Abstract

White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) are regarded as the general lighting source. Although color rendering index (CRI) and luminous efficacy are usually in trade-off relation, we will discuss about the optimization of both characteristics, particularly focusing on the spectrum of a blue emitter. The emission at a shorter wavelength is substantially important for achieving very high CRI (> 90). The luminous efficacy of a phosphorescent blue emitter is low as its color falls in the deeper blue range; however, that does not show any significant influence on the WOLEDs. WOLEDs with different blue dopants are compared to confirm the calculation of the CRI and luminous efficacy, and the optimized WOLEDs exhibit luminous efficacy of 38.3 lm/W and CRI of 90.9.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Kawamura, S. Yanagida, and S. R. Forrest, “Energy transfer in polymer electrophosphorescent light emitting devices with single and multiple doped luminescent layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 87–93 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. H. Kim, J. Jang, and J. Y. Lee, “Improved efficiency in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using double doping structure,” Synth. Met. 157(4–5), 228–230 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).
  25. X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

T. Zhang, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, N. Jiang, and Z.-H. Lu, “A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20517 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, V. Kittichungchit, N. Ide, and T. Komoda, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with over 100 lm/W for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 21(12), 529–540 (2014).

J. Chen, F. Zhao, and D. Ma, “Hybrid white OLEDs with fluorophors and phosphors,” Mater. Today 17(4), 175–183 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

2011 (3)

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, and J. Y. Lee, “Improved efficiency in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using double doping structure,” Synth. Met. 157(4–5), 228–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Kawamura, S. Yanagida, and S. R. Forrest, “Energy transfer in polymer electrophosphorescent light emitting devices with single and multiple doped luminescent layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 87–93 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Ban, X.

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batagoda, T.

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

Chen, H.-F.

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, F. Zhao, and D. Ma, “Hybrid white OLEDs with fluorophors and phosphors,” Mater. Today 17(4), 175–183 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-H.

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-Z.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, D.-H.

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, N. S.

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chou, Y.-C.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chu Lim, S.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coburn, C.

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Djurovich, P. I.

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, J.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

Forrest, S. R.

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawamura, S. Yanagida, and S. R. Forrest, “Energy transfer in polymer electrophosphorescent light emitting devices with single and multiple doped luminescent layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 87–93 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gessmann, Th.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-H.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, S.-J.

T. Zhang, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, N. Jiang, and Z.-H. Lu, “A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20517 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirasawa, M.

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

Huang, B.

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, J. W.

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, C.-S.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, D.-H.

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ide, N.

K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, V. Kittichungchit, N. Ide, and T. Komoda, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with over 100 lm/W for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 21(12), 529–540 (2014).

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

Jang, J.

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, and J. Y. Lee, “Improved efficiency in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using double doping structure,” Synth. Met. 157(4–5), 228–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jang, S.

S. Jang, Y. Lee, and M. C. Park, “OLED lighting for general lighting applications,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers46(1), 661–663 (2015).

Jiang, N.

T. Zhang, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, N. Jiang, and Z.-H. Lu, “A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20517 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joo, C. W.

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jou, J.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jou, Y.-C.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, N.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

Kawamura, Y.

Y. Kawamura, S. Yanagida, and S. R. Forrest, “Energy transfer in polymer electrophosphorescent light emitting devices with single and multiple doped luminescent layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 87–93 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

Kim, J.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, and J. Y. Lee, “Improved efficiency in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using double doping structure,” Synth. Met. 157(4–5), 228–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kittichungchit, V.

K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, V. Kittichungchit, N. Ide, and T. Komoda, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with over 100 lm/W for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 21(12), 529–540 (2014).

Klubek, K. P.

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

Komoda, T.

K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, V. Kittichungchit, N. Ide, and T. Komoda, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with over 100 lm/W for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 21(12), 529–540 (2014).

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

Kuk Lee, B.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, B.-H.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G.-W.

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kim, J. Jang, and J. Y. Lee, “Improved efficiency in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using double doping structure,” Synth. Met. 157(4–5), 228–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-I.

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

S. Jang, Y. Lee, and M. C. Park, “OLED lighting for general lighting applications,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers46(1), 661–663 (2015).

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-L.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liao, L. S.

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-R.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.-H.

T. Zhang, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, N. Jiang, and Z.-H. Lu, “A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20517 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, D.

J. Chen, F. Zhao, and D. Ma, “Hybrid white OLEDs with fluorophors and phosphors,” Mater. Today 17(4), 175–183 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matsuhisa, Y.

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

Moon, J.

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mori, K.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

Nakada, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

Nakanishi, H.

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

Park, J.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, M. C.

S. Jang, Y. Lee, and M. C. Park, “OLED lighting for general lighting applications,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers46(1), 661–663 (2015).

Pu, Y.-J.

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

Shen, S.-M.

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-W.

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, W. J.

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sung Cho, N.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tae Lim, J.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, C. W.

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomschke, M.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsuji, H.

K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, V. Kittichungchit, N. Ide, and T. Komoda, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with over 100 lm/W for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 21(12), 529–540 (2014).

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

Vandersteegen, P.

Varutt, K.

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

Wang, C.-W.

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.-K.

T. Zhang, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, N. Jiang, and Z.-H. Lu, “A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20517 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-S.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

Wei, M.-K.

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.-H.

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.-S.

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, R.-Z.

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xi, Y.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamae, K.

K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, V. Kittichungchit, N. Ide, and T. Komoda, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with over 100 lm/W for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 21(12), 529–540 (2014).

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

Yanagida, S.

Y. Kawamura, S. Yanagida, and S. R. Forrest, “Energy transfer in polymer electrophosphorescent light emitting devices with single and multiple doped luminescent layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 87–93 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-H.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, M.

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yano, S.

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

Ye, S.

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoi, A.

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

Yoo, S.

Yu, B.-G.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, C.

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, N. Jiang, and Z.-H. Lu, “A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20517 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, F.

J. Chen, F. Zhao, and D. Ma, “Hybrid white OLEDs with fluorophors and phosphors,” Mater. Today 17(4), 175–183 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

X. Ban, K. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Huang, S. Ye, M. Yang, and W. Jiang, “High power efficiency solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using exciplex-type host with a turn-on voltage approaching the theoretical limit,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(45), 25129–25138 (2015).
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Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Sasabe, H. Nakanishi, Y. Watanabe, S. Yano, M. Hirasawa, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “Extremerly low operating voltage green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23, 5550–5555 (2013).

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “Manipulating charges and excitons within a single-host system to accomplish efficiency/CRI/color-stability trade-off for high-performance OWLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2397–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004).
[Crossref]

ETRI J. (1)

J. Lee, W. J. Sung, C. W. Joo, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, G.-W. Lee, D.-H. Hwang, and J.-I. Lee, “Simplified bilayer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” ETRI J. 38(2), 260–264 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
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Y. Kawamura, S. Yanagida, and S. R. Forrest, “Energy transfer in polymer electrophosphorescent light emitting devices with single and multiple doped luminescent layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 87–93 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Displ. (1)

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Displ. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J.-H. Jou, Y.-C. Chou, S.-M. Shen, M.-H. Wu, P.-S. Wu, C.-R. Lin, R.-Z. Wu, S.-H. Chen, M.-K. Wei, and C.-W. Wang, “High-efficiency, very-high color rendering white organic light-emitting diode with a high triplet interlayer,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(46), 18523–18526 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Displ. (2)

T. Komoda, N. Ide, K. Varutt, K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, and Y. Matsuhisa, “High-performance white OLEDs with high color-rendering index for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 19(11), 838–846 (2011).

K. Yamae, H. Tsuji, V. Kittichungchit, N. Ide, and T. Komoda, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with over 100 lm/W for next-generation solid-state lighting,” J. Soc. Inf. Displ. 21(12), 529–540 (2014).

Mater. Today (1)

J. Chen, F. Zhao, and D. Ma, “Hybrid white OLEDs with fluorophors and phosphors,” Mater. Today 17(4), 175–183 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. Lee, H.-F. Chen, T. Batagoda, C. Coburn, P. I. Djurovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with very high brightness and efficiency,” Nat. Mater. 15(1), 92–98 (2015).
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Opt. Express (1)

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H. Cho, J. Lee, J.-I. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. H. Park, J. Y. Lee, and Y. Kang, “Phenylimidazole-based homoleptic iridium(III) compounds for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime,” Org. Electron. 34, 91–96 (2016).
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J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, C.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Chou, S.-Z. Chen, and Y.-C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
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S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

T. Zhang, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, N. Jiang, and Z.-H. Lu, “A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20517 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. H. Kim, J. Jang, and J. Y. Lee, “Improved efficiency in red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using double doping structure,” Synth. Met. 157(4–5), 228–230 (2007).
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S. Jang, Y. Lee, and M. C. Park, “OLED lighting for general lighting applications,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers46(1), 661–663 (2015).

T. Matsumoto, T. Nakada, J. Endo, K. Mori, N. Kawamura, A. Yokoi, and J. Kido, “Multiphoton organic EL device having charge generation Layer,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers34(1), 979–981 (2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of FIrpic and Ir(itpim)3. The EL spectra of red and yellow-green are also plotted. (b) The example of arbitrary white spectrum constructed by the relative portion of blue: yellow-green: red spectrum = 1:2:3. CRI of arbitrary white spectra with (c) Ir(itpim)3 and (d) FIrpic dopant according to the portion of red (x-axis) and yellow-green (y-axis).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Luminous efficacy of arbitrary white spectra with (a) Ir(itpim)3 and (b) FIrpic dopant according to the red (x-axis) and yellow-green (y-axis) portions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 External quantum efficiency (EQE) contour plots of (a) blue and (b) red emissions as functions of the hole transporting layer (HTL) and electron transporting layer (ETL) thicknesses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Device structure of tandem WOLED and the EL spectra of (b) 1st and (c) 2nd EML as a function of relative doping concentration. Inset: the EQE of 2nd EML-based unit device as a function of relative doping concentration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Current density (J)voltage (V)luminance (L) characteristics and (b) the normalized electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the WOLEDs.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Two-stack tandem structure designs based micro-cavity approach

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Table 2 Efficiency and CRI of 2-stacked tandem WOLEDs at 2.5 mA/cm2

Equations (2)

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S W = x R S R + y G S G + S B ,
η P = F P = 683.0 E El ( λ ) η oc V( λ )dλ E El ( λ ) 1 η int qVλ hc dλ ,

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