Abstract

We have proposed a mode multi/demultiplexer based on the echelle grating suitable for vertical multimode bus waveguide. Compared with the lateral multimode waveguide, the vertical scheme has much smaller bending radius which leads to compact system size. The guided modes in the multimode waveguide are able to be separated simultaneously by the echelle grating since they experiences different propagation constants in the free propagation region. Due to the high performance of the grating itself, the theoretical modal crosstalk can be as low as around −40dB. Moreover, we demonstrate the possibility to integrate WDM together with MDM by using only one echelle grating, which is favorable in real applications considering the compact system setup and simple design rules.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

K. Bremer, S. Lochmann, and B. Roth, “Grating assisted optical waveguide coupler to excite individual modes of a multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 356, 560–564 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, S. Wang, S. Chen, S. Wang, C. Zhang, D. Dai, and L. Liu, “Experimental demonstration of simultaneous mode and polarization-division multiplexing based on silicon densely packed waveguide array,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4655–4658 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2005 (2)

D. Dai, J. J. He, and S. He, “Elimination of multimode effects in a silicon-on-insulator etched diffraction grating demultiplexer with bi-level taper structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 439–443 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, C. M. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Demonstration of mode conversion using anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4180–4184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergmen, K.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolle, C. A.

Bremer, K.

K. Bremer, S. Lochmann, and B. Roth, “Grating assisted optical waveguide coupler to excite individual modes of a multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 356, 560–564 (2015).
[Crossref]

Castro, J.

Chen, C. P.

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Chen, P.

Chen, S.

Chen, W.

Da Ros, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

Ding, Y.

Driscoll, J. B.

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Essiambre, R. J.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Foschini, G. J.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geraghty, D. F.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goebel, B.

Greiner, C. M.

Grote, R. R.

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J. J.

D. Dai, J. J. He, and S. He, “Elimination of multimode effects in a silicon-on-insulator etched diffraction grating demultiplexer with bi-level taper structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 439–443 (2005).
[Crossref]

He, S.

N. Zhu, J. Song, L. Wosinski, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Experimental demonstration of a cross-order echelle grating triplexer based on an amorphous silicon nanowire platform,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 383–385 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, J. J. He, and S. He, “Elimination of multimode effects in a silicon-on-insulator etched diffraction grating demultiplexer with bi-level taper structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 439–443 (2005).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

Huang, B.

Huang, Y. Z.

Iazikov, D.

Ishizaka, Y.

Jia, P.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Koshiba, M.

Kramer, G.

Lei, T.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Yang, Y. Li, Y. Z. Huang, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon nitride three-mode division multiplexing and wavelength-division multiplexing using asymmetrical directional couplers and microring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22172–22183 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lingle, R.

Lipson, M.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G. N.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Lochmann, S.

K. Bremer, S. Lochmann, and B. Roth, “Grating assisted optical waveguide coupler to excite individual modes of a multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 356, 560–564 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Luo, L. W.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCurdy, A.

Mei, T.

N. Zhu and T. Mei, “Focusing and demultiplexing of an in-plane hybrid plasmonic mode based on the planar concave grating,” Opt. Commun. 298, 120–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Min, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mossberg, T. W.

Niu, H.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, H.

Peckham, D. W.

Peucheret, C.

Poitras, C. B.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poon, A. W.

Randel, S.

Roth, B.

K. Bremer, S. Lochmann, and B. Roth, “Grating assisted optical waveguide coupler to excite individual modes of a multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 356, 560–564 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Saitoh, K.

Shi, Y.

Sierra, A.

Song, J.

Souhan, B.

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

Thylen, L.

Uematsu, T.

Wang, J.

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

Winzer, P. J.

Wosinski, L.

Xu, J.

Xu, X.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, W.

Yang, Y. D.

Ye, M.

Yu, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Yuan, X.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, M.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhu, N.

N. Zhu and T. Mei, “Focusing and demultiplexing of an in-plane hybrid plasmonic mode based on the planar concave grating,” Opt. Commun. 298, 120–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Zhu, J. Song, L. Wosinski, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Experimental demonstration of a cross-order echelle grating triplexer based on an amorphous silicon nanowire platform,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 383–385 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, J.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Dai, J. J. He, and S. He, “Elimination of multimode effects in a silicon-on-insulator etched diffraction grating demultiplexer with bi-level taper structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 439–443 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. P. Chen, J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Mode and polarization multiplexing in a Si photonic chip at 40Gb/s aggregate data bandwidth,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(1), 22–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by dammann grating,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. Bremer, S. Lochmann, and B. Roth, “Grating assisted optical waveguide coupler to excite individual modes of a multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 356, 560–564 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Zhu and T. Mei, “Focusing and demultiplexing of an in-plane hybrid plasmonic mode based on the planar concave grating,” Opt. Commun. 298, 120–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, J. Xu, F. Da Ros, B. Huang, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10376–10382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, “Multimode optical waveguide enabling microbends with low inter-mode crosstalk for mode-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27524–27534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Yang, Y. Li, Y. Z. Huang, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon nitride three-mode division multiplexing and wavelength-division multiplexing using asymmetrical directional couplers and microring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22172–22183 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, C. M. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Demonstration of mode conversion using anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4180–4184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. J. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle., “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16697–16707 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, P. Wang, and J. Yang, “Mode multi/demultiplexer based on cascaded asymmetric Y-junctions,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25113–25119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The electric field amplitudes of the first three quasi-TE modes in the Si vertical multimode waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The principle of the echelle grating demultiplexer for WDM applications.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The simulated output spectra of all three modes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The schematic layout of a hybrid system consisting of j × i channels, where all the j × i channels from the input waveguide will be refocused according to their diffraction angles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The simulated output spectra of all 3 × 3 channels, where in the legend “w” represents the wavelength number while “m” represents the mode number.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Design parameters of the Echelle grating in the hybrid multiplexing system.

Equations (1)

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n e f f Λ ( sin θ i + sin θ d ) = m λ .

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