Abstract

We report on the experimental observation of bidirectional 100-fs bound solitons from a nanotube-mode-locked dispersion-managed Er-fiber laser with an ultra-simple linear cavity. Two mode-locked pulse trains in opposite directions are delivered simultaneously from the linear cavity. Under the pump power of <74 mW, both the bidirectional outputs of the laser work at the single-soliton state with pulse duration of 173 fs and 182 fs, respectively. Once the pump power is more than 74 mW, both the bidirectional outputs evolve into the two-soliton bound states with soliton separation of 1.53 ps. Interestingly, the bidirectional operations can show the different bound states, i.e. the forward bound solitons with phase difference of + π/2, and the backward ones with phase difference of -π/2. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of such compact bidirectional soliton fiber laser with the sub-200 fs pulses.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Y. R. Yan, S. Hu, Y. C. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

2013 (2)

L. Gui, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Widely spaced bound states in a soliton fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1184–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gui, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

K. Cheng, Y. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Yun and X. Liu, “Generation and propagation of bound-state pulses in a passively mode-locked figure-eight laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 512–519 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

X. Wu, D. Tang, X. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “Multi-gigahertz repetition rate passively modelocked fiber lasers using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6155–6163 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, and B. Zhao, “Period-doubling and quadrupling of bound solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 167–172 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex ginzburg-landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A 44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramski, K.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

Ankiewicz, A.

Bao, Q. L.

Belhache, F.

Brunel, M.

Buckley, J. R.

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chédot, C.

Chen, H.

Cheng, K.

K. Cheng, Y. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T. H.

Chouli, S.

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cui, H.

Drummond, P. D.

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grelu, P.

Gui, L.

L. Gui, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gui, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Widely spaced bound states in a soliton fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1184–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gutty, F.

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

Hideur, A.

Hu, S.

Huang, Y.

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ilday, F. O.

Ippen, E. P.

Li, X.

L. Gui, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Widely spaced bound states in a soliton fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1184–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Lin, G.

K. Cheng, Y. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, R.

Lin, Y.

K. Cheng, Y. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23(1), 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Liu, M.

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Y. R. Yan, S. Hu, Y. C. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Liu, X.

L. Yun and X. Liu, “Generation and propagation of bound-state pulses in a passively mode-locked figure-eight laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 512–519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. C.

Loh, K. P.

Lu, C.

Luan, X.

X. Wu, D. Tang, X. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, A.

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z. C.

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Y. R. Yan, S. Hu, Y. C. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Majeed, A.

Malomed, B. A.

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A 44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, W.

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

Nelson, L. E.

Ortaç, B.

Peng, J.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A. G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ruan, S.

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sosnowski, T.

Soto-Crespo, J.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Phase-locked soliton pairs in a stretched-pulse fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(11), 966–968 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex ginzburg-landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tam, H.

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

Tamura, K.

Tang, D.

X. Wu, D. Tang, X. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, and B. Zhao, “Period-doubling and quadrupling of bound solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 167–172 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, R.

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Tünnermann, A.

Wan, X.

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Weng, J.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

Wu, D.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, D. Tang, X. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

L. Gui, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Widely spaced bound states in a soliton fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1184–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gui, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W. C.

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Y. R. Yan, S. Hu, Y. C. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Yamashita, S.

K. Cheng, Y. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “Multi-gigahertz repetition rate passively modelocked fiber lasers using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6155–6163 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, P.

Yan, Y. R.

Yang, C.

L. Gui, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gui, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Widely spaced bound states in a soliton fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1184–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yun, L.

L. Yun and X. Liu, “Generation and propagation of bound-state pulses in a passively mode-locked figure-eight laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 512–519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

Zhang, H.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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Zhang, Q.

X. Wu, D. Tang, X. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

L. Zhao, D. Tang, and B. Zhao, “Period-doubling and quadrupling of bound solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 167–172 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, and B. Zhao, “Period-doubling and quadrupling of bound solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 167–172 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

Zhao, N.

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Zheng, X.-W.

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

Zhong, M.

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

L. Gui, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Widely spaced bound states in a soliton fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1184–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zou, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

K. Cheng, Y. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Luo, H. Liu, N. Zhao, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, R. Tang, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Observation of three bound states from a topological insulator mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 1501508 (2014).

L. Yun and X. Liu, “Generation and propagation of bound-state pulses in a passively mode-locked figure-eight laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 512–519 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Gui, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Widely spaced bound states in a soliton fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1184–1187 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nano Res. (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res. 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. Wu, D. Tang, X. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, and B. Zhao, “Period-doubling and quadrupling of bound solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 167–172 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Photonics Res. (1)

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A 44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex ginzburg-landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the bidirectional passively mode-locked BSs fiber laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The reflectivity spectrum of the fiber end-facet mirrors (M1 and M2), inset: the photograph of the M1; (b) The saturable absorption characteristics of the CNTs-based SA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Bidirectional single-soliton operations at the pump power of 56 mW. (a) the optical spectra, (b) the typical pulse trains, (c) the autocorrelation traces, and (d) the output RF spectrum (inset: the broadband RF spectrum).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Bidirectional operation of the two-solitons bound states with phase difference of –π/2. (a) Bidirectional output optical spectra, (b) Autocorrelation trace of the forward output and (c) Autocorrelation trace of the backward output.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The forward optical spectrum of the BSs with phase difference of + π/2, and (b) the backward optical spectrum of the BSs with phase difference of -π/2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Stability measurement of the BSs operation during a 3-hour test. Red dotted line for the output spectral profile.

Equations (2)

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I k ( I k1 + I k+1 )/2 ( k=2, 3, 4 )
I(t)= | sech[(t t s /2)/ τ p ]+sech[(t+ t s /2)/ τ p ] | 2

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