Abstract

We report mid-infrared (MIR) nonlinear absorption in As2S3 glasses which results from two-photon excitation of valence electron to the Urbach extension followed by strong linear absorption of excited states. The measured MIR nonlinear absorption can be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude stronger than the two-photon absorption in the near-infrared for similar laser intensities and does not result from contaminants, but it is intrinsic to As2S3 glasses. As2S3 fibers are widely used to generate supercontinuum by pumping them with high peak power laser pulses. For a 100 kilowatt peak power MIR soliton propagating in single mode As2S3 fiber, the nonlinear absorption can be of similar magnitude than the fiber background loss. Finally, for laser peak power around 1 MW, the MIR nonlinear absorption can be ~2 orders of magnitude larger than the fiber background loss in single mode As2S3 fiber.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (3)

2014 (5)

2013 (6)

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered As2S3 chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Cherif and M. Zghal, “Ultrabroadband, midinfrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered As2Se3-based chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Int. J. Opt. 2013, 1–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, M. El Amraoui, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, Z. Duan, D. Deng, T. Cheng, T. Suzuki, Y. Messaddeq, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended-core As2S3 chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9573–9583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, T. Wang, P. Ma, R. Wang, Z. Yang, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1075–1086 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, N. Venkatram, J. Gosciniak, Y. Cui, G. Qian, W. Ji, and D. T. H. Tan, “Multi-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearity in silicon at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32192–32198 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074008 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

F. Gholami, S. Zlatanovic, A. Simic, L. Liu, D. Borlaug, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Third order nonlinearity in silicon beyond 2350 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081102 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Octave spanning supercontinuum in an As₂S₃ taper using ultralow pump pulse energy,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1122–1124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H.-T. Wang, “Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091118 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. N. Rao, “Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12258–12263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

H. Schroeder and S. L. Chin, “Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 399–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripatchev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

1996 (1)

1992 (2)

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers-Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Solieau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered As2S3 chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Octave spanning supercontinuum in an As₂S₃ taper using ultralow pump pulse energy,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1122–1124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, E. Magi, F. Luan, A. Tuniz, S. Dekker, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization of picosecond pulse nonlinear propagation in chalcogenide As(2)S(3) fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5467–5474 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

F. Gholami, S. Zlatanovic, A. Simic, L. Liu, D. Borlaug, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Third order nonlinearity in silicon beyond 2350 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Amrani, F.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153 (1992).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Béjot, P.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As-S and As-free Ge-S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121(4), 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Billard, F.

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As-S and As-free Ge-S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121(4), 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borlaug, D.

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J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

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R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
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J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered As2S3 chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
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C. Xiong, E. Magi, F. Luan, A. Tuniz, S. Dekker, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization of picosecond pulse nonlinear propagation in chalcogenide As(2)S(3) fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5467–5474 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Sathyavathi, R.

Schaffer, C.

Schmidt, B. E.

F. Théberge, N. Thiré, J.-F. Daigle, P. Mathieu, B. E. Schmidt, Y. Messaddeq, R. Vallée, and F. Légaré, “Multioctave infrared supercontinuum generation in large-core As₂S₃ fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6474–6477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. A.

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Schroeder and S. L. Chin, “Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 399–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schuler, H.

Schunemann, P. G.

Scripatchev, I. V.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripatchev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Seddon, A.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shaw, L. B.

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered As2S3 chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Octave spanning supercontinuum in an As₂S₃ taper using ultralow pump pulse energy,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1122–1124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, E. Magi, F. Luan, A. Tuniz, S. Dekker, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization of picosecond pulse nonlinear propagation in chalcogenide As(2)S(3) fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5467–5474 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers-Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Solieau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

Shiner, A. D.

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shiryaev, V. S.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripatchev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Simic, A.

F. Gholami, S. Zlatanovic, A. Simic, L. Liu, D. Borlaug, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Third order nonlinearity in silicon beyond 2350 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Skripatchev, I.

Slagle, J. E.

Smektala, F.

Snopatin, G. E.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripatchev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

Solieau, M. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Solieau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Song, F.

Strutynski, C.

Sujecki, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

Suzuki, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153 (1992).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

Szpulak, M.

Tan, D. T. H.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy of As2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 177–179 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, N. Thiré, J.-F. Daigle, P. Mathieu, B. E. Schmidt, Y. Messaddeq, R. Vallée, and F. Légaré, “Multioctave infrared supercontinuum generation in large-core As₂S₃ fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6474–6477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thiré, N.

Tian, J.-G.

Toupin, P.

Trallero-Herrero, C. A.

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

Tuniz, A.

Vallée, R.

Van Campenhout, J.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers-Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Solieau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vasseur, O.

Venkatram, N.

Verheyen, P.

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verlan, V.

V. Verlan, “Density of localized state of free carriers in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” IEEE Semiconductor Conf.2, 423–426 (2002).

Villeneuve, D. M.

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

von der Linde, D.

Wang, H.-T.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H.-T. Wang, “Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091118 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, R.

Wang, T.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

Xu, T.

Xu, Y.

Xu, Z.

Yang, Z.

Yao, B.

Yu, Y.

Zang, W.-P.

Zghal, M.

R. Cherif and M. Zghal, “Ultrabroadband, midinfrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered As2Se3-based chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Int. J. Opt. 2013, 1–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhai, C.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, C.-P.

Zhang, J.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

Zhou, W.-Y.

Zlatanovic, S.

F. Gholami, S. Zlatanovic, A. Simic, L. Liu, D. Borlaug, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Third order nonlinearity in silicon beyond 2350 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Mouawad, P. Béjot, F. Billard, P. Mathey, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, O. Faucher, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared filamentation-induced supercontinuum in As-S and As-free Ge-S counterpart chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 121(4), 433–438 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy of As2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 177–179 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Gholami, S. Zlatanovic, A. Simic, L. Liu, D. Borlaug, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Third order nonlinearity in silicon beyond 2350 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081102 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H.-T. Wang, “Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091118 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Opt. (1)

R. Cherif and M. Zghal, “Ultrabroadband, midinfrared supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered As2Se3-based chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Int. J. Opt. 2013, 1–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (2)

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripatchev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “High purity glasses based on arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 341–349 (2001).

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, F. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

X. Gai, Y. Yu, B. Kuyken, P. Ma, S. J. Madden, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in crystalline silicon in the mid-infrared,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1054–1064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “A mid-IR source with increased bandwidth using tapered As2S3 chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 293, 116–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Schroeder and S. L. Chin, “Visualization of the evolution of multiple filaments in methanol,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 399–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Solieau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

C. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. Glezer, A. Kim, and E. Mazur, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water from femtoseconds to microseconds,” Opt. Express 10(3), 196–203 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El-Amraoui, J. Fatome, J. C. Jules, B. Kibler, G. Gadret, C. Fortier, F. Smektala, I. Skripatchev, C. F. Polacchini, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, M. Szpulak, and G. Renversez, “Strong infrared spectral broadening in low-loss As-S chalcogenide suspended core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4547–4556 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Troles, Q. Coulombier, G. Canat, M. Duhant, W. Renard, P. Toupin, L. Calvez, G. Renversez, F. Smektala, M. El Amraoui, J. L. Adam, T. Chartier, D. Mechin, and L. Brilland, “Low loss microstructured chalcogenide fibers for large non linear effects at 1995 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26647–26654 (2010).
[PubMed]

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. N. Rao, “Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12258–12263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered chalcogenide fiber for producing octave-spanning frequency comb around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24218–24225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, M. El Amraoui, M. Liao, H. Kawashima, Z. Duan, D. Deng, T. Cheng, T. Suzuki, Y. Messaddeq, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended-core As2S3 chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9573–9583 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, N. Venkatram, J. Gosciniak, Y. Cui, G. Qian, W. Ji, and D. T. H. Tan, “Multi-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearity in silicon at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32192–32198 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Durand, A. Houard, K. Lim, A. Durécu, O. Vasseur, and M. Richardson, “Study of filamentation threshold in zinc selenide,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5852–5858 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, F. Chen, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, X. Shen, T. Xu, R. Wang, and W. Ji, “Mid-infrared optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses in Ge-Sb-Se ternary system,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1300–1307 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “All-fiber chalcogenide-based mid-infrared supercontinuum source,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

K. F. Lee, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, W. Chang, L. Wang, Q. Coulombier, J. Troles, N. Leindecker, K. L. Vodopyanov, P. G. Schunemann, M. E. Fermann, P. St. J. Russell, and I. Hartl, “Midinfrared frequency combs from coherent supercontinuum in chalcogenide and optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2056–2059 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mouawad, J. Picot-Clémente, F. Amrani, C. Strutynski, J. Fatome, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, D. Deng, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Multioctave midinfrared supercontinuum generation in suspended-core chalcogenide fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2684–2687 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Thiré, J.-F. Daigle, P. Mathieu, B. E. Schmidt, Y. Messaddeq, R. Vallée, and F. Légaré, “Multioctave infrared supercontinuum generation in large-core As₂S₃ fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6474–6477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Octave spanning supercontinuum in an As₂S₃ taper using ultralow pump pulse energy,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1122–1124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “1.8-10 μm mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a step-index chalcogenide fiber using low peak pump power,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 1081–1084 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Kramers-Krönig relations in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Ch. 33.

V. Verlan, “Density of localized state of free carriers in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” IEEE Semiconductor Conf.2, 423–426 (2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Z-scan setup. (b) Spectral distribution for the NIR pump pulse. (c) Spectral distribution for the MIR pump pulses. (d) Z-scan trace in silicon and two-photon absorption (TPA) fit at 2 μm pump wavelength. (e) Z-scan trace in silicon and four-photon absorption (4PA) fit at 4.56 μm pump wavelength.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Linear absorption spectrum of two As2S3 chalcogenide samples. (b) Z-scan trace in As2S3 sample A at 4.56 μm pump wavelength. Arrows indicate the positions where the output spectrum of the pump laser was measured. (c) Spectral distribution for the output 4.56 μm pump pulses for different position of the As2S3 sample along the Z-axis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured and simulated nonlinear absorption as a function of laser intensity for different pump wavelengths. (a) For sample A made of pure As2S3, and (b) for sample B with contaminated As2S3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic representation of energy diagram of As2S3 and the multi-photon excitation processes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transmission loss for the 100 μm core As2S3 fiber. (b)-(f) Spectral distribution of generated supercontinua for a injected MIR laser pulse centered at 4.56 μm and 700 nJ input energy for different As2S3 fiber length. (g) Measured output energy (black square) and estimated output energy based on measured supercontinuum spectral distribution and fiber linear absorption (red circle).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Nonlinear absorption parameters for sample A

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Table 2 Nonlinear absorption parameters for sample B

Equations (5)

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T= [ ( 1+d( n+1 ) α n I n1 ( z ) ) n1 ] 1 .
L nl =10log{ exp( ln( [ 1+( n1 ) α n I n1 d ] 1 n1 ) d ) }.
I z = σ n N 0 I n σ s N s I
N s ( t )= σ n N 0 nhν t I n ( t )d t
N 0 ( t )=N N s ( t )

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