Abstract

For a long time, light focusing from microspheres has been intensively researched. The microsphere has been shown to be capable of generating a high intensity beam with sub-wavelength width, known as a photonic nanojet (PNJ). In this article, we present a detailed report on the properties of a new asymmetrical microstructure, consisting of a supporting stage and a spherical cap, and demonstrate precise engineering of the PNJ characteristics by simply selecting its geometrical dimensions. More importantly, we find that a single asymmetrical microstructure can generate an ultra-elongated PNJ on the shadow side and the cascade of two asymmetrical elements can generate a PNJ with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) waist down to 0.27λ. In addition, because of the presence of energy convergence regions within the second element, an ultra-narrow PNJ can be generated even when the length of the second element in the cascade is many orders of magnitude greater than the wavelength or deviates somewhat from the optimal dimensions. This offers design flexibility and manufacturing tolerance, which has not been demonstrated in the conventional microsphere design or its derivatives. We believe that these remarkable performance features make the asymmetrical structure and its cascade attractive in numerous applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (7)

C. Liu and C. Li, “Photonic nanojet induced modes generated by a chain of dielectric microdisks,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(1), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Li, Y. Tsao, Y. J. Liu, Z. X. Lou, W. L. Lee, S. W. Chu, and C. W. Chang, “Unusual imaging properties of superresolution microspheres,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16479–16486 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, R. Trouillon, G. Huszka, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Super-resolution imaging of a dielectric microsphere is governed by the waist of its photonic nanojet,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 4862–4870 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yue, B. Yan, and Z. Wang, “Photonic nanojet of cylindrical metalens assembled by hexagonally arranged nanofibers for breaking the diffraction limit,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1336–1339 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Du, Y. Ye, J. Hou, M. Guo, and T. Wang, “Sub-wavelength image stitching with removable microsphere-embedded thin film,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(1), 15 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, R. Zhou, H. Xu, G. Cai, and Z. Cai, “Subsurface nano-imaging with self-assembled spherical cap optical nanoscopy,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4937–4948 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. N. Kallepalli, A. M. Alshehri, D. T. Marquez, L. Andrzejewski, J. C. Scaiano, and R. Bhardwaj, “Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26163 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (13)

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, and Y. E. Geints, “Localized EM and photonic jets from non-spherical and non-asymmetrical dielectric mesoscale objects: Brief review,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(7–8), 491–497 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, V. Pacheco-Peña, and M. Beruete, “Localized photonic jets from flat, three-dimensional dielectric cuboids in the reflection mode,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2329–2332 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. X. Wu, B. J. Huang, R. Chen, Y. Yang, J. F. Wu, R. Ji, X. D. Chen, and M. H. Hong, “Modulation of photonic nanojets generated by microspheres decorated with concentric rings,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20096–20103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Hoang, Y. Duan, X. Chen, and G. Barbastathis, “Focusing and imaging in microsphere-based microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12337–12353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tang, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Ultrabroadband superoscillatory lens composed by plasmonic metasurfaces for subdiffraction light focusing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 713–719 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, D. Zhang, H. Zhang, X. Han, and R. Xu, “Super-resolution optical microscopy based on scannable cantilever-combined microsphere,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 78(12), 1128–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Allen, N. Farahi, Y. Li, N. I. Limberopoulos, D. E. Walker, A. M. Urbas, V. Liberman, and V. N. Astratov, “Super-resolution microscopy by movable thin-films with embedded microspheres: Resolution analysis,” Ann. Phys. 527(7–8), 513–522 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, C. Guardiola, A. Palovcak, J. C. Finlay, and A. Cárabe, “Optical super-resolution imaging by high-index microspheres embedded in elastomers,” Opt. Lett. 40(1), 5–8 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. H. Wong and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Superoscillations without sidebands: power-efficient sub-diffraction imaging with propagating waves,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gu, R. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Xu, G. Cai, Z. Cai, and M. Hong, “Super-long photonic nanojet generated from liquid-filled hollow microcylinder,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 625–628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hengyu, C. Zaichun, C. T. Chong, and H. Minghui, “Photonic jet with ultralong working distance by hemispheric shell,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6626–6633 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. E. Geints, A. A. Zemlyanov, and E. K. Panina, “Microaxicon-generated photonic nanojets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(8), 1570–1574 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, H. S. S. Lai, L. Liu, P. Li, H. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. J. Li, “Super-resolution endoscopy for real-time wide-field imaging,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16803–16811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

K. W. Allen, A. Darafsheh, F. Abolmaali, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021112 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. M. Sundaram and S. Wen, “Analysis of deep sub-micron resolution in microsphere based imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 204102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, L. V. Wang, and J. T. Shen, “Ultralong photonic nanojet formed by a two-layer dielectric microsphere,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4120–4123 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, L. Li, C. Feng, W. Guo, S. Lee, and M. Hong, “Microsphere-coupled scanning laser confocal nanoscope for sub-diffraction-limited imaging at 25 nm lateral resolution in the visible spectrum,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1809–1816 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wen, Y. He, Y. Li, L. Chen, and G. Chen, “Super-oscillation focusing lens based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22163–22171 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, L. Li, and Z. Wang, “Optical resonances in microsphere photonic nanojets,” J. Opt. 16(1), 015704 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

A. M. H. Wong and G. V. Eleftheriades, “An optical super-microscope for far-field, real-time imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1715 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, “Ultra-elongated photonic nanojets generated by a graded-index microellipsoid,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett. 37, 153–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, L. Li, Y. Ben-Aryeh, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, “Overcoming the diffraction limit induced by microsphere optical nanoscopy,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125710 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Duan, G. Barbastathis, and B. Zhang, “Classical imaging theory of a microlens with super-resolution,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 2988–2990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Formation of polarized beams in chains of dielectric spheres and cylinders,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4208–4211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, X. Luo, P. H. Lim, P. Prabhathan, S. T. H. Silalahi, T. Y. Liow, J. Zhang, and F. Luan, “Ultra-compact low loss polarization insensitive silicon waveguide splitter,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16331–16336 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

A. Vlad, I. Huynen, and S. Melinte, “Wavelength-scale lens microscopy via thermal reshaping of colloidal particles,” Nanotechnology 23(28), 285708 (2012).
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D. Kang, C. Pang, S. M. Kim, H. S. Cho, H. S. Um, Y. W. Choi, and K. Y. Suh, “Shape-controllable microlens arrays via direct transfer of photocurable polymer droplets,” Adv. Mater. 24(13), 1709–1715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. E. Geints, A. A. Zemlyanov, and E. K. Panina, “Photonic jets from resonantly excited transparent dielectric microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(4), 758–762 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ben-Aryeh, “Superresolution observed from evanescent waves transmitted through nano-corrugated metallic films,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 165–170 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, “Ultra-high transmission of photonic nanojet induced modes in chains of core-shell microcylinders,” Phys. Lett. A 376(45), 3261–3266 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Jannasch, A. F. Demirörs, P. D. J. van Oostrum, A. van Blaaderen, and E. Schäffer, “Nanonewton optical force trap employing anti-reflection coated, high-refractive-index titania microspheres,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 469–473 (2012).
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A. A. E. Saleh and J. A. Dionne, “Toward Efficient Optical Trapping of Sub-10-nm Particles with Coaxial Plasmonic Apertures,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5581–5586 (2012).
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T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, “Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 068004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, “Contact focusing multimodal microprobes for ultraprecise laser tissue surgery,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3440–3448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Deng, H. Xu, and L. Deych, “Effect of size disorder on the optical transport in chains of coupled microspherical resonators,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6923–6937 (2011).
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M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
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X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Microsphere based microsphere with optical super-resolution capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. C. Kong, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Quasi one-dimensional light beam generated by a graded-index microsphere,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3722–3731 (2009).
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A. Heifetz, S. C. Kong, A. V. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojets,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6(9), 1979–1992 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

N. I. Zheludev, “What diffraction limit?” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 420–422 (2008).
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M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, “Subwavelength direct-write nanopatterning using optically trapped microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(7), 413–417 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang and V. N. Astratov, “Photonic nanojet-induced modes in chains of size-disordered microspheres with an attenuation of only 0.08 dB per sphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261111 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. C. Kong, A. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet-enabled optical data storage,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13713–13719 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small 4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
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2007 (7)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J. Xi, “Low-refractive-index materials: A new class of optical thin-film materials,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 244(8), 3002–3008 (2007).
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W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology 18(48), 485302 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Kapitonov and V. N. Astratov, “Observation of nanojet-induced modes with small propagation losses in chains of coupled spherical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 409–411 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Donnert, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Major signal increase in fluorescence microscopy through dark-state relaxation,” Nat. Methods 4(1), 81–86 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Heifetz, J. J. Simpson, S. C. Kong, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Subdiffraction optical resolution of a gold nanosphere located within the nanojet of a Mie-resonant dielectric microsphere,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17334–17342 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science 313(5793), 1595 (2006).
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L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, “Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57(1), 303–331 (2006).
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Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Highly efficient optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of dielectric microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 389–391 (2006).
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Z. Chen, A. Taflove, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Superenhanced backscattering of light by nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 196–198 (2006).
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2005 (5)

A. V. Itagi and W. A. Challener, “Optics of photonic nanojets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(12), 2847–2858 (2005).
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Y. Gu, E. S. Kwak, J. L. Lensch, J. E. Allen, T. W. Odom, and L. J. Lauhon, “Near-field scanning photocurrent microscopy of a nanowire photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 043111 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, “Fluorescence microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 910–919 (2005).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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S. Lecler, Y. Takakura, and P. Meyrueis, “Properties of a three-dimensional photonic jet,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2641–2643 (2005).
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2004 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Blahut and A. Opilski, “Multimode interference structures-New way of passive element technology for photonics,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(3), 293–300 (2001).

2000 (1)

Y. Lu, L. Zhang, W. Song, Y. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett. 72(9), 457–459 (2000).
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1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Contributions to the optics of turbid media, particularly of colloidal metal solutions,” Ann. Phys. 25(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Abolmaali, F.

K. W. Allen, A. Darafsheh, F. Abolmaali, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allen, J. E.

Y. Gu, E. S. Kwak, J. L. Lensch, J. E. Allen, T. W. Odom, and L. J. Lauhon, “Near-field scanning photocurrent microscopy of a nanowire photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 043111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Allen, K. W.

K. W. Allen, N. Farahi, Y. Li, N. I. Limberopoulos, D. E. Walker, A. M. Urbas, V. Liberman, and V. N. Astratov, “Super-resolution microscopy by movable thin-films with embedded microspheres: Resolution analysis,” Ann. Phys. 527(7–8), 513–522 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. W. Allen, A. Darafsheh, F. Abolmaali, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021112 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Formation of polarized beams in chains of dielectric spheres and cylinders,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4208–4211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alshehri, A. M.

D. L. N. Kallepalli, A. M. Alshehri, D. T. Marquez, L. Andrzejewski, J. C. Scaiano, and R. Bhardwaj, “Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26163 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrzejewski, L.

D. L. N. Kallepalli, A. M. Alshehri, D. T. Marquez, L. Andrzejewski, J. C. Scaiano, and R. Bhardwaj, “Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26163 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoszyk, A. N.

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, “Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 068004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, “Contact focusing multimodal microprobes for ultraprecise laser tissue surgery,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3440–3448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. B.

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, “Subwavelength direct-write nanopatterning using optically trapped microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(7), 413–417 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astratov, V. N.

K. W. Allen, N. Farahi, Y. Li, N. I. Limberopoulos, D. E. Walker, A. M. Urbas, V. Liberman, and V. N. Astratov, “Super-resolution microscopy by movable thin-films with embedded microspheres: Resolution analysis,” Ann. Phys. 527(7–8), 513–522 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. W. Allen, A. Darafsheh, F. Abolmaali, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021112 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Formation of polarized beams in chains of dielectric spheres and cylinders,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4208–4211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, “Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 068004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, “Contact focusing multimodal microprobes for ultraprecise laser tissue surgery,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3440–3448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang and V. N. Astratov, “Photonic nanojet-induced modes in chains of size-disordered microspheres with an attenuation of only 0.08 dB per sphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261111 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. M. Kapitonov and V. N. Astratov, “Observation of nanojet-induced modes with small propagation losses in chains of coupled spherical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 409–411 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachmann, M.

Backman, V.

Barbastathis, G.

Bartal, G.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Aryeh, Y.

S. Lee, L. Li, Y. Ben-Aryeh, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, “Overcoming the diffraction limit induced by microsphere optical nanoscopy,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125710 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ben-Aryeh, “Superresolution observed from evanescent waves transmitted through nano-corrugated metallic films,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 165–170 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. T.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beruete, M.

Besse, P. A.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bewersdorf, J.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, R.

D. L. N. Kallepalli, A. M. Alshehri, D. T. Marquez, L. Andrzejewski, J. C. Scaiano, and R. Bhardwaj, “Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26163 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blahut, M.

M. Blahut and A. Opilski, “Multimode interference structures-New way of passive element technology for photonics,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(3), 293–300 (2001).

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudou, J. P.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small 4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, G.

Cai, Z.

Cárabe, A.

Chad, J. E.

E. T. F. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. Zheludev, “A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 432–435 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Challener, W. A.

Chang, C. W.

Chen, G.

Chen, L.

Chen, R.

Chen, X.

Chen, X. D.

Chen, Z.

Cho, H. S.

D. Kang, C. Pang, S. M. Kim, H. S. Cho, H. S. Um, Y. W. Choi, and K. Y. Suh, “Shape-controllable microlens arrays via direct transfer of photocurable polymer droplets,” Adv. Mater. 24(13), 1709–1715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 1(9), 143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y. W.

D. Kang, C. Pang, S. M. Kim, H. S. Cho, H. S. Um, Y. W. Choi, and K. Y. Suh, “Shape-controllable microlens arrays via direct transfer of photocurable polymer droplets,” Adv. Mater. 24(13), 1709–1715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

Chow, R. H.

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S. W.

Conchello, J. A.

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, “Fluorescence microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 910–919 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curmi, P. A.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J. P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, “Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway,” Small 4(12), 2236–2239 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darafsheh, A.

A. Darafsheh, C. Guardiola, A. Palovcak, J. C. Finlay, and A. Cárabe, “Optical super-resolution imaging by high-index microspheres embedded in elastomers,” Opt. Lett. 40(1), 5–8 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Allen, A. Darafsheh, F. Abolmaali, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021112 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Formation of polarized beams in chains of dielectric spheres and cylinders,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4208–4211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, “Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 068004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, “Contact focusing multimodal microprobes for ultraprecise laser tissue surgery,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3440–3448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
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T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, “Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 068004 (2012).
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A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, “Contact focusing multimodal microprobes for ultraprecise laser tissue surgery,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3440–3448 (2011).
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Yu, H.

Yue, L.

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Y. E. Geints, A. A. Zemlyanov, and E. K. Panina, “Photonic jets from resonantly excited transparent dielectric microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(4), 758–762 (2012).
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Zhang, B.

Zhang, D.

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Y. Lu, L. Zhang, W. Song, Y. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett. 72(9), 457–459 (2000).
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Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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Zhao, Z.

D. Tang, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Ultrabroadband superoscillatory lens composed by plasmonic metasurfaces for subdiffraction light focusing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 713–719 (2015).
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ACS Nano (1)

Y. Yan, L. Li, C. Feng, W. Guo, S. Lee, and M. Hong, “Microsphere-coupled scanning laser confocal nanoscope for sub-diffraction-limited imaging at 25 nm lateral resolution in the visible spectrum,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1809–1816 (2014).
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Y. Lu, L. Zhang, W. Song, Y. Zheng, and B. S. Luk’yanchuk, “Laser writing of a subwavelength structure on silicon (100) surfaces with particle-enhanced optical irradiation,” JETP Lett. 72(9), 457–459 (2000).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Tang, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Ultrabroadband superoscillatory lens composed by plasmonic metasurfaces for subdiffraction light focusing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 713–719 (2015).
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L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
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S. Wang, D. Zhang, H. Zhang, X. Han, and R. Xu, “Super-resolution optical microscopy based on scannable cantilever-combined microsphere,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 78(12), 1128–1132 (2015).
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Opt. Express (14)

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1214–1220 (2004).
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A. Heifetz, J. J. Simpson, S. C. Kong, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Subdiffraction optical resolution of a gold nanosphere located within the nanojet of a Mie-resonant dielectric microsphere,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17334–17342 (2007).
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S. C. Kong, A. Sahakian, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic nanojet-enabled optical data storage,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13713–13719 (2008).
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S. C. Kong, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Quasi one-dimensional light beam generated by a graded-index microsphere,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3722–3731 (2009).
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A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, “Contact focusing multimodal microprobes for ultraprecise laser tissue surgery,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3440–3448 (2011).
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C. S. Deng, H. Xu, and L. Deych, “Effect of size disorder on the optical transport in chains of coupled microspherical resonators,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6923–6937 (2011).
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Z. Xiao, X. Luo, P. H. Lim, P. Prabhathan, S. T. H. Silalahi, T. Y. Liow, J. Zhang, and F. Luan, “Ultra-compact low loss polarization insensitive silicon waveguide splitter,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16331–16336 (2013).
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M. X. Wu, B. J. Huang, R. Chen, Y. Yang, J. F. Wu, R. Ji, X. D. Chen, and M. H. Hong, “Modulation of photonic nanojets generated by microspheres decorated with concentric rings,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20096–20103 (2015).
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G. Gu, R. Zhou, H. Xu, G. Cai, and Z. Cai, “Subsurface nano-imaging with self-assembled spherical cap optical nanoscopy,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4937–4948 (2016).
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Z. Wen, Y. He, Y. Li, L. Chen, and G. Chen, “Super-oscillation focusing lens based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22163–22171 (2014).
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Z. Hengyu, C. Zaichun, C. T. Chong, and H. Minghui, “Photonic jet with ultralong working distance by hemispheric shell,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6626–6633 (2015).
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T. X. Hoang, Y. Duan, X. Chen, and G. Barbastathis, “Focusing and imaging in microsphere-based microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12337–12353 (2015).
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F. Wang, H. S. S. Lai, L. Liu, P. Li, H. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and W. J. Li, “Super-resolution endoscopy for real-time wide-field imaging,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16803–16811 (2015).
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P. Y. Li, Y. Tsao, Y. J. Liu, Z. X. Lou, W. L. Lee, S. W. Chu, and C. W. Chang, “Unusual imaging properties of superresolution microspheres,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16479–16486 (2016).
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Opt. Lett. (11)

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, V. Pacheco-Peña, and M. Beruete, “Localized photonic jets from flat, three-dimensional dielectric cuboids in the reflection mode,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2329–2332 (2015).
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A. Darafsheh, C. Guardiola, A. Palovcak, J. C. Finlay, and A. Cárabe, “Optical super-resolution imaging by high-index microspheres embedded in elastomers,” Opt. Lett. 40(1), 5–8 (2015).
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G. Gu, R. Zhou, Z. Chen, H. Xu, G. Cai, Z. Cai, and M. Hong, “Super-long photonic nanojet generated from liquid-filled hollow microcylinder,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 625–628 (2015).
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L. Yue, B. Yan, and Z. Wang, “Photonic nanojet of cylindrical metalens assembled by hexagonally arranged nanofibers for breaking the diffraction limit,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1336–1339 (2016).
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Y. Duan, G. Barbastathis, and B. Zhang, “Classical imaging theory of a microlens with super-resolution,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 2988–2990 (2013).
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A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, “Formation of polarized beams in chains of dielectric spheres and cylinders,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4208–4211 (2013).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of a PNJ, and the spatial intensity distribution of (b) a silica microsphere and the newly designed structure with the radius of curvature equaling (c) 2λ (i.e. a hemisphere) and (d) 4λ (i.e. a spherical cap). The clear aperture in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b) is 4λ. The dotted line represents the tangent of the PNJ generator on the shadow side.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Scatter plots showing the relationship of (a) working distance, (b) length of PNJ, and (c) FWHM. The bottom and right axes of all the subfigures have been normalized by the illumination wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Illustrated diagram showing optical waves propagating in the cascaded structure consisting of two asymmetrical elements, and (b) the refracted angles α and γ given by Eqs. (3) and 4, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Illustrated diagram showing the effect of the length L of the supporting stage and hemispherical radius r on the focus property, and (b) the fraction of convergent rays for various aspect ratios L/r. Figures 4(c)–4(e) show the full-wave simulations corresponding to the case of fixed r = 1μm but varying L, i.e., L = 0, 100.332, and 100.724, respectively. The color bars of Figs. 4(c)–4(e) are unified in the range 0 - 7.0.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-c) Spatial intensity distribution maps showing the effect of length L of supporting stage and number of cascaded elements on the optical transport. (d-f) Comparisons of the PNJ hot-spot cross-sectional profiles corresponding to Figs. 5(a)–5(c), respectively. The scattering loss can be inferred from the decrease in the peak value. The color bars of Figs. 5(a)–5(c) are unified in the range 0 - 11. The horizontal axis labels and ranges of Figs. 5(d) and 5(e) are set to be the same as those of Fig. 5(f).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The spatial intensity distribution maps for the cascaded structures corresponding to (a) L = 3 μm and (b) L = 5.8 μm of the second element. (c) Illustrative diagram showing the definition of an ECR and (d) the intensity distribution curve along the transverse direction at the center of each pair of hot spots inside the ECR. The color bars of the subfigures are unified in the range 0 - 10.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Spatial intensity distribution of the cascaded structure corresponding to L = 7.4 μm, (b) partially enlarged view of the fourth ECR in the cascaded structure, and (c) the calculated FWHM waists for various locations of the curved surface of the second asymmetrical element inside the fourth ECR. The color bars of Figs. 7(a) and 7(b) are unified in the range 0 - 7.8.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spatial intensity distribution of the cascaded structures corresponding to (a) L = 30 μm and (b) L = 49.3 μm for showing the various ECRs. The color bars of Figs. 8(a) and 8(b) are unified in the range 0 - 10.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Illustrated diagram showing the formation of focus for the first inequality system.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Illustrated diagram showing a case where the output ray is divergent.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Illustrated diagram showing how to simplify the analysis by using the periodicity of each ray. The subfigures show the formation of focus for the second inequality system. The intersection points I in Figs. 11(a) and 11(b) are inside the first and third quarter pitches of the ray, respectively.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Illustrated diagram showing the formation of focus for the third inequality system. The intersection points I in Figs. 12(a) and 12(b) are inside the second and fourth quarter pitches of the ray, respectively.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Convergence ratio curves corresponding to different inequality systems.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Intensity distribution of the cascaded structure corresponding to different aspect ratios of the second element. (a) A strong PNJ is generated for log10(L/r) = 0. (b) Very little of the light intensity is focused when log10(L/r) = 0.332. (c) An extremely elongated but relatively weaker PNJ is generated when log10(L/r) = 0.724. The color bars of all subfigures are unified in the range 0 - 16.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 The working distance, PNJ length, and FWHM waist of the designed asymmetrical structure with various radiuses of curvature and fixed clear aperture (4λ). The focusing surface is a hemisphere for ROC = 2λ and a spherical cap for ROC > 2λ. All tabulated values have been normalized by the illumination wavelength.

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Table 2 Lengths and maximal intensities of ECRs. The unit of length and intensity are unified as μm and kg2*m2/(s6*A2), respectively.

Equations (9)

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R t = R oo + j=0 T io ( R ii ) j T oi ,
ξ= 2ηsin(0.5J'+0.5J)×sin(0.5J'0.5u)× n i ×θ n i ×u'×sin(u) .
α=arcsin[ n s cos(θ)]90°+θ, s.t. 90°θ90°-arcsin(1/ n s ),
γ=arcsin( sin(α) n s ),
Δ=rcos(θ)rtan(α)+rsin(θ)tan(α),
ζ=4rcot( γ ),
{ L+r<Δcotγ φ i φ t .
{ L>Δcotγ 0<L'<0.25ζ or 0.5ζ<L'<0.75ζ φ o > φ i +γ .
{ L>Δcotγ 0.25ζ<L'<0.5ζr or 0.75ζ<L'< φ i φ t ζr.

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