Abstract

We report on the fabrication of ridge waveguides in KTiOPO4 nonlinear optical crystals through carbon ion irradiation followed by precise diamond blade dicing. The diced side-walls have low roughness, which allows for low propagation loss of ~1dB/cm in fabricated of ridges. The waveguide property investigation has been performed at 1064 nm as well as 532 nm, showing good guidance at both TE and TM polarizations. Based on type II phase matching configuration, efficient second harmonic generation of green light at room temperature has been realized. High conversion efficiencies of ~1.12%W−1 and ~12.4% have been obtained for frequency doubling under the pump of continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed fundamental waves at 1064 nm, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

2013 (2)

2012 (6)

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9763–9768 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhao, S. Ragam, Y. J. Ding, I. B. Zotova, X. Mu, H.-C. Lee, S. K. Meissner, and H. Meissner, “Singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on adhesive-free-bonded periodically inverted KTiOPO4 plates: terahertz generation by mixing a pair of idler waves,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1283–1285 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond-laser-inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Stat. Sol. RRL 6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, T. Calmano, S. Müller, P. Zeil, C. Canalias, and G. Huber, “Laser-written waveguides in KTP for broadband Type II second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22308–22313 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of Nd:GdCOB ridge waveguides for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1913–1916 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2002 (1)

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch, “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 202–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. Opfermann, T. Bachmann, W. Wesch, and M. Rottschalk, “„He+ implantation for waveguide fabrication in KTP and Rb:KTP,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 148(1–4), 710–714 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Aguiló, M.

Akhmadaliev, S.

Y. Cheng, Y. Jia, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, C. E. Rüter, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystals produced by combining swift heavy ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 433–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akhmadaliev, Sh.

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9763–9768 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of Nd:GdCOB ridge waveguides for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1913–1916 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armenise, M. N.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Atuchin, V. V.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, T.

T. Opfermann, T. Bachmann, W. Wesch, and M. Rottschalk, “„He+ implantation for waveguide fabrication in KTP and Rb:KTP,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 148(1–4), 710–714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bardyszewski, W.

Butt, M. A.

Calmano, T.

Canalias, C.

Chen, F.

L. Wang, C. E. Haunhorst, M. F. Volk, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Quasi-phase-matched frequency conversion in ridge waveguides fabricated by ion implantation and diamond dicing of MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30188–30194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, Y. Tan, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient lasing in continuous wave and graphene Q-switched regimes from Nd:YAG ridge waveguides produced by combination of swift heavy ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12900–12908 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, Y. Jia, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117102 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, C. E. Rüter, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystals produced by combining swift heavy ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 433–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of Nd:GdCOB ridge waveguides for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1913–1916 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond-laser-inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Stat. Sol. RRL 6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9763–9768 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Cheng, C.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, Y. Jia, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, X.

Díaz, F.

Ding, Y. J.

Dong, N.

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9763–9768 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond-laser-inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Stat. Sol. RRL 6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

Grusemann, U.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch, “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 202–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Haunhorst, C. E.

Herman, P.

Hoche, Th.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch, “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 202–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

Inafune, K.

Jaque, D.

Jia, Y.

Kip, D.

Kishimoto, T.

Kränkel, C.

Laurell, F.

Lee, H.-C.

Li, G.

Liarokapis, E.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liljestrand, C.

Ling, A.

Meissner, H.

Meissner, S. K.

Metz, P. W.

Migdall, A. L.

Moreno, P.

Mu, X.

Müller, S.

Murai, H.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nguyen, H. D.

Ogawa, Y.

Opfermann, T.

T. Opfermann, T. Bachmann, W. Wesch, and M. Rottschalk, “„He+ implantation for waveguide fabrication in KTP and Rb:KTP,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 148(1–4), 710–714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Passaro, V. M. N.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pearlman, A. J.

Pujol, M. C.

Ragam, S.

Ródenas, A.

Romero, C.

Rottschalk, M.

T. Opfermann, T. Bachmann, W. Wesch, and M. Rottschalk, “„He+ implantation for waveguide fabrication in KTP and Rb:KTP,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 148(1–4), 710–714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ruske, J.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch, “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 202–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rüter, C. E.

Sasaki, H.

Savatinova, I.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Savova, I.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schrempel, F.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch, “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 202–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Solé, R. M.

Suntsov, S.

Tan, Y.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

M. A. Butt, H. D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, C. Romero, P. Moreno, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Low-repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides in KTP crystals: analysis of anisotropic refractive index changes,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15343–15355 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, Y. Tan, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient lasing in continuous wave and graphene Q-switched regimes from Nd:YAG ridge waveguides produced by combination of swift heavy ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12900–12908 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of Nd:GdCOB ridge waveguides for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1913–1916 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond-laser-inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Stat. Sol. RRL 6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9763–9768 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volk, M. F.

Wang, L.

Wesch, W.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch, “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 202–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Opfermann, T. Bachmann, W. Wesch, and M. Rottschalk, “„He+ implantation for waveguide fabrication in KTP and Rb:KTP,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 148(1–4), 710–714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yevick, D.

Zeil, P.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, T.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, P.

Zhou, S.

Y. Cheng, Y. Jia, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, C. E. Rüter, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG crystals produced by combining swift heavy ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 433–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9763–9768 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of Nd:GdCOB ridge waveguides for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1913–1916 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ziling, C. C.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zotova, I. B.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B (2)

T. Opfermann, T. Bachmann, W. Wesch, and M. Rottschalk, “„He+ implantation for waveguide fabrication in KTP and Rb:KTP,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 148(1–4), 710–714 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch, “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 202–207 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Cheng, Y. Jia, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

A. Ródenas, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, D. Jaque, and P. Herman, “Confocal Raman imaging of optical waveguides in LiNbO3 fabricated by ultrafast high-repetition rate laser-writing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13979–13989 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Jia, N. Dong, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Ridge waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9763–9768 (2012).
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F. Laurell, T. Calmano, S. Müller, P. Zeil, C. Canalias, and G. Huber, “Laser-written waveguides in KTP for broadband Type II second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22308–22313 (2012).
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Y. Jia, Y. Tan, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient lasing in continuous wave and graphene Q-switched regimes from Nd:YAG ridge waveguides produced by combination of swift heavy ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12900–12908 (2014).
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M. A. Butt, H. D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, C. Romero, P. Moreno, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Low-repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides in KTP crystals: analysis of anisotropic refractive index changes,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15343–15355 (2015).
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L. Wang, C. E. Haunhorst, M. F. Volk, F. Chen, and D. Kip, “Quasi-phase-matched frequency conversion in ridge waveguides fabricated by ion implantation and diamond dicing of MgO:LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30188–30194 (2015).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Sh. Akhmadaliev, and S. Zhou, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of Nd:GdCOB ridge waveguides for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 34(11), 1913–1916 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Stat. Sol. RRL (1)

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond-laser-inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Stat. Sol. RRL 6(7), 306–308 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic diagrams of ridge waveguide fabrication processes: (a) carbon ion irradiation and (b) precise diamond blade dicing; (c) the microscopic photograph from cross section and (d) the SEM image and (e) enlarged view (dashed line enclosed region) of ridge waveguides.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Distributions of measured TM modes in KTP ridge waveguides for 1064 nm (top row) and 532 nm (bottom row) and different ridge widths (left: 15 μm, middle: 20 μm, right: 25 μm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Stopping power Se and Sn and induced (negative) refractive index change vs. ion pene-tration depth; (b) micro-Raman spectra obtained from substrate and waveguide regions; (c) recon-structed 2D refractive index profile; (e) calculated fundamental mode (25 μm ridge) at 1064 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Second harmonic powers from KTP ridge waveguide as functions of launched powers of 1064 nm light at (a) cw and (b) pulsed laser pump.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The maximum output SH powers (Pmax), the corresponding conversion efficiencies (ηmax), and the propagation losses (α) from different waveguides.

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