Abstract

Optical multicasting that supports point-to-multipoint traffic replication can be one of the necessary techniques in next-generation all-optical elastic networks. In this paper, we propose an optical multicasting approach for polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals based on a novel polarization-interleaved multi-pump (PIMP) four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Besides format transparency and the support of PDM signals, the scheme further enables wide spectral tunability of generated replicas. The pump frequency arrangement for the scheme is presented, which successfully prevents the replicas from being superimposed by unwanted FWM components during tuning. We experimentally demonstrate multicasting operation of a 3-band 100-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal. With different input positions, 1.4 and 1.6 Terahertz tuning ranges of four replicas are achieved with Q-factor performance better than the forward error correction threshold. Tunable replica spacing from 100-GHz to 250-GHz are also verified. In addition, the scalability of the scheme is demonstrated via 5-pump multicasting, successfully generating a total of 14 replicas.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

2015 (6)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1775–1777 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. K. Pankaj, “Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7(3), 414–424 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

K. Inoue, “Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(11), 1553–1561 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abedin, K. S.

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “DPSK multicast using multiple-pump FWM in Bismuths highly nonlinear fiber with high multicast efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21964–21970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “All-optical broadband tunable wavelength multicasting using a pump modulated wide-band fiber optical parametric amplifier with high and flat gain,” in Proc. European Conference of Optical Communications (2007), pp. 1–2.

Ali, M.

Alic, N.

V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical parametric multicasting linearization based on distortion correcting tables,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(14), 1527–1530 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Scalable multicasting in one-pump parametric amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 356–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ataie, V.

V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical parametric multicasting linearization based on distortion correcting tables,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(14), 1527–1530 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beeker, W.

Berrettini, G.

Betoule, C.

Bogoni, A.

Bosco, G.

Bres, C.-S.

Burla, M.

Cai, X.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

Carena, A.

Castoldi, P.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, L.

J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, and S. Wen, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high nonlinear fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5767–5774 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, Z. Dong, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1274–1280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, T.

Chitgarha, M. R.

Ciaramella, E.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1775–1777 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clavier, R.

Contestabile, G.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1775–1777 (2004).
[Crossref]

Corcoran, B.

Cousin, B.

Curri, V.

Dong, Z.

J. Lu, Z. Dong, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1274–1280 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, and S. Wen, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high nonlinear fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5767–5774 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dumas-Feris, B.

Ellinas, G.

Elschner, R.

Fontaine, N.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Foo, B.

Forghieri, F.

Fresi, F.

Froc, G.

Galili, M.

Ge, C.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ge, D.

Geisler, D.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, L.

Gravey, P.

Grot, D.

Guillossou, T.

Guo, B.

He, Y.

He, Z.

Hu, H.

Hvam, J. M.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, “Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(11), 1553–1561 (1992).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

Jaouen, Y.

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Ji, Y.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jinno, M.

Karaki, J.

Kato, T.

Khaleghi, S.

Kozicki, B.

Le Bidan, R.

Le Gall, T.

Leinse, A.

Li, C.

Li, H.

C. Li, M. Luo, Z. He, H. Li, J. Xu, S. You, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Phase noise cancelled polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion of 557-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal using coherent dual pump,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(13), 2848–2854 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

Lowery, A. J.

Lu, G.-W.

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “DPSK multicast using multiple-pump FWM in Bismuths highly nonlinear fiber with high multicast efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21964–21970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “All-optical broadband tunable wavelength multicasting using a pump modulated wide-band fiber optical parametric amplifier with high and flat gain,” in Proc. European Conference of Optical Communications (2007), pp. 1–2.

Lu, J.

J. Lu, Z. Dong, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1274–1280 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, and S. Wen, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high nonlinear fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5767–5774 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, M.

Luo, T.

Malacarne, A.

Meloni, G.

Miyazaki, T.

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “DPSK multicast using multiple-pump FWM in Bismuths highly nonlinear fiber with high multicast efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21964–21970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “All-optical broadband tunable wavelength multicasting using a pump modulated wide-band fiber optical parametric amplifier with high and flat gain,” in Proc. European Conference of Optical Communications (2007), pp. 1–2.

Molnar, M.

Morvan, M.

Moulinard, M. L.

Myslivets, E.

Namiki, S.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Pan, Z.

Pankaj, R. K.

R. K. Pankaj, “Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7(3), 414–424 (1999).
[Crossref]

Paolucci, F.

Pincemin, E.

Poggiolini, P.

Poti, L.

Poudoulec, A.

Presi, M.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1775–1777 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proietti, R.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

Qiu, S.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

V. Ataie, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical parametric multicasting linearization based on distortion correcting tables,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(14), 1527–1530 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Scalable multicasting in one-pump parametric amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 356–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rahman, T.

Richter, T.

Roeloffzen, C.

Sambo, N.

Scaffardi, M.

Schmidt-Langhorst, C.

Schroder, J.

Schubert, C.

Scott, R.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, M.

Sun, J.

J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “Tunable dual-channel multicasting all-optical 40 Gbit/s logic and operation and format conversion for CSRZ signals,” Electron. Lett. 45(8), 420–421 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “Tunable dual-channel multicasting all-optical 40 Gbit/s logic and operation and format conversion for CSRZ signals,” Electron. Lett. 45(8), 420–421 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takara, H.

Tanimura, T.

Tanizawa, K.

Thouenon, G.

Tsukishima, Y.

Van der Keur, M.

Vercesi, V.

Wang, D.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Q. Sun, and J. Sun, “Tunable dual-channel multicasting all-optical 40 Gbit/s logic and operation and format conversion for CSRZ signals,” Electron. Lett. 45(8), 420–421 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Watanabe, S.

Wen, K.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Willner, A. E.

Wu, Z.

Xiao, G.

Xiong, Q.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, Y.

Xu, Z.

Xue, D.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

Yang, L.

Yang, Q.

C. Li, M. Luo, Z. He, H. Li, J. Xu, S. You, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Phase noise cancelled polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion of 557-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal using coherent dual pump,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(13), 2848–2854 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeo, Y.

Yilmaz, O. F.

Yin, Y.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yonenaga, K.

Yoo, S. J. B.

K. Wen, X. Cai, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. Scott, N. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshimatsu, T.

You, S.

Yu, C.

Yu, J.

Y. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Li, Q. Yang, C. Ge, Q. Xiong, D. Xue, J. Yu, and S. Qiu, “All optical switching networks with energy-efficient technologies from components level to network level,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(8), 1600–1614 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a)-(c) Conceptual spectrum of PIMP-based 3-, 4-, and 5-pump multicasting. Black blocks represent original signal. Red/blue arrows represent H-pol./V-pol. pumps. Yellow blocks represent replicas. Blue blocks represent degenerate FWM components. (d) Proposed structure of multicasting module. PM-WSS: polarization-maintaining wavelength selective switch. BV-WSS: bandwidth-variable wavelength selective switch.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experiment setup of PIMP-based tunable multicasting of PDM-OFDM signal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scenario A: spectra at (a) HNLF input, (b) HNLF output, (c) BV-WSS output.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Q-factor of RO1 vs. signal power (pump power = 23 dBm). (b) Q-factor of RO1 vs. pump power (signal power = 11.25 dBm)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scenario A: (a) Frequency relationship between pumps and replicas. (b) Q-factor vs. replica frequency. (c) constellations of original signal. (d) constellations of RO2 at 194.475-THz. (e) OSNR-BER curve of 4 replicas.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scenario B: (a) Frequency relationship between pumps and replicas. (b) Q-factor vs. replica center frequency.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectra of scenario C: tune replica spacing to (a) 100-GHz, (b) 200-GHz, (c) 250-GHz.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a)-(f) Scenario C: Q-factor performance of replicas when tuning their spacings.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Scenario D (5-pump PIMP-based multicasting): (a) spectra of HNLF output. (b) Q-factor of all replicas and original signal.

Equations (4)

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| f S f M | = | f M f 1 | + ( p + 0.5 ) Δ f ( p + )
f H j + f V k f H m + f V n
f H j + f V k 2 f H m 2 f V n
| f H j f V k | | f V m f V n | | f H j f H k |

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