Abstract

We evaluated the effects of grid patterns (GPs) realized on 2-inch sapphire substrates by simple laser treatment on the device characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The degrees of wafer bowing for the LEDs with distances between the GPs of 1 (GP1-LED), 2 (GP2-LED), and 3 mm (GP3-LED) were 100.05, 100.43, and 101.59 µm, respectively, which are significantly improved compared to that (108.06 µm) of a conventional LED (C-LED) without GPs. Consequently, a blue-shift of the emission wavelength for the GP-LEDs was observed compared to the C-LED via alleviation of the quantum-confined stark effect. A comparative study of the fluorescence microscopy images of the C-LED and GP2-LED samples showed a significant reduction of threading dislocations as a result of the GPs. In the electroluminescence mapping results for the entire 2-inch region, the standard deviations of the emission wavelengths were 1.64, 1.49, and 2.55 nm for the GP1-LED, GP2-LED, and GP3-LED samples, respectively, which are smaller than that of the C-LED (2.66 nm). In addition, the average output power of the GP2-LED was 8.5% higher than that of the C-LED.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
InGaN light emitting diodes with a laser-treated tapered GaN structure

Wan-Chun Huang, Chia-Feng Lin, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Sin-Han Chen, Ming-Shiou Lin, Kuei-Ting Chen, Chun-Min Lin, Sy-Hann Chen, and Pin Han
Opt. Express 19(S5) A1126-A1134 (2011)

Influences of Si-doped graded short-period superlattice on green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes

Kwanjae Lee, Cheul-Ro Lee, Jin Hong Lee, Tae-Hoon Chung, Mee-Yi Ryu, Kwang-Un Jeong, Jae-Young Leem, and Jin Soo Kim
Opt. Express 24(7) 7743-7751 (2016)

Enhanced optical output performance in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode embedded with SiO2 nanoparticles

Dae-Woo Jeon, Lee-Woon Jang, Han-Su Cho, Kyeong-Seob Kwon, Myeong-Ji Dong, A. Y. Polyakov, Jin-Woo Ju, Tae-Hoon Chung, Jong Hyeob Baek, and In-Hwan Lee
Opt. Express 22(18) 21454-21459 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures forenergy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. A. Chang, Y. T. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of InGaN green light-emitting diodes with chirped multiple quantum well structures,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2205–2207 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Steimetz, F. Brunner, and M. Weyers, “Eliminating bowing in blue LED and laser epi,” Semiconductor Today 2(3), 38–40 (2007).
  7. K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Kim, “Effect of residual stress of thin and thick layers on laser lifted-off light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(9), H904–H907 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).
  11. H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Sakai, T. Egawa, M. Hao, and H. Ishikawa, “Effect of various interlayers on epiwafer bowing in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8019–8023 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Aida, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and K. Koyama, “Reduction of bowing in GaN-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon substrates by stress implantation by internally focused laser processing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 016504 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Heltzel, A. Battula, J. R. Howell, and S. Chen, “Nanostructuring borosilicate glass with near-field enhanced energy using a femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 53–59 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Aida, N. Aota, H. Takeda, and K. Koyama, “Control of initial bow of sapphire substrates for III-nitride epitaxy by internally focused laser processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 361(1), 135–141 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

H. Aida, N. Aota, H. Takeda, and K. Koyama, “Control of initial bow of sapphire substrates for III-nitride epitaxy by internally focused laser processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 361(1), 135–141 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and K. Koyama, “Reduction of bowing in GaN-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon substrates by stress implantation by internally focused laser processing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 016504 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Chang, Y. T. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of InGaN green light-emitting diodes with chirped multiple quantum well structures,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2205–2207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures forenergy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, “Effect of residual stress of thin and thick layers on laser lifted-off light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(9), H904–H907 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Steimetz, F. Brunner, and M. Weyers, “Eliminating bowing in blue LED and laser epi,” Semiconductor Today 2(3), 38–40 (2007).

2006 (3)

A. Heltzel, A. Battula, J. R. Howell, and S. Chen, “Nanostructuring borosilicate glass with near-field enhanced energy using a femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 53–59 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Sakai, T. Egawa, M. Hao, and H. Ishikawa, “Effect of various interlayers on epiwafer bowing in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8019–8023 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aida, H.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, N. Aota, H. Takeda, and K. Koyama, “Control of initial bow of sapphire substrates for III-nitride epitaxy by internally focused laser processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 361(1), 135–141 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and K. Koyama, “Reduction of bowing in GaN-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon substrates by stress implantation by internally focused laser processing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 016504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amour, E.

E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).

Aota, N.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and K. Koyama, “Reduction of bowing in GaN-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon substrates by stress implantation by internally focused laser processing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 016504 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, N. Aota, H. Takeda, and K. Koyama, “Control of initial bow of sapphire substrates for III-nitride epitaxy by internally focused laser processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 361(1), 135–141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aoyagi, T.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Armour, E. A.

M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Battula, A.

A. Heltzel, A. Battula, J. R. Howell, and S. Chen, “Nanostructuring borosilicate glass with near-field enhanced energy using a femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 53–59 (2006).
[Crossref]

Belousov, M.

E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).

M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beltz, G. E.

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brunner, F.

F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Steimetz, F. Brunner, and M. Weyers, “Eliminating bowing in blue LED and laser epi,” Semiconductor Today 2(3), 38–40 (2007).

Chandramohan, S.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. W.

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. Y.

Chang, S. J.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. L.

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. A.

Chang, Y. L.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chao, C. L.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

A. Heltzel, A. Battula, J. R. Howell, and S. Chen, “Nanostructuring borosilicate glass with near-field enhanced energy using a femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 53–59 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. T.

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S. J.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chi, T. W.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. P.

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures forenergy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures forenergy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ebisui, T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Egawa, T.

M. Sakai, T. Egawa, M. Hao, and H. Ishikawa, “Effect of various interlayers on epiwafer bowing in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8019–8023 (2004).
[Crossref]

Foronda, H. M.

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grandjean, N.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gurary, A.

M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, M.

M. Sakai, T. Egawa, M. Hao, and H. Ishikawa, “Effect of various interlayers on epiwafer bowing in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8019–8023 (2004).
[Crossref]

Heltzel, A.

A. Heltzel, A. Battula, J. R. Howell, and S. Chen, “Nanostructuring borosilicate glass with near-field enhanced energy using a femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 53–59 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hong, C.-H.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Howell, J. R.

A. Heltzel, A. Battula, J. R. Howell, and S. Chen, “Nanostructuring borosilicate glass with near-field enhanced energy using a femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 53–59 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y. P.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. Y.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ikejiri, K.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

M. Sakai, T. Egawa, M. Hao, and H. Ishikawa, “Effect of various interlayers on epiwafer bowing in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8019–8023 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeong, M. S.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. J.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, N. H.

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, “Effect of residual stress of thin and thick layers on laser lifted-off light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(9), H904–H907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. W.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koyama, K.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, N. Aota, H. Takeda, and K. Koyama, “Control of initial bow of sapphire substrates for III-nitride epitaxy by internally focused laser processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 361(1), 135–141 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and K. Koyama, “Reduction of bowing in GaN-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon substrates by stress implantation by internally focused laser processing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 016504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. H.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y. K.

Kuo, Y. T.

Kwon, H.-K.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kyong Cho, H.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. R.

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. T.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).

Lee, H. J.

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. I.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. S.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leem, J. Y.

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H. J.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J. M.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, P. P.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, P. C.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, D.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mogilatenko, A.

F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Na, H.

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oh, T. S.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Okada, T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, A. H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quinn, W.

E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).

Ramer, J. C.

M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Robertson, C. A.

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Romanov, A. E.

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ryu, J. H.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ryu, M. Y.

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sakai, M.

M. Sakai, T. Egawa, M. Hao, and H. Ishikawa, “Effect of various interlayers on epiwafer bowing in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8019–8023 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seo, T. H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shei, S. C.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, H. D.

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Steimetz, E.

E. Steimetz, F. Brunner, and M. Weyers, “Eliminating bowing in blue LED and laser epi,” Semiconductor Today 2(3), 38–40 (2007).

Su, Y. K.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suh, E. K.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures forenergy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takeda, H.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and K. Koyama, “Reduction of bowing in GaN-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon substrates by stress implantation by internally focused laser processing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 016504 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, N. Aota, H. Takeda, and K. Koyama, “Control of initial bow of sapphire substrates for III-nitride epitaxy by internally focused laser processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 361(1), 135–141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, M.

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures forenergy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ting, C. J.

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T. Y.

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsay, J. D.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tu, L. W.

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

Volf, B.

M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Waki, R.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. P.

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. H.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. K.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wen, K. S.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wen, T. C.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Steimetz, F. Brunner, and M. Weyers, “Eliminating bowing in blue LED and laser epi,” Semiconductor Today 2(3), 38–40 (2007).

Wu, H. W.

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, L. W.

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yi, X. Y.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoon, E.

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zettler, J. T.

F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Y.

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the crystalline state of sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

H. Aida, K. Koyama, D. Martin, K. Ikejiri, T. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. W. Kim, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and N. Grandjean, “Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrate with internally focused layer processing,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 035502 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Li, P. P. Li, J. J. Kang, Z. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, J. M. Li, and G. H. Wang, “Quantum efficiency enhancement of 530 nm InGaN green light-emitting diodes with shallow quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(5), 052102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. W. Chang, C. Y. Chen, T. L. Chang, C. J. Ting, C. P. Wang, and C. P. Chou, “Sapphire surface patterning using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 109(2), 441–448 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures forenergy-saving solid-state lighting toward ‘lighting revolution’,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. Brunner, A. Mogilatenko, A. Knauer, M. Weyers, and J. T. Zettler, “Analysis of doping induced wafer bow during GaN:Si growth on sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033503 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, A. E. Romanov, E. C. Young, C. A. Robertson, G. E. Beltz, and J. S. Speck, “Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(3), 035104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (6)

H. H. Huang, C. L. Chao, T. W. Chi, Y. L. Chang, P. C. Liu, L. W. Tu, J. D. Tsay, H. C. Kuo, S. J. Cheng, and W. I. Lee, “Strain-reduced GaN thick-film grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy utilizing dot air-bridged structure,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3029–3032 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ryu, S. Chandramohan, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, H. Kyong Cho, H. D. Song, and H.-K. Kwon, “Minimization of wafer bowing in GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by selective area growth using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 314(1), 66–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Belousov, B. Volf, J. C. Ramer, E. A. Armour, and A. Gurary, “In situ metrology advances in MOCVD growth of GaN-based materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 94–99 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, N. Aota, H. Takeda, and K. Koyama, “Control of initial bow of sapphire substrates for III-nitride epitaxy by internally focused laser processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 361(1), 135–141 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Hsu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, J. K. Sheu, C. T. Lee, T. C. Wen, L. W. Wu, C. H. Kuo, C. S. Chang, and S. C. Shei, “Lateral epitaxial patterned sapphire InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 261(4), 466–470 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, H. W. Wu, S. T. Chen, T. Y. Tsai, X. Zheng, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction of laterally regrown GaN on GaN/patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 3063–3066 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. Kim, “Effect of residual stress of thin and thick layers on laser lifted-off light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(9), H904–H907 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

A. Heltzel, A. Battula, J. R. Howell, and S. Chen, “Nanostructuring borosilicate glass with near-field enhanced energy using a femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Heat Transfer 129(1), 53–59 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, and R. H. Horng, “Growth and characterization of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2–3), 714–718 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Sakai, T. Egawa, M. Hao, and H. Ishikawa, “Effect of various interlayers on epiwafer bowing in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8019–8023 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Aida, H. Takeda, N. Aota, and K. Koyama, “Reduction of bowing in GaN-on-sapphire and GaN-on-silicon substrates by stress implantation by internally focused laser processing,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 016504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

K. J. Lee, H. J. Lee, C. R. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Ryu, and J. Y. Leem, “Spatial emission distribution of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes depending on the pattern structures,” Mater. Res. Bull. 58(1), 121–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semiconductor Today (2)

E. Amour, F. Lu, M. Belousov, D. Lee, and W. Quinn, ““LED growth compatibility between 2”, 4” and 6” sapphire,” Semiconductor Today 4(3), 82–86 (2009).

E. Steimetz, F. Brunner, and M. Weyers, “Eliminating bowing in blue LED and laser epi,” Semiconductor Today 2(3), 38–40 (2007).

Thin Solid Films (2)

K. H. Lee, S. H. Park, J. H. Kim, N. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, H. Na, and E. Yoon, “MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain,” Thin Solid Films 518(22), 6365–6368 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, T. H. Seo, A. H. Park, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Defect structure originating from threading dislocations within the GaN film grown on a convex patterned sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 519(8), 2398–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics and (b) FE-SEM image of the GP realized by laser processing on a sapphire substrate. (c) The amount of wafer bowing for the LED samples, where the solid line is only guide for the eyes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fluorescence microscopy images of the (a) C-LED and (b) GP2-LED samples, where the inset is the low-magnified image.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Mapping images for PL wavelength of the (a) C-LED, (b) GP1-LED, (c) GP2-LED, and (d) GP3-LED, where the region with the dimension of 5 mm from edge was excluded. Summary on (e) distribution of PL wavelength and (f) average PL intensity for LED samples, where the solid lines are only guides for the eyes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Mapping images for EL wavelength of the (a) C-LED, (b) GP1-LED, (c) GP2-LED, and (d) GP3-LED at injection current of 20 mA. (e) Summary on the distribution of EL wavelength for LED samples, where the solid lines are only guides for the eyes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mapping images for the output power of the (a) C-LED, (b) GP1-LED, (c) GP2-LED, and (d) GP3-LED at injection current of 20 mA. (e) The output powers of LED samples at the injection current from 4 to 200 mA.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SD= ( X i X ¯ ) 2 n1 .

Metrics