Abstract

Alamouti space-time block code (STBC) combined with a simple heterodyne coherent receiver enables phase diverse coherent detection without any optical polarization tracking. While such a system consisting of only a 3-dB coupler and a single balanced photodiode has been recently demonstrated using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexed (OFDM) signals, herein we report the first application to single-carrier systems. Applicability of such technique for single-carrier systems is not straightforward since specialized digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are required for data recovery. In this paper, we address the implementing issues and DSP algorithms applicable for single-carrier (SC) Alamouti STBC based simplified heterodyne receivers. Polarization-insensitive operation of the proposed scheme and its performance are verified by means of simulation for a 12-Gbits/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) transmission system.

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References

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  1. S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical access networks,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 125–126.
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2016 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

1998 (1)

S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(8), 1451–1458 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. R. Barry and J. M. Kahn, “Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1939–1951 (1992).
[Crossref]

Alamouti, S. M.

S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(8), 1451–1458 (1998).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Bach, H.-G.

Barry, J. R.

J. R. Barry and J. M. Kahn, “Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1939–1951 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bayvel, P.

Chi, N.

Ciaramella, E.

E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent receivers for low-cost coherent OOK systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(6), 548–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

Edvold, B.

Erkilinç, M. S.

Geisler, T.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gottwald, E.

Halir, R.

Janiak, K.

Kahn, J. M.

J. R. Barry and J. M. Kahn, “Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1939–1951 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

Killey, R. I.

Lavery, D.

Li, X.

Maher, R.

Millar, D. S.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Mori, Y.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Pérez-Galacho, D.

Pulverer, K.

Raybon, G.

Reis, J. D.

Rohde, H.

Runge, P.

Savory, S. J.

Shahpari, A.

Shao, Y.

Shi, K.

Steffan, A. G.

Tao, L.

Teixeira, A.

Thomsen, B. C.

Tsukamoto, S.

Wey, J. S.

Winzer, P. J.

Xie, C.

Yu, J.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, R.

Zhu, B.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(8), 1451–1458 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent receivers for low-cost coherent OOK systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(6), 548–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, R. Maher, M. Paskov, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, R. I. Killey, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single balanced photodiode coherent receiver for passive optical networks,” in Proc. European Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC, 2015), paper Th.1.3.3.
[Crossref]

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical access networks,” in IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 125–126.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configurations of different digital coherent receivers. (a): polarization- and phase-diverse homodyne/intradyne detection, (b): polarization- and phase-diverse heterodyne detection, and (c): phase-diversity heterodyne detection. PDM: polarization-division multiplexed, LO: local oscillator, TIA: trans-impedance amplifier, ADC: analog-to-digital converter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of Alamouti coding in two polarization modes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 DSP circuits for joint equalization, polarization tracking and carrier phase recovery for SC Alamouti STBC system. S/P: serial-to-parallel, P/S: parallel to serial, conj.: complex conjugate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmitter configuration of Alamouti STBC system. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, IQM: IQ modulator, PBS: polarization beam splitter, PBC: polarization beam combiner, DSP: digital signal processing, DP: dual-polarization, Tx: transmitted.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Q2-factor performance results for two-dimensional sweep of polarization states.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Probability distribution function (PDF) of Q2-factor from 625 polarization states over the full Poincaré sphere.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The BER performance for the proposed system as a function SNR/pol.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 SNR penalty at a BER of 1.5% versus combined laser linewidths symbol period product (ΔνTs).

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S 1 = h xx S 1 e j θ 1 + h xy S 2 e j θ 1 ,
S 2 = h xx S 2 * e j θ 2 + h xy S 1 * e j θ 2 .
[ S 1 S 2 * ]=[ h xx e jθ h xy e jθ h xy * e jθ h xx * e jθ ][ S 1 S 2 ].
[ S 1 S 2 ]=[ h xx e jθ h xy e jθ h xy * e jθ h xx * e jθ ][ S 1 S * 2 ].
[ w 11 p w 12 p * w 21 p w 22 p * ] [ h xx e jθ h xy e jθ h xy * e jθ h xx * e jθ ] 1 .
v o (n)= w 11 H u o p+ w 12 H u e * p * ,
v e (n)= w 21 H u o p+ w 22 H u e * p * .
e o/e = d o/e v o/e ,
p 1 p 1 + μ p e o u 11 * ,
p 2 p 2 + μ p e o u 12 * ,
p=( p 1 + p 2 * )/2,
w 11 w 11 + μ| p | p e o u o * ,
w 12 w 12 + μ| p | p * e o u e ,
w 21 w 21 + μ| p | p e e u o * ,
w 22 w 22 + μ| p | p * e e u e .
H f = e j ω 2 β 2 z/2 [ cosθ sinθexp(iϕ) sinθexp(iϕ) cosθ ],

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