Abstract

This study demonstrates a photonic crystal micropost (PCMP) substrate for microarray applications. The substrate comprises an array of circular MPs with a PC on top of these MPs. This substrate enables biomolecule-containing droplets to form a composite contact upon deposition, thus allowing biomolecules to be attached on only the MPs, forming spots. When the device (PC) is excited on resonance, the electric field intensity is enhanced on only the top surface of the MPs. This enables the fluorescence intensities to be enhanced up to 5.50x; principally, this enhancement does not engender an increase in the background (intensity outside MP or spots) and noise intensities. The PCMP substrate enhances the spot intensity and minimizes the background intensity, enabling the detection of lower concentration analytes.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. E. W. Olle, J. Messamore, M. P. Deogracias, S. D. McClintock, T. D. Anderson, and K. J. Johnson, “Comparison of antibody array substrates and the use of glycerol to normalize spot morphology,” Exp. Mol. Pathol. 79(3), 206–209 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  34. C. Preininger, U. Sauer, J. Dayteg, and R. Pichler, “Optimizing processing parameters for signal enhancement of oligonucleotide and protein arrays on ARChip Epoxy,” Bioelectrochemistry 67(2), 155–162 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546–550 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  37. R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  38. Z. Yoshimitsu, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Effects of surface structure on the hydrophobicity and sliding behavior of water droplets,” Langmuir 18(15), 5818–5822 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  39. X. T. Zhang, M. Jin, Z. Y. Liu, D. A. Tryk, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Superhydrophobic TiO2 surfaces: Preparation, photocatalytic wettability conversion, and superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterning,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(39), 14521–14529 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  40. N. A. Patankar, “On the modeling of hydrophobic contact angles on rough surfaces,” Langmuir 19(4), 1249–1253 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  41. N. A. Patankar, “Transition between superhydrophobic states on rough surfaces,” Langmuir 20(17), 7097–7102 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. R. N. Wenzel, “Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 28(8), 988–994 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  43. C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, A. Angelini, A. Lamberti, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, R. Rizzo, A. Tommasi, and E. Descrovi, “Optofluidic chip for surface wave-based fluorescence sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 215, 225–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, M. Ballarini, V. Moi, A. Lamberti, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and C. F. Pirri, “Surface label-free sensing by means of a fluorescent multilayered photonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

W. Hu, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Zhou, and C. M. Li, “ZnO nanorods-enhanced fluorescence for sensitive microarray detection of cancers in serum without additional reporter-amplification,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3683–3687 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chandra, P. J. Reddy, and S. Srivastava, “Protein microarrays and novel detection platforms,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 8(1), 61–79 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Brennan, D. P. O’Connor, E. Rexhepaj, F. Ponten, and W. M. Gallagher, “Antibody-based proteomics: fast-tracking molecular diagnostics in oncology,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 10(9), 605–617 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, A. M. White, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Evaluation of surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 371(1), 105–115 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamaguchi, T. Kaya, and H. Takei, “Characterization of cap-shaped silver particles for surface-enhanced fluorescence effects,” Anal. Biochem. 364(2), 171–179 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. T. Zhang, M. Jin, Z. Y. Liu, D. A. Tryk, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Superhydrophobic TiO2 surfaces: Preparation, photocatalytic wettability conversion, and superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterning,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(39), 14521–14529 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Kingsmore, “Multiplexed protein measurement: technologies and applications of protein and antibody arrays,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(4), 310–321 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Sabanayagam and J. R. Lakowicz, “Increasing the sensitivity of DNA microarrays by metal-enhanced fluorescence using surface-bound silver nanoparticles,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35(2), e13 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission,” Anal. Biochem. 337(2), 171–194 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. W. Olle, J. Messamore, M. P. Deogracias, S. D. McClintock, T. D. Anderson, and K. J. Johnson, “Comparison of antibody array substrates and the use of glycerol to normalize spot morphology,” Exp. Mol. Pathol. 79(3), 206–209 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Preininger, U. Sauer, J. Dayteg, and R. Pichler, “Optimizing processing parameters for signal enhancement of oligonucleotide and protein arrays on ARChip Epoxy,” Bioelectrochemistry 67(2), 155–162 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Patankar, “Transition between superhydrophobic states on rough surfaces,” Langmuir 20(17), 7097–7102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

N. A. Patankar, “On the modeling of hydrophobic contact angles on rough surfaces,” Langmuir 19(4), 1249–1253 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu and M. Snyder, “Protein chip technology,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(1), 55–63 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Haab, “Methods and applications of antibody microarrays in cancer research,” Proteomics 3(11), 2116–2122 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Glökler and P. Angenendt, “Protein and antibody microarray technology,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 797(1-2), 229–240 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Z. Yoshimitsu, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Effects of surface structure on the hydrophobicity and sliding behavior of water droplets,” Langmuir 18(15), 5818–5822 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

B. Schweitzer, S. Wiltshire, J. Lambert, S. O’Malley, K. Kukanskis, Z. Zhu, S. F. Kingsmore, P. M. Lizardi, and D. C. Ward, “Immunoassays with rolling circle DNA amplification: A versatile platform for ultrasensitive antigen detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(18), 10113–10119 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. A. Winzeler, M. Schena, and R. W. Davis, “Fluorescence-based expression monitoring using microarrays,” Methods Enzymol. 306, 3–18 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546–550 (1944).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

R. N. Wenzel, “Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 28(8), 988–994 (1936).
[Crossref]

Abramov, M. A.

F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, T. D.

E. W. Olle, J. Messamore, M. P. Deogracias, S. D. McClintock, T. D. Anderson, and K. J. Johnson, “Comparison of antibody array substrates and the use of glycerol to normalize spot morphology,” Exp. Mol. Pathol. 79(3), 206–209 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelini, A.

S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, A. Angelini, A. Lamberti, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, R. Rizzo, A. Tommasi, and E. Descrovi, “Optofluidic chip for surface wave-based fluorescence sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 215, 225–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Angenendt, P.

J. Glökler and P. Angenendt, “Protein and antibody microarray technology,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 797(1-2), 229–240 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badugu, R.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baird, C. L.

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, A. M. White, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Evaluation of surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 371(1), 105–115 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballarini, M.

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, M. Ballarini, V. Moi, A. Lamberti, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and C. F. Pirri, “Surface label-free sensing by means of a fluorescent multilayered photonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131105 (2012).
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A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546–550 (1944).
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R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
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S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, A. Angelini, A. Lamberti, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, R. Rizzo, A. Tommasi, and E. Descrovi, “Optofluidic chip for surface wave-based fluorescence sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 215, 225–230 (2015).
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Bollero, G.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
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R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
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F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
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D. J. Brennan, D. P. O’Connor, E. Rexhepaj, F. Ponten, and W. M. Gallagher, “Antibody-based proteomics: fast-tracking molecular diagnostics in oncology,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 10(9), 605–617 (2010).
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F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
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A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546–550 (1944).
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H. Chandra, P. J. Reddy, and S. Srivastava, “Protein microarrays and novel detection platforms,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 8(1), 61–79 (2011).
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C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
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C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
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A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
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Chen, Z.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
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Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
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Cunningham, B. T.

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
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C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pokhriyal, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, C.-S. Huang, S. Schulz, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24793–24808 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125203 (2010).
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W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
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N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
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R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
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E. A. Winzeler, M. Schena, and R. W. Davis, “Fluorescence-based expression monitoring using microarrays,” Methods Enzymol. 306, 3–18 (1999).
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Dayteg, J.

C. Preininger, U. Sauer, J. Dayteg, and R. Pichler, “Optimizing processing parameters for signal enhancement of oligonucleotide and protein arrays on ARChip Epoxy,” Bioelectrochemistry 67(2), 155–162 (2005).
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Dehaen, W.

F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deogracias, M. P.

E. W. Olle, J. Messamore, M. P. Deogracias, S. D. McClintock, T. D. Anderson, and K. J. Johnson, “Comparison of antibody array substrates and the use of glycerol to normalize spot morphology,” Exp. Mol. Pathol. 79(3), 206–209 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descrovi, E.

S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, A. Angelini, A. Lamberti, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, R. Rizzo, A. Tommasi, and E. Descrovi, “Optofluidic chip for surface wave-based fluorescence sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 215, 225–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, M. Ballarini, V. Moi, A. Lamberti, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and C. F. Pirri, “Surface label-free sensing by means of a fluorescent multilayered photonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dostálek, J.

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frascella, F.

S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, A. Angelini, A. Lamberti, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, R. Rizzo, A. Tommasi, and E. Descrovi, “Optofluidic chip for surface wave-based fluorescence sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 215, 225–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, M. Ballarini, V. Moi, A. Lamberti, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and C. F. Pirri, “Surface label-free sensing by means of a fluorescent multilayered photonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131105 (2012).
[Crossref]

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F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
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Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Enhanced fluorescence of Cy5-labeled DNA tethered to silver island films: fluorescence images and time-resolved studies using single-molecule spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 6238–6245 (2006).
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X. T. Zhang, M. Jin, Z. Y. Liu, D. A. Tryk, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Superhydrophobic TiO2 surfaces: Preparation, photocatalytic wettability conversion, and superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterning,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(39), 14521–14529 (2007).
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R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. J. Brennan, D. P. O’Connor, E. Rexhepaj, F. Ponten, and W. M. Gallagher, “Antibody-based proteomics: fast-tracking molecular diagnostics in oncology,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 10(9), 605–617 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganesh, N.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
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J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geoghegan, J.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S.

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germino, G.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giorgis, F.

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, M. Ballarini, V. Moi, A. Lamberti, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and C. F. Pirri, “Surface label-free sensing by means of a fluorescent multilayered photonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131105 (2012).
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J. Glökler and P. Angenendt, “Protein and antibody microarray technology,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 797(1-2), 229–240 (2003).
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P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffin, C.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
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B. B. Haab, “Methods and applications of antibody microarrays in cancer research,” Proteomics 3(11), 2116–2122 (2003).
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Z. Yoshimitsu, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Effects of surface structure on the hydrophobicity and sliding behavior of water droplets,” Langmuir 18(15), 5818–5822 (2002).
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Hilmer, S. C.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
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Hoffman, E.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
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W. Hu, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Zhou, and C. M. Li, “ZnO nanorods-enhanced fluorescence for sensitive microarray detection of cancers in serum without additional reporter-amplification,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3683–3687 (2011).
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Huang, C. S.

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-S.

Huang, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irizarry, R. A.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jarrell, J. A.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jedlicka, A. E.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, M.

X. T. Zhang, M. Jin, Z. Y. Liu, D. A. Tryk, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Superhydrophobic TiO2 surfaces: Preparation, photocatalytic wettability conversion, and superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterning,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(39), 14521–14529 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johnson, K. J.

E. W. Olle, J. Messamore, M. P. Deogracias, S. D. McClintock, T. D. Anderson, and K. J. Johnson, “Comparison of antibody array substrates and the use of glycerol to normalize spot morphology,” Exp. Mol. Pathol. 79(3), 206–209 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonas, U.

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
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Sherlock, S. P.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snyder, M.

H. Zhu and M. Snyder, “Protein chip technology,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(1), 55–63 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soares, J. A. N. T.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spencer, F.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, S.

H. Chandra, P. J. Reddy, and S. Srivastava, “Protein microarrays and novel detection platforms,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 8(1), 61–79 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabakman, S. M.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takei, H.

T. Yamaguchi, T. Kaya, and H. Takei, “Characterization of cap-shaped silver particles for surface-enhanced fluorescence effects,” Anal. Biochem. 364(2), 171–179 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, R.

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tangsombatvisit, S.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, K.

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, M.

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tommasi, A.

S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, A. Angelini, A. Lamberti, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, R. Rizzo, A. Tommasi, and E. Descrovi, “Optofluidic chip for surface wave-based fluorescence sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 215, 225–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tryk, D. A.

X. T. Zhang, M. Jin, Z. Y. Liu, D. A. Tryk, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Superhydrophobic TiO2 surfaces: Preparation, photocatalytic wettability conversion, and superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterning,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(39), 14521–14529 (2007).
[Crossref]

Utz, P. J.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varnum, S. M.

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vodkin, L. O.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. S.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ward, D. C.

B. Schweitzer, S. Wiltshire, J. Lambert, S. O’Malley, K. Kukanskis, Z. Zhu, S. F. Kingsmore, P. M. Lizardi, and D. C. Ward, “Immunoassays with rolling circle DNA amplification: A versatile platform for ultrasensitive antigen detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(18), 10113–10119 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warren, D.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

Z. Yoshimitsu, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Effects of surface structure on the hydrophobicity and sliding behavior of water droplets,” Langmuir 18(15), 5818–5822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wenzel, R. N.

R. N. Wenzel, “Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 28(8), 988–994 (1936).
[Crossref]

White, A. M.

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, A. M. White, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Evaluation of surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 371(1), 105–115 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, M.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, S.

B. Schweitzer, S. Wiltshire, J. Lambert, S. O’Malley, K. Kukanskis, Z. Zhu, S. F. Kingsmore, P. M. Lizardi, and D. C. Ward, “Immunoassays with rolling circle DNA amplification: A versatile platform for ultrasensitive antigen detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(18), 10113–10119 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winzeler, E. A.

E. A. Winzeler, M. Schena, and R. W. Davis, “Fluorescence-based expression monitoring using microarrays,” Methods Enzymol. 306, 3–18 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Yamaguchi, T. Kaya, and H. Takei, “Characterization of cap-shaped silver particles for surface-enhanced fluorescence effects,” Anal. Biochem. 364(2), 171–179 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, F.

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

W. Hu, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Zhou, and C. M. Li, “ZnO nanorods-enhanced fluorescence for sensitive microarray detection of cancers in serum without additional reporter-amplification,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3683–3687 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, S. Q.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshimitsu, Z.

Z. Yoshimitsu, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Effects of surface structure on the hydrophobicity and sliding behavior of water droplets,” Langmuir 18(15), 5818–5822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zangar, R. C.

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, A. M. White, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Evaluation of surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 371(1), 105–115 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

H.-Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence on a photonic crystal surface incorporating nanorod structures,” Small 4(12), 2199–2203 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. T.

X. T. Zhang, M. Jin, Z. Y. Liu, D. A. Tryk, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Superhydrophobic TiO2 surfaces: Preparation, photocatalytic wettability conversion, and superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterning,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(39), 14521–14529 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

W. Hu, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Zhou, and C. M. Li, “ZnO nanorods-enhanced fluorescence for sensitive microarray detection of cancers in serum without additional reporter-amplification,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3683–3687 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu and M. Snyder, “Protein chip technology,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(1), 55–63 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

B. Schweitzer, S. Wiltshire, J. Lambert, S. O’Malley, K. Kukanskis, Z. Zhu, S. F. Kingsmore, P. M. Lizardi, and D. C. Ward, “Immunoassays with rolling circle DNA amplification: A versatile platform for ultrasensitive antigen detection,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(18), 10113–10119 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (3)

T. Yamaguchi, T. Kaya, and H. Takei, “Characterization of cap-shaped silver particles for surface-enhanced fluorescence effects,” Anal. Biochem. 364(2), 171–179 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, “Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission,” Anal. Biochem. 337(2), 171–194 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Seurynck-Servoss, A. M. White, C. L. Baird, K. D. Rodland, and R. C. Zangar, “Evaluation of surface chemistries for antibody microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 371(1), 105–115 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (5)

C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Mathias, S. I. Jones, H.-Y. Wu, F. Yang, N. Ganesh, D. O. Gonzalez, G. Bollero, L. O. Vodkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 82(16), 6854–6861 (2010).
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P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to a cytokine immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9013–9020 (2008).
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C. S. Huang, S. George, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Application of photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence to cancer biomarker microarrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1425–1430 (2011).
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E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, M. Ballarini, V. Moi, A. Lamberti, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and C. F. Pirri, “Surface label-free sensing by means of a fluorescent multilayered photonic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131105 (2012).
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R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
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Bioelectrochemistry (1)

C. Preininger, U. Sauer, J. Dayteg, and R. Pichler, “Optimizing processing parameters for signal enhancement of oligonucleotide and protein arrays on ARChip Epoxy,” Bioelectrochemistry 67(2), 155–162 (2005).
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Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

W. Hu, Y. Liu, H. Yang, X. Zhou, and C. M. Li, “ZnO nanorods-enhanced fluorescence for sensitive microarray detection of cancers in serum without additional reporter-amplification,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(8), 3683–3687 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Toma, E. Descrovi, M. Toma, M. Ballarini, P. Mandracci, F. Giorgis, A. Mateescu, U. Jonas, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Bloch surface wave-enhanced fluorescence biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 108–114 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. (1)

H. Zhu and M. Snyder, “Protein chip technology,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(1), 55–63 (2003).
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Drug Metab. Rev. (1)

R. C. Zangar, S. M. Varnum, and N. Bollinger, “Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays,” Drug Metab. Rev. 37(3), 473–487 (2005).
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Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1)

E. W. Olle, J. Messamore, M. P. Deogracias, S. D. McClintock, T. D. Anderson, and K. J. Johnson, “Comparison of antibody array substrates and the use of glycerol to normalize spot morphology,” Exp. Mol. Pathol. 79(3), 206–209 (2005).
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Expert Rev. Proteomics (2)

H. Chandra, P. J. Reddy, and S. Srivastava, “Protein microarrays and novel detection platforms,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 8(1), 61–79 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Zangar, D. S. Daly, and A. M. White, “ELISA microarray technology as a high-throughput system for cancer biomarker validation,” Expert Rev. Proteomics 3(1), 37–44 (2006).
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Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

R. N. Wenzel, “Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 28(8), 988–994 (1936).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Ganesh, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement from photonic crystal surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083104 (2008).
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J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (1)

F. Frederix, K. Bonroy, G. Reekmans, W. Laureyn, A. Campitelli, M. A. Abramov, W. Dehaen, and G. Maes, “Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 58(1), 67–74 (2004).
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J. Glökler and P. Angenendt, “Protein and antibody microarray technology,” J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 797(1-2), 229–240 (2003).
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J. Fluoresc. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, E. Matveeva, J. Zhang, R. Badugu, and J. Huang, “Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 14(4), 425–441 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

X. T. Zhang, M. Jin, Z. Y. Liu, D. A. Tryk, S. Nishimoto, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Superhydrophobic TiO2 surfaces: Preparation, photocatalytic wettability conversion, and superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterning,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(39), 14521–14529 (2007).
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Langmuir (3)

N. A. Patankar, “On the modeling of hydrophobic contact angles on rough surfaces,” Langmuir 19(4), 1249–1253 (2003).
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N. A. Patankar, “Transition between superhydrophobic states on rough surfaces,” Langmuir 20(17), 7097–7102 (2004).
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Z. Yoshimitsu, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Effects of surface structure on the hydrophobicity and sliding behavior of water droplets,” Langmuir 18(15), 5818–5822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Methods Enzymol. (1)

E. A. Winzeler, M. Schena, and R. W. Davis, “Fluorescence-based expression monitoring using microarrays,” Methods Enzymol. 306, 3–18 (1999).
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Nanotechnology (1)

H.-Y. Wu, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, and B. T. Cunningham, “Magnification of photonic crystal fluorescence enhancement via TM resonance excitation and TE resonance extraction on a dielectric nanorod surface,” Nanotechnology 21(12), 125203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. M. Tabakman, L. Lau, J. T. Robinson, J. Price, S. P. Sherlock, H. Wang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, S. Tangsombatvisit, J. A. Jarrell, P. J. Utz, and H. Dai, “Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range,” Nat. Commun. 2, 466 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

R. A. Irizarry, D. Warren, F. Spencer, I. F. Kim, S. Biswal, B. C. Frank, E. Gabrielson, J. G. N. Garcia, J. Geoghegan, G. Germino, C. Griffin, S. C. Hilmer, E. Hoffman, A. E. Jedlicka, E. Kawasaki, F. Martínez-Murillo, L. Morsberger, H. Lee, D. Petersen, J. Quackenbush, A. Scott, M. Wilson, Y. Yang, S. Q. Ye, and W. Yu, “Multiple-laboratory comparison of microarray platforms,” Nat. Methods 2(5), 345–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) PCMP substrate with biomolecule-containing droplets. (b) Droplet forms composite contact enabling the biomolecules to be immobilized on only the top surface of MPs. The diameter, spacing and height of MPs are 60, 30 and 40 µm, respectively. The grating structure and MP are not to scale.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) PC used in this study. The grating period, grating depth, and TiO2 thickness are 400, 45, and 110 nm, respectively. (b) Simulated transmission spectrum of the TM mode showing the resonant wavelength at 628 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PCMP fabrication process flow. (a) Si wafer with grating pattern using e-beam lithography. (b) Spin coating a layer of SU-8 2035. (c) Photolithography to pattern an array of holes. (d) Applying a UV-curable polymer in between a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet and an SU-8 mold and then, curing through UV exposure. (e) Separating the UV polymer/PET from the Si/SU-8 mold. (f) Depositing a layer of TiO2. The dimension of grating and MPs are not to scale.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Plastic PCMP substrate with area of 0.6 × 0.8 cm. SEM images of the (b) top view of an array of MPs, (c) grating patterns on top of the MP, and (d) close-up view of grating patterns.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Droplet forms a composite contact on a FOTS-coated PCMP surface.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fluorescence images of a droplet of 50 μg/mL SA-Cy5 on (a) MP substrate and (b) PCMP substrate. The scale bar represents 500 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fluorescence images at various concentrations of SA-Cy5 on (a) MP and (b) PCMP substrates. The orange and yellow circles indicate the spot and background intensities as described in the text. (c) The line profiles at three spots for MP and PCMP substrates at 10 and 0.4 µg/mL. The scale bar represents 100 µm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Spot and background intensities at different SA-Cy5 concentrations on the PCMP and MP substrates. (b) The data from (a) of the three lowest SA-Cy5 concentrations. The sensitivities were calculated as the slopes of the linearly fitted curves for the PCMP and MP substrates.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured spot and background intensities at different SA-Cy5 concentrations obtained from the MP and PCMP substrates.

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