Abstract

We report on measurements of both the critical power for self-focusing of a Ti: Sapphire 800 nm femtosecond laser and the peak intensity clamped inside a single filament in an ethanol-air flame on an alcohol burner array. By observing the shift of focal position of femtosecond laser pulses, we determine the critical power in the flame to be 2.2 ± 0.3 GW, which is 4-5 times smaller than the usually quoted one in air. The clamped laser intensity inside the filament is measured to be roughly half of that in air. Our results provide insights into the understanding of femtosecond laser filamentation in flames for practical application of combustion diagnostics.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. S. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. L. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser ionization and fragmentation of molecules for environmental sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 275–293 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. L. Li, H. L. Xu, B. S. Yang, Q. D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Sensing combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1250–1252 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).
  21. J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4(75), 35–110 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(4), 637–650 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of high order kerr refractive index of major air components: erratum,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3011–3012 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. L. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser ionization and fragmentation of molecules for environmental sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 275–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. I. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Re-evaluation of the peak intensity inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094003 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

P. Polynkin and M. Kolesik, “Critical power for self-focusing in the case of ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053829 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, H. L. Xu, B. S. Yang, Q. D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Sensing combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1250–1252 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, V. Y. Fedorov, O. V. Tverskoy, O. G. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 382–386 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. S. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4(75), 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. S. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

André, Y. B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Binhammer, T.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bood, J.

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. S. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brodeur, A.

Chen, Q. D.

Cheng, Y.

H. L. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser ionization and fragmentation of molecules for environmental sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 275–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chin, S.

Chin, S. L.

H. L. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser ionization and fragmentation of molecules for environmental sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 275–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, V. Y. Fedorov, O. V. Tverskoy, O. G. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 382–386 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 32–53 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(4), 637–650 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chiron, A.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Daigle, J. F.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Faucher, O.

Fedorov, V. Y.

V. P. Kandidov, V. Y. Fedorov, O. V. Tverskoy, O. G. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 382–386 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hertz, E.

Hong, Y.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Houard, A.

S. I. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Re-evaluation of the peak intensity inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jing, C. R.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, V. Y. Fedorov, O. V. Tverskoy, O. G. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 382–386 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kolesik, M.

P. Polynkin and M. Kolesik, “Critical power for self-focusing in the case of ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, V. Y. Fedorov, O. V. Tverskoy, O. G. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 382–386 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kovacev, M.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lange, H. R.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lavorel, B.

Li, C.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Li, G. H.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H. L.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, H. L. Xu, B. S. Yang, Q. D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Sensing combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1250–1252 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H. P.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Li, Q. F.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Li, Z. S.

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. S. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, E. P.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Liu, W.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu and S. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5750–5755 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

S. I. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Re-evaluation of the peak intensity inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. M.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Loriot, V.

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4(75), 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitryukovskiy, S. I.

S. I. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Re-evaluation of the peak intensity inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. I. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Re-evaluation of the peak intensity inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094003 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ni, J. L.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Polynkin, P.

P. Polynkin and M. Kolesik, “Critical power for self-focusing in the case of ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Richter, M.

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. S. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ripoche, J. F.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schulz, E.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shang, L. J.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Sharifi, M.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Simard, P. T.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steingrube, D. S.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

H. L. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser ionization and fragmentation of molecules for environmental sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 275–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, H. L. Xu, B. S. Yang, Q. D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Sensing combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1250–1252 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tverskoy, O. V.

V. P. Kandidov, V. Y. Fedorov, O. V. Tverskoy, O. G. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 382–386 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, X. Y.

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H. Q.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser ionization and fragmentation of molecules for environmental sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 275–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Li, H. L. Xu, B. S. Yang, Q. D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Sensing combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1250–1252 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 32–53 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamanouchi, K.

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, B. S.

Yang, C. M.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Yao, J. P.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, B.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. S.

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, Y. G.

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Chu, H. L. Li, J. L. Ni, B. Zeng, J. P. Yao, H. S. Zhang, G. H. Li, C. R. Jing, H. Q. Xie, H. L. Xu, K. Yamanouchi, and Y. Cheng, “Lasing action induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in ethanol flame for combustion diagnosis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. (1)

E. P. Liu, Z. M. Liu, H. P. Li, Y. G. Zhang, C. M. Yang, Q. F. Li, C. Li, L. J. Shang, and Y. Hong, “Remote Measurement of Flame Temperature Based on Fine Structures of Molecular Rotation-Vibration Spectra,” Chin. J. Spectrosc. Lab. 28, 2855–2861 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

S. I. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Re-evaluation of the peak intensity inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

H. L. Xu, Y. Cheng, S. L. Chin, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser ionization and fragmentation of molecules for environmental sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(3), 275–293 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev, “High order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Polynkin and M. Kolesik, “Critical power for self-focusing in the case of ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “High-order harmonic generation and quasi-phase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(8), 1611–1613 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. S. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4(75), 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Kandidov, V. Y. Fedorov, O. V. Tverskoy, O. G. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping in the filament of femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 382–386 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuat. B (1)

H. L. Li, X. Y. Wei, H. L. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for sensing combustion intermediates: a comparative study,” Sens. Actuat. B 203, 887–890 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 32–53 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setups for the (a) critical power and (b) clamped intensity measurements. HWF: half wave plate; BW: Brewster window; L1: fused silica lens with f = 50 cm; PSM: periscope mirrors; L2: fused silica lens with f = 6 cm. L3: fused silica lens with f = 100 cm. (c) Typical filament-induced nonlinear spectrum in the ethanol-air flame in ambient atmosphere. Inset: the image of the flame together with the filament.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 On-axis intensity distributions of nitrogen fluorescence at 337 nm in an ethanol-air flame and the images recorded by ICCD with three input energy: (a) 60μJ, (b) 215 μJ, and (c) 420 μJ. The arrow: the laser propagation direction. The kinks at the profiles come from the pixel damage of the ICCD camera and the signal at 336 nm resulting from the combustion intermediate of NH becomes clearer as the input laser energy increases.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Peak position of the signal intensity at 337 nm as a function of pulse energy of the pump laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The transmitted laser energy versus the number of laser shots under the conditions of (a) flame and (b) air. Inset (a) and (b): the SEM image of the pinhole on the copper foil for the flame (650 laser shots) and the air (1100 laser shots), respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z f = 0.367k a 2 { [ (P/ P c ) 1/2 0.0852] 2 0.0219} 1/2 .
f = f Z f f+ Z f

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