Abstract

The ability to observe the Earth’s carbon cycles from space provides scientists an important tool to analyze climate change. Current proposed systems are mainly based on pulsed integrated path differential absorption lidar, in which two high energy pulses at different wavelengths interrogate the atmosphere sequentially for its transmission properties and are back-scattered by the ground. In this work an alternative approach based on random modulation single photon counting is proposed and analyzed; this system can take advantage of a less power demanding semiconductor laser in intensity modulated continuous wave operation, benefiting from a better efficiency, reliability and radiation hardness. Our approach is validated via numerical simulations considering current technological readiness, demonstrating its potential to obtain a 1.5 ppm retrieval precision for 50 km averaging with 2.5 W average power in a space-borne scenario. A major limiting factor is the ambient shot noise, if ultra-narrow band filtering technology could be applied, 0.5 ppm retrieval precision would be attainable.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2015 (4)

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Lin, A. R. Nehrir, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, M. D. Obland, J. Campbell, J. Dobler, B. Meadows, T.-F. Fan, and S. Kooi, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements in cloudy conditions using intensity-modulated continuous-wave lidar at 1.57 micron,” Opt. Express,  23(11), A582–A593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J. Beck, T. Welch, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, X. Sun, and J. Abshire, “A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2970–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous wave 1.57 μm fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2874–2892 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Campbell, “Nonlinear swept frequency technique for CO2 measurements using a cw laser system,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3100–3107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: System design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Nielsen, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 17, 1988–1994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: A sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations - description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 51855–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Matthey and V. Mitev, “Pseudo-random noise-continuous-wave laser radar for surface and cloud measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 557–571 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: A critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1983 (1)

Abshire, J.

J. Beck, T. Welch, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, X. Sun, and J. Abshire, “A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2970–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1047–1056 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adamiec, P.

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Adamiec, B. Bonilla, A. Consoli, J. M. G. Tijero, S. Aguilera, and I. Esquivias, “High-peak-power pulse generation from a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7160–7164 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Aguilera, S.

Ai, X.

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: A critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Amediek, A.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: A sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amzajerdian, F.

Baba, H.

Babikov, Y.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbero, J.

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Barnes, B. W.

Beck, J.

J. Beck, T. Welch, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, X. Sun, and J. Abshire, “A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2970–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bensi, P.

P. Ingmann, P. Bensi, Y. Duran, A. Griva, and P. Clissold, “A-SCOPE – Advanced space carbon and climate observation of planet Earth,” ESA Report for assessment, SP-1313/1 (2008).

Bernath, P.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beyon, J. Y.

Biraud, S.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bonilla, B.

Bosch, T.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: A critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Browell, E. V.

Brown, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J.

Campbell, J. F.

J. F. Campbell, “Nonlinear swept frequency technique for CO2 measurements using a cw laser system,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3100–3107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Campbell, N. S. Prasad, and M. A. Flood, “Pseudorandom noise code-based technique for thin-cloud discrimination with CO2 and O2 absorption measurements,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caron, J.

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. R.

Choi, Y.

Clissold, P.

P. Ingmann, P. Bensi, Y. Duran, A. Griva, and P. Clissold, “A-SCOPE – Advanced space carbon and climate observation of planet Earth,” ESA Report for assessment, SP-1313/1 (2008).

Cohen, E.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Consoli, A.

P. Adamiec, B. Bonilla, A. Consoli, J. M. G. Tijero, S. Aguilera, and I. Esquivias, “High-peak-power pulse generation from a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7160–7164 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

Coudert, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dahnoun, N.

X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

Davis, R. E.

Devi, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dobler, J.

Dobler, J. T.

Doney, S. C.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duran, Y.

P. Ingmann, P. Bensi, Y. Duran, A. Griva, and P. Clissold, “A-SCOPE – Advanced space carbon and climate observation of planet Earth,” ESA Report for assessment, SP-1313/1 (2008).

Durand, Y.

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ehret, G.

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: System design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: A sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Erbert, G.

Erdmann, R.

P. Kapusta, M. Wahl, and R. Erdmann, Advanced Photon Counting: Applications, Methods, Instrumentation (Springer, 2015).

Esquivias, I.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Adamiec, B. Bonilla, A. Consoli, J. M. G. Tijero, S. Aguilera, and I. Esquivias, “High-peak-power pulse generation from a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7160–7164 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

Fan, T.-F.

Faugeron, M.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fix, A.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: System design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: A sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flood, M. A.

J. F. Campbell, N. S. Prasad, and M. A. Flood, “Pseudorandom noise code-based technique for thin-cloud discrimination with CO2 and O2 absorption measurements,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Georgieva, E.

E. Georgieva, W. S. Heaps, and W. Huang, “New broadband lidar for greenhouse carbon dioxide gas sensing in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820H (2011).
[Crossref]

Goëc, J. P. L.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gris-Sánchez, I.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Griva, A.

P. Ingmann, P. Bensi, Y. Duran, A. Griva, and P. Clissold, “A-SCOPE – Advanced space carbon and climate observation of planet Earth,” ESA Report for assessment, SP-1313/1 (2008).

Harrison, F. W.

Harrison, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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E. Georgieva, W. S. Heaps, and W. Huang, “New broadband lidar for greenhouse carbon dioxide gas sensing in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820H (2011).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hodges, J.

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G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
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Houweling, S.

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Jacquemart, D.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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Keppel-Aleks, G.

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Kiemle, C.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: A sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
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Long, D.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Mao, J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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Obland, M. D.

Orphal, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Owens, P. C. M.

Parillaud, O.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Serrano, A.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Perrin, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Petros, M.

Polovtseva, E.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Prasad, N. S.

J. F. Campbell, N. S. Prasad, and M. A. Flood, “Pseudorandom noise code-based technique for thin-cloud discrimination with CO2 and O2 absorption measurements,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Primiani, P.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

Quatrevalet, M.

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
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X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Randerson, J. T.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J.

X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

Rarity, J. G.

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Rarity, T. E. Wall, K. D. Ridley, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Single-photon counting for the 1300–1600-nm range by use of peltier-cooled and passively quenched InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6746–6753 (2000).
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M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Reiff, K.

J. Beck, T. Welch, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, X. Sun, and J. Abshire, “A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2970–2977 (2014).
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Richard, C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Ridley, K. D.

Rioux, M.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: A critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10–19 (2001).
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Riris, H.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Robert, Y.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roy, R. L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sakaizawa, D.

Sakurai, K.

Schrandt, F.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: System design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
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Schwarzer, H.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: System design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schwertfeger, S.

Singh, U. N.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Smith, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Starikova, E.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stephens, B. B.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, X.

J. Beck, T. Welch, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, X. Sun, and J. Abshire, “A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2970–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, C.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, N.

Tans, P. P.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tapster, P. R.

Tashkun, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R. R.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 107–167 (2015).
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Thornton, P. E.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tijero, J. M. G.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Adamiec, B. Bonilla, A. Consoli, J. M. G. Tijero, S. Aguilera, and I. Esquivias, “High-peak-power pulse generation from a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7160–7164 (2012).
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M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

Toon, G.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Traub, M.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ueno, S.

van Dijk, F.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vay, S.

Vilera, M.

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vinet, E.

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wahl, M.

P. Kapusta, M. Wahl, and R. Erdmann, Advanced Photon Counting: Applications, Methods, Instrumentation (Springer, 2015).

Wall, T. E.

Weaver, C. J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Welch, T.

J. Beck, T. Welch, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, X. Sun, and J. Abshire, “A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2970–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wennberg, P. O.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wenzel, H.

Wirth, M.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: System design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: A sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wofsy, S. C.

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Yerolatsitis, S.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 107–167 (2015).
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Yu, J.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (9)

P. Adamiec, B. Bonilla, A. Consoli, J. M. G. Tijero, S. Aguilera, and I. Esquivias, “High-peak-power pulse generation from a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7160–7164 (2012).
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J. T. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, E. V. Browell, B. Lin, D. McGregor, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, and S. Ismail, “Atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an airborne intensity-modulated continuous wave 1.57 μm fiber laser lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2874–2892 (2013).
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J. F. Campbell, “Nonlinear swept frequency technique for CO2 measurements using a cw laser system,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3100–3107 (2013).
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N. Takeuchi, N. Sugimoto, H. Baba, and K. Sakurai, “Random modulation cw lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1382–1386 (1983).
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J. G. Rarity, T. E. Wall, K. D. Ridley, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Single-photon counting for the 1300–1600-nm range by use of peltier-cooled and passively quenched InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6746–6753 (2000).
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G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5092–5099 (2004).
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J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
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K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1047–1056 (2011).
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S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, T. Kimura, and M. Nakajima, “Feasibility study on 1.6 μm continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for measurement of global CO2 concentration from a satellite,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2055–2068 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: A sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: System design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations - description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 51855–1877 (2005).
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Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Faugeron, M. Vilera, M. Krakowski, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, P. Primiani, J. P. L. Goëc, O. Parillaud, A. Pérez-Serrano, J. M. G. Tijero, G. Kochem, M. Traub, I. Esquivias, and F. van Dijk, “High power three-section integrated master oscillator power amplifier at 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 1449–1452 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Climate (1)

G. Keppel-Aleks, J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. K. Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide variability in the community Earth system model: Evaluation and transient dynamics during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries,” J. Climate 26, 4447–4475 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

J. Beck, T. Welch, P. Mitra, K. Reiff, X. Sun, and J. Abshire, “A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43, 2970–2977 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. F. Campbell, N. S. Prasad, and M. A. Flood, “Pseudorandom noise code-based technique for thin-cloud discrimination with CO2 and O2 absorption measurements,” Opt. Eng. 50, 126002 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

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R. Matthey and V. Mitev, “Pseudo-random noise-continuous-wave laser radar for surface and cloud measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 557–571 (2005).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

E. Georgieva, W. S. Heaps, and W. Huang, “New broadband lidar for greenhouse carbon dioxide gas sensing in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 8182, 81820H (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Serrano, M. Vilera, I. Esquivias, M. Faugeron, M. Krakowski, F. van Dijk, G. Kochem, M. Traub, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, X. Ai, J. G. Rarity, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 remote sensing system based on high brightness semiconductor lasers and single photon counting detection,” Proc. SPIE 9645, 964503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tellus Ser. B (1)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

P. Ingmann, P. Bensi, Y. Duran, A. Griva, and P. Clissold, “A-SCOPE – Advanced space carbon and climate observation of planet Earth,” ESA Report for assessment, SP-1313/1 (2008).

P. Kapusta, M. Wahl, and R. Erdmann, Advanced Photon Counting: Applications, Methods, Instrumentation (Springer, 2015).

M. Quatrevalet, X. Ai, A. Pérez-Serrano, P. Adamiec, J. Barbero, A. Fix, J. M. G. Tijero, I. Esquivias, J. G. Rarity, and G. Ehret, “Atmospheric CO2 sensing with a random modulation continuous wave integrated path differential absorption lidar,” submitted (2016).

X. Ai, R. W. Nock, N. Dahnoun, J. Rarity, A. Consoli, I. Esquivias, M. Quatrevalet, and G. Ehret, “Pseudo-random single photon counting for space-borne atmospheric sensing applications,” in 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2014) pp. 1–10.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Position of the on-line λon and off-line λoff selected wavelengths with respect to the CO2 absorption line. The absorption line chosen is around 1572.018 nm in order to minimize the interference from the H2O lines. (b) RM-CW IPDA lidar principle. A PRBS for the on-line and the same PRBS delayed for the off-line are transmitted through the atmosphere. The received signals are correlated with the original bipolar sequence, from the cross-correlation result the DAOD can be obtained. (c) Proposed space-borne RM-CW SPC IPDA lidar system based on two 3-section monolithically integrated MOPAs [20].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Pressure and (b) temperature profiles obtained as nominal values from US-standard atmosphere model. (c) Aerosol extinction profile, which is highly concentrated at low altitude.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption cross-section spectra across the atmospheric depth.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 CO2 detection precision (δXCO2) for three types of surfaces with respect to a system parameter variation: (a) on-line center wavelength λon, (b) on-line average power Pon, (c) detector dark count rate kdc and (d) optical filter bandwidth Δλ. The dashed line represents the 1.5 ppm threshold set by the A-SCOPE specification [3].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 CO2 detection precision contour plots of three types of surface reflectance: ocean (blue), vegetation (green) and desert(red) where the horizontal and vertical axes represent the parameters that deviate from the baseline configuration: (a) Poff vs Pon, (b) Δλ vs θFOV, (c) Δλ vs Pon and (d) Orbit altitude vs telescope size Ar. The desirable and threshold retrieval precisions are indicated as 1 ppm and 1.5 ppm respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Baseline configuration and geophysical parameters

Equations (20)

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a [ i ] a ˜ [ i ] N 2 δ [ i ] ,
n on , off [ i ] = 2 T c η e P on , off G on , off a on , off [ i [ [ τ T c ] ] ] ,
G on , off = α A r Z 2 e 2 O D on , off ,
OD on , off = OD 0 + 0 Z σ on , off ( z ) n co 2 ( z ) d z ,
C on , off [ i ] = n on , off [ i ] a ˜ on , off [ i ] .
R on , off = C on , off [ [ [ τ T c ] ] ] = N T c η e P on , off G on , off .
DAOD = 1 2 ln ( E on E off R off R on ) = 0 Z ( σ on ( z ) σ off ( z ) ) n co 2 ( z ) d z ,
XCO 2 = 0 Z vmr co 2 ( z ) WF ( z ) d z 0 Z WF ( z ) d z = DAOD IWF ,
WF ( z ) = n air ( z ) ( σ on ( z ) σ off ( z ) ) ,
n air ( z ) = A ν p ( z ) k B T ( z ) ,
σ ˜ on , off = 0 σ ( z , λ ) P ˜ on , off ( λ ) d λ ,
P ˜ on , off ( λ ) = 1 σ λ 2 π e 1 2 ( λ on , off λ σ λ ) 2 ,
C [ i ] = ( n on [ i ] + n off [ i ] + n amb [ i ] + n det [ i ] ) a ˜ [ i ] .
n amb = L s η e T c Δ λ A s A r Z 2 e O D 0 ,
SNR on , off = R on , off k V k ,
V = R on + R off + R amb + R det .
SNR on , off = R on , off R on + R off + R amb + R det .
δ XCO 2 = [ ( XCO 2 R on ) 2 + ( XCO 2 R off ) 2 ] V = SNR on 2 + SNR off 2 2 IWF .
XCO 2 = i = 1 N top ( δ XCO 2 [ i ] ) 2 XCO 2 [ i ] i = 1 N top ( δ XCO 2 [ i ] ) 2 .
XCO 2 = i = 1 N track XCO 2 [ i ] N track ,

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