plenum, 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Wavelet time-frequency analysis of the dipole moment and the harmonic spectrum (left) of hydrogen atom in an intense 800-nm infrared laser pulse: (a) I=0.1I0, (b) I=0.5I0, (c) I=0.8I0. Here, I0=1014W/cm2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Semicalssical returning energy map with the initial conditions defined by the multiphoton ionization regime. (b) Same as (a) for the initial conditions defined by the tunneling ionization regime. (c) A comparison of semicalssical calculations between the multiphoton ionization and tunneling ionization regime defined by both initial conditions shown in (a) and (b). (d) The corresponding wavelet time-frequency spectrum of the HHG. The laser parameters used are the same as those in Fig. 1(c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Wavelet time-frequency analysis of the dipole moment and the harmonic spectrum (left) of hydrogen atom in mid-infraed laser field: (a) 1600nm (I=1.98 × 1013W/cm2), (b) 2000nm (I=1.27 × 1013W/cm2). Note that the values of Keldysh γ parameter is fixed and around equal to 1.2. The other laser parameters used are the same as those in Fig. 1(c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Time-dependent orbital (3s, 3p0, and 3p1) dipole moments of the Ar atom in a 800-nm laser pulse with a peak intensity of I=0.8×1014W/cm2. The other parameters used are the same as those in Fig. 1. (b) The corresponding wavelet time-frequency analysis of the total dipole moment and total harmonic spectrum (left).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Wavelet time-frequency analysis of the individual valence electron orbitals and the corresponding harmonic spectrum (left): (a) 3s orbital, (b) 3p0 orbital, (c) 3p1 orbital. The laser parameters used are the same as those in Fig. 4.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ ( r , t + Δ t ) exp ( i H ^ 0 Δ t 2 ) × exp [ i V ^ ( r , θ , t + Δ t 2 ) Δ t ] × exp ( i H ^ 0 Δ t 2 ) ψ ( r , t ) + O ( Δ t 3 ) .
A ω ( t 0 , ω ) = d ( t ) ω W [ ω ( t t 0 ) ] d t .
W ( x ) = 1 τ e i x e x 2 2 τ 2 .
d P ( E , t ) d E d t = d t d v Γ ( t ) P ( v ) C t ( t , r 0 , v , E r , t r ) × δ ( E E r ) δ ( t t r ) ,

Metrics