Abstract

The near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithms are used in satellite ocean color data processing, with the SWIR-based algorithm particularly useful for turbid coastal and inland waters. In this study, we describe the NIR- and two SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibration approaches for satellite ocean color sensors, and compare results from these three on-orbit vicarious calibrations using satellite measurements from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). Vicarious calibration gains for VIIRS spectral bands are derived using the in situ normalized water-leaving radiance nLw(λ) spectra from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) in waters off Hawaii. The SWIR vicarious gains are determined using VIIRS measurements from the South Pacific Gyre region, where waters are the clearest and generally stable. Specifically, vicarious gain sets for VIIRS spectral bands of 410, 443, 486, 551, and 671 nm derived from the NIR method using the NIR 745 and 862 nm bands, the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 1601 nm bands, and the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 2257 nm bands are (0.979954, 0.974892, 0.974685, 0.965832, 0.979042), (0.980344, 0.975344, 0.975357, 0.965531, 0.979518), and (0.980820, 0.975609, 0.975761, 0.965888, 0.978576), respectively. Thus, the NIR-based vicarious calibration gains are consistent with those from the two SWIR-based approaches with discrepancies mostly within ~0.05% from three data processing methods. In addition, the NIR vicarious gains (745 and 862 nm) derived from the two SWIR methods are (0.982065, 1.00001) and (0.981811, 1.00000), respectively, with the difference ~0.03% at the NIR 745 nm band. This is the fundamental basis for the NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction algorithm, which has been used to derive improved satellite ocean color products over open oceans and turbid coastal/inland waters. Therefore, a unified vicarious gain set for VIIRS bands M1–M8 and M10–M11 has been implemented in the VIIRS ocean color data processing. Using the unified vicarious gain set, VIIRS mission-long ocean color data have been successfully reprocessed using the NIR-, SWIR-, and NIR-SWIR-based atmospheric correction algorithms.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

2015 (7)

S. Son and M. Wang, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of the photosynthetically available radiation Kd(PAR) for global open ocean and coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 250–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “On-orbit characterization of the VIIRS solar diffuser and solar diffuser screen,” Appl. Opt. 54(2), 236–252 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “On-orbit calibration of visible infrared imaging radiometer suite reflective solar bands and its challenges using a solar diffuser,” Appl. Opt. 54(24), 7210–7223 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, K. R. Turpie, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “On-orbit calibration of the Suomi national polar-orbiting partnership visible infrared imaging radiometer suite for ocean color applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(8), 1984–2006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “Radiometric calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands with robust characterizations and hybrid calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9331–9342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, X. Liu, S. Son, and K. Voss, “Technique for monitoring performance of VIIRS reflective solar bands for ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14446–14460 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “Visible infrared imaging radiometer suite solar diffuser calibration and its challenges using a solar diffuser stability monitor,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8571–8584 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Jiang, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, P. Naik, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “Evaluation of VIIRS ocean color products,” Proc. SPIE 9261, 92610E (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. Wang, J. H. Ahn, L. Jiang, W. Shi, S. Son, Y. J. Park, and J. H. Ryu, “Ocean color products from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Opt. Express 21(3), 3835–3849 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. A. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Zhang and M. Wang, “Evaluation of sun glint models using MODIS measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(3), 492–506 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(8), 1587–1597 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “The NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach for MODIS ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15722–15733 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. Tang, and W. Shi, “MODIS-derived ocean color products along the China east coastal region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(6), L06611 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(4), 464–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1535–1547 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 241–248 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(24), 5651–5663 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D10), D10S06 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1–3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

2000 (4)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3582–3591 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39(6), 897–912 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67(3), 348–359 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7887–7897 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17081–17106 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4850–4862 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

1973 (1)

Abbott, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

Antoine, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R.

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).

Bai, Y.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Balch, W. P.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

Barton, I.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blonski, S.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Butler, J.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cao, C.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cikanek, H.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clark, D. K.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6701–6718 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, P. Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22(23), 3751–3758 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, K.

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).

Efremova, B.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eplee, R. E.

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. H.

Evans, R. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1–3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. E. Eplee, K. R. Turpie, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “On-orbit calibration of the Suomi national polar-orbiting partnership visible infrared imaging radiometer suite for ocean color applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(8), 1984–2006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. A. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner and the french polarization and directionality of the earth’s reflectances: a comparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 974–990 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fulbright, J.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35(24), 4850–4862 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gitelson, A. A.

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(4), 464–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, M. D.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 241–248 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82(2–3), 497–504 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17081–17106 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7887–7897 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh-scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31(21), 4247–4260 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27(5), 862–871 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Harding, J. L. W.

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herman, M.

Herse, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hladik, C. M.

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(4), 464–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hodge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hooker, S. B.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1–3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. A. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huot, J. P.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huot, Y.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

Isaacman, A.

Jiang, L.

M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, X. Liu, S. Son, and K. Voss, “Technique for monitoring performance of VIIRS reflective solar bands for ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14446–14460 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Jiang, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, P. Naik, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “Evaluation of VIIRS ocean color products,” Proc. SPIE 9261, 92610E (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. H. Ahn, L. Jiang, W. Shi, S. Son, Y. J. Park, and J. H. Ryu, “Ocean color products from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Opt. Express 21(3), 3835–3849 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, B. C.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kilcoyne, H.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D10), D10S06 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kwiatkowska, E.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
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M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82(2–3), 497–504 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner and the french polarization and directionality of the earth’s reflectances: a comparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 974–990 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6701–6718 (2001).
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M. Wang and S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4790–4798 (2001).
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D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3582–3591 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67(3), 348–359 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
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Wang, X.

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Jiang, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, P. Naik, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “Evaluation of VIIRS ocean color products,” Proc. SPIE 9261, 92610E (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weng, F.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Werdell, P. J.

Wu, A.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
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Xiong, X.

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
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C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
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G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
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J. Sun and M. Wang, “Visible infrared imaging radiometer suite solar diffuser calibration and its challenges using a solar diffuser stability monitor,” Appl. Opt. 53(36), 8571–8584 (2014).
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J. Sun and M. Wang, “On-orbit characterization of the VIIRS solar diffuser and solar diffuser screen,” Appl. Opt. 54(2), 236–252 (2015).
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J. Sun and M. Wang, “On-orbit calibration of visible infrared imaging radiometer suite reflective solar bands and its challenges using a solar diffuser,” Appl. Opt. 54(24), 7210–7223 (2015).
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R. E. Eplee, K. R. Turpie, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “On-orbit calibration of the Suomi national polar-orbiting partnership visible infrared imaging radiometer suite for ocean color applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(8), 1984–2006 (2015).
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J. Sun and M. Wang, “Radiometric calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands with robust characterizations and hybrid calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9331–9342 (2015).
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R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6701–6718 (2001).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
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M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
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C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xiong, J. Butler, K. Chiang, B. Efremova, J. Fulbright, N. Lei, J. McIntire, H. Oudrari, J. Sun, Z. Wang, and A. Wu, “VIIRS on-orbit calibration methodology and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5065–5078 (2014).
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M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
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M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
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Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Jiang, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, P. Naik, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “Evaluation of VIIRS ocean color products,” Proc. SPIE 9261, 92610E (2014).
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Remote Sens. Environ. (11)

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
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M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67(3), 348–359 (1999).
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M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
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W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(8), 1587–1597 (2009).
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M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82(2–3), 497–504 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
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S. Son and M. Wang, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of the photosynthetically available radiation Kd(PAR) for global open ocean and coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 250–258 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulation results of the residual calibration error ratio a′(λ)/a′(λl) after the VC with λl = 865 nm as a function of wavelength for a(λl) = ± 5%, ± 10%, and ± 15%. The simulations assume a known aerosol model in the VC site with an aerosol optical thickness of 0.05 at 865 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 VC gains g(NIR)(λ) as a function of time from 2012 to 2016 derived using the NIR-based VC method for VIIRS bands at (a) 410 nm, (b) 443 nm, (c) 486 nm, (d) 551 nm, and (e) 671 nm. For a clear demonstration, g(NIR)(λ) values are plotted in every 50 values for each plot.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 VC gains g(SWIR1)(λ) as a function of time from 2012 to 2016 derived using the SWIR1-based VC method (with 1238 and 1601 nm bands) for VIIRS bands at (a) 410 nm, (b) 443 nm, (c) 486 nm, (d) 551 nm, (e) 671 nm, and (f) 745 nm. For a clear demonstration, g(SWIR)(λ) values are plotted in every 50 values for each plot.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 VC gains g(SWIR2)(λ) as a function of time from 2012 to 2016 derived using the SWIR2-based VC method (with 1238 and 2257 nm bands) for VIIRS bands at (a) 410 nm, (b) 443 nm, (c) 486 nm, (d) 551 nm, (e) 671 nm, and (f) 745 nm. For a clear demonstration, g(SWIR)(λ) values are plotted in every 50 values for each plot.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparisons of histograms in the derived VC gains using the NIR-based, SWIR1-based, and SWIR2-based methods for VIIRS bands of (a) 410 nm, (b) 443 nm, (c) 486 nm, (d) 551 nm, and (e) 671 nm. Plot (f) shows histograms for the SWIR1-based VC gains g(SWIR1)(λ) and SWIR2-based VC gains g(SWIR2)(λ) at the VIIRS NIR 745 nm band (similar histogram distributions for the NIR 862 nm band).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 VIIRS-SNPP NIR- and SWIR-based vicarious gains.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Unified NIR and SWIR vicarious gains for VIIRS-SNPP.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L t ( λ ) = L r ( λ ) + L A ( λ ) + t ( λ ) L w c ( λ ) + T ( λ ) L g ( λ ) + t ( λ ) t 0 ( λ ) cos θ 0 n L w ( λ ) ,
L t ( M ) ( λ ) = [ 1 + a ( λ ) ] L t ( T ) ( λ ) ,
L t ( C ) ( λ ) = [ 1 + a ( λ ) ] L t ( T ) ( λ ) ,
L t ( C ) ( λ ) = g ( λ ) L t ( M ) ( λ ) ,

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