Abstract

A p-ZnO:Cu/n-GaN heterojunction light emitting diode (LED) is fabricated by growing cross-connected p-ZnO:Cu nanobushes on n-GaN film using chemical vapor deposition under oxygen-rich condition. This LED emits stable UV-free red light of 677 nm and 745 nm. The electroluminescence (EL) light of this LED is tuned from ultraviolet (UV) of ZnO/GaN to UV-free red by the electronic interfacial transition from the conduction band of n-GaN to the deep acceptor levels of p-ZnO:Cu. Both room temperature and low temperature (5K) photoluminescence spectra of ZnO:Cu indicate that the UV emission of ZnO is suppressed and the green emission is enhanced, which implies the formation of Cu-related deep levels introduced by intentionally doping Cu in ZnO. These deep levels help the EL red emission in the LED device.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  4. D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
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  7. M. Ding, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The p-type ZnO film realized by a hydrothermal treatment method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062102 (2011).
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  8. S. C. Su, X. D. Yang, and C. D. Hu, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of P doped p-type ZnO thin film,” Physica B 406(8), 1533–1535 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. N. H. Alvi, K. Ul Hasan, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 130 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  29. U. Wahl, E. Rita, J. G. Correia, E. Alves, and J. G. Soares, “Lattice location and stability of implanted Cu in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 012102 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).
  34. H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  35. X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  38. C. Ton-That, L. Weston, and M. R. Phillips, “Characteristics of point defects in the green luminescence from Zn- and O-rich ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115205 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective angle electroluminescence of light-emitting diodes based on nanostructured ZnO/GaN heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, W. Dai, Y. F. Lu, H. P. He, Q. Q. Lu, T. Jin, and Z. Z. Ye, “Origin of p-type conduction in Cu-doped ZnO nano-films synthesized by hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 190–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. L. Hsu, Y. D. Gao, Y. S. Chen, and T. J. Hsueh, “Vertical p-type Cu-doped ZnO/n-type ZnO homojunction nanowire-based ultraviolet photodetector by the furnace system with hotwire assistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(6), 4277–4285 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Palani, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, K. Sakai, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Influence of Sb in synthesize of ZnO nanowire using sandwich type substrate in carbothermal evaporation method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(8), 3611–3616 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ton-That, L. Weston, and M. R. Phillips, “Characteristics of point defects in the green luminescence from Zn- and O-rich ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

N. H. Alvi, K. Ul Hasan, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 130 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, and X. W. Sun, “ZnO-microrod/p-GaN heterostructured whispering-gallery-mode microlaser diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(35), 4115–4119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Joo, B. Y. Chow, M. Prakash, E. S. Boyden, and J. M. Jacobson, “Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 596–601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ding, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The p-type ZnO film realized by a hydrothermal treatment method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062102 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. C. Su, X. D. Yang, and C. D. Hu, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of P doped p-type ZnO thin film,” Physica B 406(8), 1533–1535 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. B. Tay, S. J. Chua, and K. P. Loh, “Stable p-type doping of ZnO film in aqueous solution at low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(21), 9981–9987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. W. Liang, Y. Feng, J. Wang, J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, M. K. Li, and L. Dong, “Catalyst-free growth of well-aligned arsenic-doped ZnO nanowires by chemical vapor deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 1084–1087 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective angle electroluminescence of light-emitting diodes based on nanostructured ZnO/GaN heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

S. S. Lin, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, X. Q. Gu, L. X. Chen, J. Y. Huang, and B. H. Zhao, “p-type behavior in Na-doped ZnO films and ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Commun. 148(1–2), 25–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

M. Shuai, L. Liao, H. B. Lu, L. Zhang, J. C. Li, and D. J. Fu, “Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu+ implanted ZnO nanowires,” J. Phys. D 41(13), 135010 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J. W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p-n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(9), 095004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. J. An and G.-C. Yi, “Near ultraviolet light emitting diode composed of n-GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures on a p-GaN layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123109 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

Y. F. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, D. Y. Li, J. G. Lu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062107 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Teke, Ü. Özgür, S. Doğan, X. Gu, H. Morkoç, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. O. Everitt, “Excitonic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single-crystalline ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195207 (2004).
[Crossref]

U. Wahl, E. Rita, J. G. Correia, E. Alves, and J. G. Soares, “Lattice location and stability of implanted Cu in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 012102 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 622–624 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. H. Pauporté and D. Lincot, “Heteroepitaxial electrodeposition of zinc oxide films on gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3817–3819 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. A. K. Jansen, V. Gaba, and B. M. Greenberg, “Higher plants and UV-B radiation: balancing damage, repair and acclimation,” Trends Plant Sci. 3(4), 131–135 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. Dingle, “Luminescent transitions associated with divalent copper impurities and the green emission from semiconductiong zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(11), 579–581 (1969).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Al-Jassim, M. M.

Y. F. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alves, E.

U. Wahl, E. Rita, J. G. Correia, E. Alves, and J. G. Soares, “Lattice location and stability of implanted Cu in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 012102 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alvi, N. H.

N. H. Alvi, K. Ul Hasan, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 130 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[Crossref]

An, S. J.

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X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
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N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 622–624 (2002).
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S. S. Lin, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, X. Q. Gu, L. X. Chen, J. Y. Huang, and B. H. Zhao, “p-type behavior in Na-doped ZnO films and ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Commun. 148(1–2), 25–28 (2008).
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N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 622–624 (2002).
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X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
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C. Chen, W. Dai, Y. F. Lu, H. P. He, Q. Q. Lu, T. Jin, and Z. Z. Ye, “Origin of p-type conduction in Cu-doped ZnO nano-films synthesized by hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 190–194 (2015).
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C. L. Hsu, Y. D. Gao, Y. S. Chen, and T. J. Hsueh, “Vertical p-type Cu-doped ZnO/n-type ZnO homojunction nanowire-based ultraviolet photodetector by the furnace system with hotwire assistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(6), 4277–4285 (2014).
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S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
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Huang, J. Y.

S. S. Lin, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, X. Q. Gu, L. X. Chen, J. Y. Huang, and B. H. Zhao, “p-type behavior in Na-doped ZnO films and ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Commun. 148(1–2), 25–28 (2008).
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J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J. W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p-n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(9), 095004 (2008).
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J. Joo, B. Y. Chow, M. Prakash, E. S. Boyden, and J. M. Jacobson, “Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 596–601 (2011).
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M. A. K. Jansen, V. Gaba, and B. M. Greenberg, “Higher plants and UV-B radiation: balancing damage, repair and acclimation,” Trends Plant Sci. 3(4), 131–135 (1998).
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H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
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C. Chen, W. Dai, Y. F. Lu, H. P. He, Q. Q. Lu, T. Jin, and Z. Z. Ye, “Origin of p-type conduction in Cu-doped ZnO nano-films synthesized by hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 190–194 (2015).
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J. Joo, B. Y. Chow, M. Prakash, E. S. Boyden, and J. M. Jacobson, “Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 596–601 (2011).
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M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Kang, S. H.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
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J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
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Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J. W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p-n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(9), 095004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koinuma, H.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
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X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

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M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Kung, P.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kunzer, M.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, A. Y.

H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
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H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
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M. Ding, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The p-type ZnO film realized by a hydrothermal treatment method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062102 (2011).
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J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, D. Y.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, D. Y. Li, J. G. Lu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, J. C.

M. Shuai, L. Liao, H. B. Lu, L. Zhang, J. C. Li, and D. J. Fu, “Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu+ implanted ZnO nanowires,” J. Phys. D 41(13), 135010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, L. Y.

X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, M. K.

J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
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Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. W. Liang, Y. Feng, J. Wang, J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, M. K. Li, and L. Dong, “Catalyst-free growth of well-aligned arsenic-doped ZnO nanowires by chemical vapor deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 1084–1087 (2010).
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Li, X.

X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, H. W.

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
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J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. W. Liang, Y. Feng, J. Wang, J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, M. K. Li, and L. Dong, “Catalyst-free growth of well-aligned arsenic-doped ZnO nanowires by chemical vapor deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 1084–1087 (2010).
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Liao, L.

M. Shuai, L. Liao, H. B. Lu, L. Zhang, J. C. Li, and D. J. Fu, “Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu+ implanted ZnO nanowires,” J. Phys. D 41(13), 135010 (2008).
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Lim, J. H.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
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Lin, S. S.

S. S. Lin, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, X. Q. Gu, L. X. Chen, J. Y. Huang, and B. H. Zhao, “p-type behavior in Na-doped ZnO films and ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Commun. 148(1–2), 25–28 (2008).
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Lin, T. Y.

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective angle electroluminescence of light-emitting diodes based on nanostructured ZnO/GaN heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
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Lincot, D.

T. H. Pauporté and D. Lincot, “Heteroepitaxial electrodeposition of zinc oxide films on gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3817–3819 (1999).
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Liu, N.

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N. S.

X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. C.

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lochner, Z.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
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C. B. Tay, S. J. Chua, and K. P. Loh, “Stable p-type doping of ZnO film in aqueous solution at low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(21), 9981–9987 (2010).
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Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
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H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. B.

M. Shuai, L. Liao, H. B. Lu, L. Zhang, J. C. Li, and D. J. Fu, “Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu+ implanted ZnO nanowires,” J. Phys. D 41(13), 135010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. G.

S. S. Lin, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, X. Q. Gu, L. X. Chen, J. Y. Huang, and B. H. Zhao, “p-type behavior in Na-doped ZnO films and ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Commun. 148(1–2), 25–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, D. Y. Li, J. G. Lu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, M. Y.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
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Lu, Q. Q.

C. Chen, W. Dai, Y. F. Lu, H. P. He, Q. Q. Lu, T. Jin, and Z. Z. Ye, “Origin of p-type conduction in Cu-doped ZnO nano-films synthesized by hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 190–194 (2015).
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Lu, Y. F.

C. Chen, W. Dai, Y. F. Lu, H. P. He, Q. Q. Lu, T. Jin, and Z. Z. Ye, “Origin of p-type conduction in Cu-doped ZnO nano-films synthesized by hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 190–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. M.

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z. W.

X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maier, K.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[Crossref]

Meng, X.

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, B. K.

H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Minder, K.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mo, X.

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morkoç, H.

A. Teke, Ü. Özgür, S. Doğan, X. Gu, H. Morkoç, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. O. Everitt, “Excitonic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single-crystalline ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195207 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, D.

I. A. Palani, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, K. Sakai, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Influence of Sb in synthesize of ZnO nanowire using sandwich type substrate in carbothermal evaporation method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(8), 3611–3616 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nause, J.

A. Teke, Ü. Özgür, S. Doğan, X. Gu, H. Morkoç, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. O. Everitt, “Excitonic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single-crystalline ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195207 (2004).
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Nemeth, B.

A. Teke, Ü. Özgür, S. Doğan, X. Gu, H. Morkoç, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. O. Everitt, “Excitonic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single-crystalline ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195207 (2004).
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Nur, O.

N. H. Alvi, K. Ul Hasan, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 130 (2011).
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D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ohtomo, A.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Okada, T.

I. A. Palani, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, K. Sakai, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Influence of Sb in synthesize of ZnO nanowire using sandwich type substrate in carbothermal evaporation method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(8), 3611–3616 (2012).
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Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
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Okazaki, K.

I. A. Palani, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, K. Sakai, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Influence of Sb in synthesize of ZnO nanowire using sandwich type substrate in carbothermal evaporation method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(8), 3611–3616 (2012).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

A. Teke, Ü. Özgür, S. Doğan, X. Gu, H. Morkoç, B. Nemeth, J. Nause, and H. O. Everitt, “Excitonic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single-crystalline ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195207 (2004).
[Crossref]

Palani, I. A.

I. A. Palani, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, K. Sakai, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Influence of Sb in synthesize of ZnO nanowire using sandwich type substrate in carbothermal evaporation method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(8), 3611–3616 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, D. H.

J. B. Kim, D. Byun, S. Y. Ie, D. H. Park, W. K. Choi, J. W. Choi, and B. Angadi, “Cu-doped ZnO-based p-n hetero-junction light emitting diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(9), 095004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pauporté, T. H.

T. H. Pauporté and D. Lincot, “Heteroepitaxial electrodeposition of zinc oxide films on gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3817–3819 (1999).
[Crossref]

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C. Ton-That, L. Weston, and M. R. Phillips, “Characteristics of point defects in the green luminescence from Zn- and O-rich ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115205 (2012).
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J. Joo, B. Y. Chow, M. Prakash, E. S. Boyden, and J. M. Jacobson, “Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 596–601 (2011).
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M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Qi, J. J.

X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiu, H.

J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reiser, A.

M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Ren, X. L.

X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

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U. Wahl, E. Rita, J. G. Correia, E. Alves, and J. G. Soares, “Lattice location and stability of implanted Cu in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 012102 (2004).
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Rogers, D. J.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J. H.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

I. A. Palani, K. Okazaki, D. Nakamura, K. Sakai, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Influence of Sb in synthesize of ZnO nanowire using sandwich type substrate in carbothermal evaporation method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(8), 3611–3616 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sann, J.

H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sauer, R.

M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Schirra, M.

M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Schmidt, H.

H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

J. Baur, K. Maier, M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, J. Schneider, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Detchprohm, and K. Hiramatsu, “Infrared luminescence of residual iron deep level acceptors in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 857–859 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schneider, R.

M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Segawa, Y.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shen, D. Z.

M. Ding, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The p-type ZnO film realized by a hydrothermal treatment method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062102 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z. F.

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shuai, M.

M. Shuai, L. Liao, H. B. Lu, L. Zhang, J. C. Li, and D. J. Fu, “Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu+ implanted ZnO nanowires,” J. Phys. D 41(13), 135010 (2008).
[Crossref]

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U. Wahl, E. Rita, J. G. Correia, E. Alves, and J. G. Soares, “Lattice location and stability of implanted Cu in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 012102 (2004).
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X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Su, S. C.

S. C. Su, X. D. Yang, and C. D. Hu, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of P doped p-type ZnO thin film,” Physica B 406(8), 1533–1535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, J. C.

J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. W. Liang, Y. Feng, J. Wang, J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, M. K. Li, and L. Dong, “Catalyst-free growth of well-aligned arsenic-doped ZnO nanowires by chemical vapor deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 1084–1087 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, and X. W. Sun, “ZnO-microrod/p-GaN heterostructured whispering-gallery-mode microlaser diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(35), 4115–4119 (2011).
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K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
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K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
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Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
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C. B. Tay, S. J. Chua, and K. P. Loh, “Stable p-type doping of ZnO film in aqueous solution at low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(21), 9981–9987 (2010).
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M. Schirra, R. Schneider, A. Reiser, G. M. Prinz, M. Feneberg, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, C. E. Krill, K. Thonke, and R. Sauer, “Stacking fault related 3.31-eV luminescence at 130-meV acceptors in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. A 77(12), 125215 (2008).

Ton-That, C.

C. Ton-That, L. Weston, and M. R. Phillips, “Characteristics of point defects in the green luminescence from Zn- and O-rich ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115205 (2012).
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Ul Hasan, K.

N. H. Alvi, K. Ul Hasan, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 130 (2011).
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K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
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A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165202 (2007).
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Ya. I. Alivov, J. E. Van Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
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H. von Wenckstern, G. Benndorf, S. Heitsch, J. Sann, M. Brandt, H. Schmidt, J. Lenzner, M. Lorenz, A. Y. Kuznetsov, B. K. Meyer, and M. Grundmann, “Properties of phosphorus doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(1), 125–128 (2007).
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Wahl, U.

U. Wahl, E. Rita, J. G. Correia, E. Alves, and J. G. Soares, “Lattice location and stability of implanted Cu in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 012102 (2004).
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Wang, C. H.

H. K. Fu, C. L. Cheng, C. H. Wang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective angle electroluminescence of light-emitting diodes based on nanostructured ZnO/GaN heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3471–3475 (2009).
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Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. W. Liang, Y. Feng, J. Wang, J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, M. K. Li, and L. Dong, “Catalyst-free growth of well-aligned arsenic-doped ZnO nanowires by chemical vapor deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 1084–1087 (2010).
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N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 622–624 (2002).
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X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. L.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. Z.

X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

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K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. F. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181912 (2006).
[Crossref]

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X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

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C. Ton-That, L. Weston, and M. R. Phillips, “Characteristics of point defects in the green luminescence from Zn- and O-rich ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willander, M.

N. H. Alvi, K. Ul Hasan, O. Nur, and M. Willander, “The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 130 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, G. K. L.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, X. C.

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C. X.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, and X. W. Sun, “ZnO-microrod/p-GaN heterostructured whispering-gallery-mode microlaser diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(35), 4115–4119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. Z.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, D. Y. Li, J. G. Lu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y. F.

Y. F. Yan, M. M. Al-Jassim, and S. H. Wei, “Doping of ZnO by group-IB elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181912 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Yanagi, S. Takita, M. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, Y. Ushida, and H. Watanabe, “Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source,” Acta Hortic. 440(440), 111–116 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, E. J.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. H.

D. K. Hwang, S. H. Kang, J. H. Lim, E. J. Yang, J. Y. Oh, J. H. Yang, and S. J. Park, “p-ZnO/n-GaN heterostructure ZnO light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 222101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

S. Xu, C. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, R. Yang, Q. Yang, J. H. Ryou, H. J. Kim, Z. Lochner, S. Choi, R. Dupuis, and Z. L. Wang, “Ordered nanowire array blue/near-UV light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(42), 4749–4753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X. D.

S. C. Su, X. D. Yang, and C. D. Hu, “Structural, optical and electronic properties of P doped p-type ZnO thin film,” Physica B 406(8), 1533–1535 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

M. Ding, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The p-type ZnO film realized by a hydrothermal treatment method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yasan, A.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
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Ye, Z. Z.

C. Chen, W. Dai, Y. F. Lu, H. P. He, Q. Q. Lu, T. Jin, and Z. Z. Ye, “Origin of p-type conduction in Cu-doped ZnO nano-films synthesized by hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing,” Mater. Res. Bull. 70, 190–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Lin, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, X. Q. Gu, L. X. Chen, J. Y. Huang, and B. H. Zhao, “p-type behavior in Na-doped ZnO films and ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Commun. 148(1–2), 25–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, D. Y. Li, J. G. Lu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yi, F.

X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, G.-C.

S. J. An and G.-C. Yi, “Near ultraviolet light emitting diode composed of n-GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures on a p-GaN layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123109 (2007).
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Yu, D. Q.

J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y. J.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, D. Y. Li, J. G. Lu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B. L.

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. X.

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Y.

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

M. Shuai, L. Liao, H. B. Lu, L. Zhang, J. C. Li, and D. J. Fu, “Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu+ implanted ZnO nanowires,” J. Phys. D 41(13), 135010 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. H.

X. L. Ren, X. H. Zhang, N. S. Liu, L. Wen, L. W. Ding, Z. W. Ma, J. Su, L. Y. Li, J. B. Han, and Y. H. Gao, “White light-emitting diode from Sb-doped p-ZnO nanowire arrays/n-GaN film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. M.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. T.

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

X. Li, J. J. Qi, Q. Zhang, Q. Wang, F. Yi, Z. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Saturated blue-violet electroluminescence from single ZnO micro/nanowire and p-GaN film hybrid light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221103 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. T.

Z. F. Shi, Y. T. Zhang, B. Wu, X. P. Cai, J. X. Zhang, X. C. Xia, H. Wang, X. Dong, H. W. Liang, B. L. Zhang, and G. T. Du, “Vertical conducting ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-ZnO:As/n-GaN/n-SiC heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. Z.

M. Ding, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The p-type ZnO film realized by a hydrothermal treatment method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B. H.

S. S. Lin, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, X. Q. Gu, L. X. Chen, J. Y. Huang, and B. H. Zhao, “p-type behavior in Na-doped ZnO films and ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Commun. 148(1–2), 25–28 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, D. Y. Li, J. G. Lu, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Dopant source choice for formation of p-type ZnO: Li acceptor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. X.

M. Ding, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The p-type ZnO film realized by a hydrothermal treatment method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J. Z.

J. C. Sun, Q. J. Feng, J. M. Bian, D. Q. Yu, M. K. Li, C. R. Li, H. W. Liang, J. Z. Zhao, H. Qiu, and G. T. Du, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting diode with p-ZnO:N/n-GaN:Si heterojunction structure,” J. Lumin. 131(4), 825–828 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Feng, L. Z. Hu, H. W. Liang, Y. Feng, J. Wang, J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, M. K. Li, and L. Dong, “Catalyst-free growth of well-aligned arsenic-doped ZnO nanowires by chemical vapor deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 1084–1087 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z. Z.

X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, Z. Z. Zhi, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, W. Xu, X. W. Fan, and X. G. Kong, “Temperature dependence of excitonic luminescence from nanocrystalline ZnO films,” J. Lumin. 99(2), 149–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, G. Fang, Q. Jiang, Y. Zhu, N. Liu, X. Zou, X. Mo, Y. Liu, J. Wang, X. Meng, and X. Zhao, “Nanointerlayer induced electroluminescence transition from ultraviolet- to red-dominant mode for n-Mn:ZnO/N-GaN heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(5), 2521–2524 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the p-ZnO:Cu/n-GaN LED device. The circled inset part shows the schematic of cross-connected structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The morphology and structure characterization of the cross-connected p-ZnO:Cu nanobushes. (a) and (b) Large area 30° oblique-view SEM images of the ZnO nanorod arrays and ZnO:Cu nanobushes. The inset of (b) exhibits an enlarged image of selected region and the top view image of ZnO:Cu. (c) XRD comparison of the ZnO nanorod arrays and p-ZnO:Cu nanobushes on n-GaN film with a sapphire substrate. (d) The HRTEM image of a branch from the p-ZnO:Cu nanobushes, proved that the p-ZnO:Cu nanobushes are well crystallized.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterization on distribution and valence states of Cu in ZnO:Cu. (a) The EDS mapping images of corresponding element O (yellow), Zn (red) and Cu (orange) from a portion of ZnO:Cu nanobranch. (b) The EDS of the corresponding whole nanobranch. The table in the inset of (b) is a quantification result of the EDS analysis. (c) XPS survey spectrum of the p-ZnO:Cu nanobushes/n-GaN film. (d) High resolution scan spectrum of Cu 2p peaks.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PL characterizations of ZnO:Cu and undoped ZnO. (a) Normalized PL spectra comparison of undoped ZnO, ZnO:Cu and n-GaN at RT. The inset presents the normalized PL spectra comparison at high energy. (b) Normalized low temperature (5K) PL spectra comparison of undoped ZnO and ZnO:Cu. The inset presents the normalized low temperature (5K) PL spectra at high energy.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Characterizations of the red LED device. (a) The I–V characteristics of this p-ZnO:Cu/n-GaN heterojunction LED at RT. (b) The EL spectra of the device under different forward bias voltages. (c) Photo galleries of RT EL from p-ZnO:Cu/n-GaN LED at the forward bias voltage from 10 V to 20 V. (d) Schematic energy band diagram of p-ZnO:Cu/n-GaN can explain the light emission in EL. (e) A plot of the maximum of integrated EL intensities and currents vs the forward bias voltages.

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