Abstract

An iterative alternate projection-based algorithm is developed to design structured surface reflectors to operate as beam splitters at GHz and THz frequencies. To validate the method, a surface profile is determined to achieve a reflector at 610 GHz that generates four equal-intensity beams towards desired directions of ±12.6° with respect to the specular reflection axis. A prototype is fabricated and the beam splitter behavior is experimentally demonstrated. Measurements confirm a good agreement (within 1%) with computer simulations using Feko, validating the method. The beam splitter at 610 GHz has a measured efficiency of 78% under oblique incidence illumination that ensures a similar intensity between the four reflected beams (variation of about 1%).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003 (1)

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Piestun and J. Shamir, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(2), 222–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. E. Testorf and M. A. Fiddy, “Efficient optimization of diffractive optical elements based on rigorous diffraction models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(11), 2908–2914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1977 (1)

H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 24(4), 505–515 (1977).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35(2), 237–246 (1972).

Arrizón, V.

Chen, Y.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 24(4), 505–515 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ediss, G. A.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fiddy, M. A.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35(2), 237–246 (1972).

Graf, U. U.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guesten, R.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gueth, F.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gundlach, K. H.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hauschildt, H.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Heyminck, S.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Honingh, C. E.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, K.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jahns, J.

Kasemann, C.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Klein, T.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Klotz, E.

H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 24(4), 505–515 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kooi, J. W.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Korn, A.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kramer, I.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

LeDuc, H. G.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mait, J. N.

Mattes, H.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Meyer, K.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Michael, E. A.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mirotznik, M. S.

Perchtold, E.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Piestun, R.

R. Piestun and J. Shamir, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(2), 222–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pilz, M.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prather, D. W.

Sachert, R.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35(2), 237–246 (1972).

Scherschel, M.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schieder, R. T.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schilke, P.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schneider, G.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schraml, J.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shamir, J.

R. Piestun and J. Shamir, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(2), 222–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sinzinger, S.

Skaley, D.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

Stanko, S.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stark, R.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, J.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Testorf, M.

Testorf, M. E.

Vowinkel, B.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Walker, S. J.

Wang, Z.

Wetzker, W.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wiedenhover, H.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wiedenhover, W.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wongsowijoto, S.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wyrowski, F.

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (1)

H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 24(4), 505–515 (1977).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35(2), 237–246 (1972).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. Piestun and J. Shamir, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(2), 222–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Guesten, G. A. Ediss, F. Gueth, K. H. Gundlach, H. Hauschildt, C. Kasemann, T. Klein, J. W. Kooi, A. Korn, I. Kramer, H. G. LeDuc, H. Mattes, K. Meyer, E. Perchtold, M. Pilz, R. Sachert, M. Scherschel, P. Schilke, G. Schneider, J. Schraml, D. Skaley, R. Stark, W. Wetzker, H. Wiedenhover, W. Wiedenhover, S. Wongsowijoto, and F. Wyrowski, “CHAMP, The carbon heterodyne array of the MPIFR,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 167–177 (1998).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: The KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 322–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, P. Pütz, A. Bell, D. Büchel, I. Camara, R. Castenholz, M. Choi, U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, A. Semenov, and A. Wunsch, “The upGREAT heterodyne array receivers for far infrared astronomy,” in 39th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz, 2014).
[Crossref]

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Array-receiver LO unit using collimating Fourier-gratings,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2001), pp. 563–570.

J. Wang, C. Zhou, J. Ma, F. Zhu, and W. Huang, “High efficient reflective Dammann grating,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2014, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTu4A.19.

G. Beaudin and P. J. Encrenaz, “Fundamentals of receivers for terahertz systems,” in New Directions in Terahertz Technology, J. M. Chamberlain and R. Miles, eds. (Academic, 1997), pp. 53–61.

F. P. Helmich, “Herschel-hifi: The heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared,” EAS Publications series 52, 15–20 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Down-conversion of the RF signal in a heterodyne receiver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Geometry of the problem.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the algorithm calculating the phase profile of the structured surface reflector.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Target far-field, expressed in percentage of the incident beam’s intensity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Phase profile calculated by the algorithm, and (b) corresponding metallic structured surface profile.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Analysis of the reflector behavior illuminated by an incident Gaussian beam using Feko. (a) Field distribution cut-plane including the incident beam (from the left) and two reflected beams. (b) Intensity distribution 30 cm above the structured surface reflector.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Efficiency of the structured surface reflector for each of the four beams and for the sum of the intensities of the four beams (black curve), simulated with Feko.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Pictures of the manufactured structured surface reflector, taken with (a) a camera and (b) a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental set-up to measure the radiation efficiency.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured relative power and position of the 4 beams generated by the prototype (blue numbers), compared with the simulation results (red numbers).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Normalized target far-field, (b) normalized far-field simulated with Feko generated by (c) the structured surface reflector profile.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Normalized target far-field, (b) normalized far-field simulated with Feko generated by (c) the structured surface reflector profile.

Equations (11)

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E FF ( θ,ϕ )= F md ( θ,ϕ ) E ˜ A ( ksin( θ )cos( ϕ ),ksin( θ )sin( ϕ ) ), θ[ 0,π ], ϕ[ 0,2π )
F md ( θ,ϕ )=jksinθ( y ^ cosϕ x ^ sinϕ )× p ^
E A ( x , y ) p ^ = r ( x , y ) E inc ( x , y )+ r ( x , y ) E inc ( x , y )
| E A ( x , y ) |=| E inc ( x , y ) |
T ˜ ( k x , k y )= M( θ k x , k y , ϕ k x , k y ) F md ( θ k x , k y , ϕ k x , k y ) , θ k x , k y = sin 1 ( k x 2 + k y 2 k ), ϕ k x , k y =ta n 1 ( k y k x )
E A ( 0 ) ( x , y )= F 1 { T ˜ ( k x , k y ) }
E A ( 1 ) ( x , y )=| E inc ( x , y ) | e jArg( E A ( 0 ) ( x , y ) ) S( x , y )
E ˜ A ( 1 ) ( k x , k y )=F{ E A ( 1 ) ( x,y ) }
E ˜ A ( 2 ) ( k x , k y )= E ˜ A ( 1 ) ( k x , k y )K( k x , k y )
E A ( 2 ) ( x , y )= F 1 { E ˜ A ( 2 ) ( k x , k y ) }
r( x , y )= e j[ Arg( E A ( x , y ) )Arg( E inc ( x , y ) ) ] = e jψ( x , y ) .

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