Abstract

In the work described in this paper, an image reproduction scheme with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor was demonstrated. The sensor captures an object by compressing a sequence of images with focal-plane temporally random-coded shutters, followed by reconstruction of time-resolved images. Because signals are modulated pixel-by-pixel during capturing, the maximum frame rate is defined only by the charge transfer speed and can thus be higher than those of conventional ultra-high-speed cameras. The frame rate and optical efficiency of the multi-aperture scheme are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed imaging method, a 5×3 multi-aperture image sensor was fabricated. The average rising and falling times of the shutters were 1.53 ns and 1.69 ns, respectively. The maximum skew among the shutters was 3 ns. The sensor observed plasma emission by compressing it to 15 frames, and a series of 32 images at 200 Mfps was reconstructed. In the experiment, by correcting disparities and considering temporal pixel responses, artifacts in the reconstructed images were reduced. An improvement in PSNR from 25.8 dB to 30.8 dB was confirmed in simulations.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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[Crossref]

2013 (8)

P. Llull, X. Liao, X. Yuan, J. Yang, D. Kittle, L. Carin, G. Sapiro, and D. J. Brady, “Coded aperture compressive temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10526–10545 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Velten, Di Wu, A. Jarabo, B. Masia, C. Barsi, C. Joshi, E. Lawson, M. Bawendi, D. Gutierrez, and R. Raskar, “Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 44 (2013).
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M. Dadkhah, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Compressive sensing image sensor-hardware implementation,” MDPI Sensors 13, 4961–4978 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Heide, M. B. Hullin, J. Gregson, and W. Heidrich, “Low-budget transient imaging using photonic mixer devices,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 45 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. G. Etoh, V. T. SonDao, T. Yamada, and E. Charbon, “Toward one giga frames per second ? evolution of in situ storage image sensors,” MDPI Sensors 13(4), 4640–4658 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Arai, J. Yonai, T. Hayashida, H. Ohtake, H. van Kujik, and T. G. Etoh, “A 252-V/lux·s, 16.7-million-frames-per-second 312-kpixel back-side-illuminated ultrahigh-speed charge-coupled device,” IEEE Electron Devices 60, 3450–3458 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Tochigi, K. Hanzawa, Y. Kato, R. Kuroda, H. Mutoh, R. Hirose, H. Tominaga, K. Takubo, Y. Kondo, and S. Sugawa, “A global-shutter CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1-Tpixel/s burst and 780Mpixel/s continuous,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 48(1), 329–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Seo, T. Sawamoto, T. Akahori, Z. Liu, T. Iida, T. Takasawa, T. Kosugi, T. Watanabe, K. Isobe, and S. Kawahito, “A low-noise high dynamic-range 17b 1.3-Megapixel 30-fps CMOS image sensor with column-parallel two stage folding integration/cyclic ADC,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(12), 3396–3400 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Gleichman and Y. C. Eldar, “Blind compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 57(10), 6958–6975 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. J. Cades and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multi-aperture image sensor with 0.7μ m pixels in 0.11μ m CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 43(12), 2990–3005 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Green, W. Sun, W. Matusik, and F. Durand, “Multi-aperture photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 26(3), 68 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Furuta, Y. Nishikawa, T. Inoue, and S. Kawahito, “A high-speed, high-sensitivity digital CMOS image sensor with a global shutter and 12-bit column-parallel cyclic A/D converter,” IEEE Jo. Solid-State Circ. 42, 766–774 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, and J. Tumblin, “Coded exposure photography: motion deblurring using fluttered shutter,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 25(3), 795–804 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1975 (1)

C. Canali, G. Majni, R. Minder, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron and hole drift velocity measurements in silicon and their empirical relation to electric field and temperature,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 22(11), 1045–1047 (1975).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, A.

R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, and J. Tumblin, “Coded exposure photography: motion deblurring using fluttered shutter,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 25(3), 795–804 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akahori, T.

M. Seo, T. Sawamoto, T. Akahori, Z. Liu, T. Iida, T. Takasawa, T. Kosugi, T. Watanabe, K. Isobe, and S. Kawahito, “A low-noise high dynamic-range 17b 1.3-Megapixel 30-fps CMOS image sensor with column-parallel two stage folding integration/cyclic ADC,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(12), 3396–3400 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arai, T.

T. Arai, J. Yonai, T. Hayashida, H. Ohtake, H. van Kujik, and T. G. Etoh, “A 252-V/lux·s, 16.7-million-frames-per-second 312-kpixel back-side-illuminated ultrahigh-speed charge-coupled device,” IEEE Electron Devices 60, 3450–3458 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, G.

S. Kawahito, G. Baek, Z. Li, S. Han, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and K. Kagawa, “CMOS lock-in pixel image sensors with lateral electric field control for time-resolved imaging,” in Int’l Image Sensor Workshop (2013), pp. 1417–1429.

Barsi, C.

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Velten, Di Wu, A. Jarabo, B. Masia, C. Barsi, C. Joshi, E. Lawson, M. Bawendi, D. Gutierrez, and R. Raskar, “Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M.

A. Velten, Di Wu, A. Jarabo, B. Masia, C. Barsi, C. Joshi, E. Lawson, M. Bawendi, D. Gutierrez, and R. Raskar, “Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhandari, A.

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bo, Z.

F. Mochizuki, K. Kagawa, S. Okihara, M. Seo, Z. Bo, T. Takasawa, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “Single-shot 200Mfps 5×3-aperture compressive CMOS imager,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 116–117.

Brady, D. J.

Budzyn, F.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cades, E. J.

E. J. Cades and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

Canali, C.

C. Canali, G. Majni, R. Minder, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron and hole drift velocity measurements in silicon and their empirical relation to electric field and temperature,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 22(11), 1045–1047 (1975).
[Crossref]

Carin, L.

Charbon, E.

T. G. Etoh, V. T. SonDao, T. Yamada, and E. Charbon, “Toward one giga frames per second ? evolution of in situ storage image sensors,” MDPI Sensors 13(4), 4640–4658 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dadkhah, M.

M. Dadkhah, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Compressive sensing image sensor-hardware implementation,” MDPI Sensors 13, 4961–4978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deen, M. J.

M. Dadkhah, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Compressive sensing image sensor-hardware implementation,” MDPI Sensors 13, 4961–4978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dorrington, A.

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Durand, F.

P. Green, W. Sun, W. Matusik, and F. Durand, “Multi-aperture photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 26(3), 68 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eldar, Y. C.

S. Gleichman and Y. C. Eldar, “Blind compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 57(10), 6958–6975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Etoh, T. G.

T. G. Etoh, V. T. SonDao, T. Yamada, and E. Charbon, “Toward one giga frames per second ? evolution of in situ storage image sensors,” MDPI Sensors 13(4), 4640–4658 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Arai, J. Yonai, T. Hayashida, H. Ohtake, H. van Kujik, and T. G. Etoh, “A 252-V/lux·s, 16.7-million-frames-per-second 312-kpixel back-side-illuminated ultrahigh-speed charge-coupled device,” IEEE Electron Devices 60, 3450–3458 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fife, K.

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multi-aperture image sensor with 0.7μ m pixels in 0.11μ m CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 43(12), 2990–3005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frühling, U.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fukumoto, K.

S. Sukegawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakajima, H. Kawanobe, K. Koseki, I. Hirota, T. Haruta, M. Kasai, K. Fukumoto, T. Wakano, K. Inoue, H. Takahashi, T. Nagano, Y. Nitta, T. Hirayama, and N. Fukushima, “A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel back-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2013), 484–485.

Fukushima, N.

S. Sukegawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakajima, H. Kawanobe, K. Koseki, I. Hirota, T. Haruta, M. Kasai, K. Fukumoto, T. Wakano, K. Inoue, H. Takahashi, T. Nagano, Y. Nitta, T. Hirayama, and N. Fukushima, “A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel back-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2013), 484–485.

Furuta, M.

M. Furuta, Y. Nishikawa, T. Inoue, and S. Kawahito, “A high-speed, high-sensitivity digital CMOS image sensor with a global shutter and 12-bit column-parallel cyclic A/D converter,” IEEE Jo. Solid-State Circ. 42, 766–774 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gamal, A. E.

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multi-aperture image sensor with 0.7μ m pixels in 0.11μ m CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 43(12), 2990–3005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Oike and A. E. Gamal, “A 256× 256 CMOS image sensors with ΔΣ-based single-shot compressed sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2012), 386–387.

Gao, L.

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gebert, T.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gensch, M.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gleichman, S.

S. Gleichman and Y. C. Eldar, “Blind compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 57(10), 6958–6975 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

N. Nakagawa, A. Iwasaki, Y. Oishi, R. Horisaki, A. Tsukamoto, A. Nakamura, K. Hirosawa, H. Liao, T. Ushida, K. Goda, F. Kannari, and I. Sakuma, “Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP),” Nat. Photonics 8, 695–700 (2014).
[Crossref]

Green, P.

P. Green, W. Sun, W. Matusik, and F. Durand, “Multi-aperture photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 26(3), 68 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gregson, J.

F. Heide, M. B. Hullin, J. Gregson, and W. Heidrich, “Low-budget transient imaging using photonic mixer devices,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grimm, O.

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T. Arai, J. Yonai, T. Hayashida, H. Ohtake, H. van Kujik, and T. G. Etoh, “A 252-V/lux·s, 16.7-million-frames-per-second 312-kpixel back-side-illuminated ultrahigh-speed charge-coupled device,” IEEE Electron Devices 60, 3450–3458 (2013).
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S. Kawahito, G. Baek, Z. Li, S. Han, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and K. Kagawa, “CMOS lock-in pixel image sensors with lateral electric field control for time-resolved imaging,” in Int’l Image Sensor Workshop (2013), pp. 1417–1429.

K. Yasutomi, T. Usui, S. Han, T. Takasawa, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “A 0.3mm-resolution time-of-flight CMOS range imager with column-gating clock-skew calibration,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2014), 132–133.

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F. Mochizuki, K. Kagawa, S. Okihara, M. Seo, Z. Bo, T. Takasawa, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “Single-shot 200Mfps 5×3-aperture compressive CMOS imager,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 116–117.

Ottaviani, G.

C. Canali, G. Majni, R. Minder, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron and hole drift velocity measurements in silicon and their empirical relation to electric field and temperature,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 22(11), 1045–1047 (1975).
[Crossref]

Pitsianis, N. P.

Plönjes, E.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pournaghi, R.

X. Wu and R. Pournaghi, “High frame rate video capture by multiple cameras with coded exposure,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 577–580.

Raskar, R.

A. Velten, Di Wu, A. Jarabo, B. Masia, C. Barsi, C. Joshi, E. Lawson, M. Bawendi, D. Gutierrez, and R. Raskar, “Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, and J. Tumblin, “Coded exposure photography: motion deblurring using fluttered shutter,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 25(3), 795–804 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rossbach, J.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakuma, I.

N. Nakagawa, A. Iwasaki, Y. Oishi, R. Horisaki, A. Tsukamoto, A. Nakamura, K. Hirosawa, H. Liao, T. Ushida, K. Goda, F. Kannari, and I. Sakuma, “Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP),” Nat. Photonics 8, 695–700 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sankaranarayanan, A. C.

J. Holloway, A. C. Sankaranarayanan, A. Veeraraghavan, and S. Tambe, “Flutter shutter video camera for compressive sensing of videos,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computational Photography (IEEE2012), pp. 1–9.

Sapiro, G.

Sawamoto, T.

M. Seo, T. Sawamoto, T. Akahori, Z. Liu, T. Iida, T. Takasawa, T. Kosugi, T. Watanabe, K. Isobe, and S. Kawahito, “A low-noise high dynamic-range 17b 1.3-Megapixel 30-fps CMOS image sensor with column-parallel two stage folding integration/cyclic ADC,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(12), 3396–3400 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schütte, B.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seo, M.

M. Seo, S. Kawahito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and N. Teranishi, “A low dark leakage current high-sensitivity CMOS image sensor with STI-less shared pixel design,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(6), 2093–2097 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, K. Kagawa, T. Takasawa, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “RTS noise and dark current white defects reduction using selective averaging based on a multi-aperture system,” MDPI Sensors 14(1), 1528–1543 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Seo, T. Sawamoto, T. Akahori, Z. Liu, T. Iida, T. Takasawa, T. Kosugi, T. Watanabe, K. Isobe, and S. Kawahito, “A low-noise high dynamic-range 17b 1.3-Megapixel 30-fps CMOS image sensor with column-parallel two stage folding integration/cyclic ADC,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(12), 3396–3400 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Mochizuki, K. Kagawa, S. Okihara, M. Seo, Z. Bo, T. Takasawa, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “Single-shot 200Mfps 5×3-aperture compressive CMOS imager,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 116–117.

M. Seo, K. Kagawa, K. Yasutomi, T. Takasawa, Y. Kawata, N. Teranishi, Z. Li, I.A. Halin, and S. Kawahito, “10.8ps-time-resolution 256× 512 image sensor with 2-tap true-CDS lock-in pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 198–199.

S. Kawahito, G. Baek, Z. Li, S. Han, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and K. Kagawa, “CMOS lock-in pixel image sensors with lateral electric field control for time-resolved imaging,” in Int’l Image Sensor Workshop (2013), pp. 1417–1429.

Shankar, M.

Shirani, S.

M. Dadkhah, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Compressive sensing image sensor-hardware implementation,” MDPI Sensors 13, 4961–4978 (2013).
[Crossref]

SonDao, V. T.

T. G. Etoh, V. T. SonDao, T. Yamada, and E. Charbon, “Toward one giga frames per second ? evolution of in situ storage image sensors,” MDPI Sensors 13(4), 4640–4658 (2013).
[Crossref]

Streeter, L.

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sugawa, S.

Y. Tochigi, K. Hanzawa, Y. Kato, R. Kuroda, H. Mutoh, R. Hirose, H. Tominaga, K. Takubo, Y. Kondo, and S. Sugawa, “A global-shutter CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1-Tpixel/s burst and 780Mpixel/s continuous,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 48(1), 329–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sukegawa, S.

S. Sukegawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakajima, H. Kawanobe, K. Koseki, I. Hirota, T. Haruta, M. Kasai, K. Fukumoto, T. Wakano, K. Inoue, H. Takahashi, T. Nagano, Y. Nitta, T. Hirayama, and N. Fukushima, “A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel back-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2013), 484–485.

Sun, W.

P. Green, W. Sun, W. Matusik, and F. Durand, “Multi-aperture photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 26(3), 68 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

S. Sukegawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakajima, H. Kawanobe, K. Koseki, I. Hirota, T. Haruta, M. Kasai, K. Fukumoto, T. Wakano, K. Inoue, H. Takahashi, T. Nagano, Y. Nitta, T. Hirayama, and N. Fukushima, “A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel back-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2013), 484–485.

Takasawa, T.

B. Zhang, K. Kagawa, T. Takasawa, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “RTS noise and dark current white defects reduction using selective averaging based on a multi-aperture system,” MDPI Sensors 14(1), 1528–1543 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Seo, T. Sawamoto, T. Akahori, Z. Liu, T. Iida, T. Takasawa, T. Kosugi, T. Watanabe, K. Isobe, and S. Kawahito, “A low-noise high dynamic-range 17b 1.3-Megapixel 30-fps CMOS image sensor with column-parallel two stage folding integration/cyclic ADC,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(12), 3396–3400 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Yasutomi, T. Usui, S. Han, T. Takasawa, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “A 0.3mm-resolution time-of-flight CMOS range imager with column-gating clock-skew calibration,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2014), 132–133.

F. Mochizuki, K. Kagawa, S. Okihara, M. Seo, Z. Bo, T. Takasawa, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “Single-shot 200Mfps 5×3-aperture compressive CMOS imager,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 116–117.

M. Seo, K. Kagawa, K. Yasutomi, T. Takasawa, Y. Kawata, N. Teranishi, Z. Li, I.A. Halin, and S. Kawahito, “10.8ps-time-resolution 256× 512 image sensor with 2-tap true-CDS lock-in pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 198–199.

Takubo, K.

Y. Tochigi, K. Hanzawa, Y. Kato, R. Kuroda, H. Mutoh, R. Hirose, H. Tominaga, K. Takubo, Y. Kondo, and S. Sugawa, “A global-shutter CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1-Tpixel/s burst and 780Mpixel/s continuous,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 48(1), 329–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tambe, S.

J. Holloway, A. C. Sankaranarayanan, A. Veeraraghavan, and S. Tambe, “Flutter shutter video camera for compressive sensing of videos,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computational Photography (IEEE2012), pp. 1–9.

Tanida, J.

Teranishi, N.

M. Seo, S. Kawahito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and N. Teranishi, “A low dark leakage current high-sensitivity CMOS image sensor with STI-less shared pixel design,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(6), 2093–2097 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Seo, K. Kagawa, K. Yasutomi, T. Takasawa, Y. Kawata, N. Teranishi, Z. Li, I.A. Halin, and S. Kawahito, “10.8ps-time-resolution 256× 512 image sensor with 2-tap true-CDS lock-in pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 198–199.

Tochigi, Y.

Y. Tochigi, K. Hanzawa, Y. Kato, R. Kuroda, H. Mutoh, R. Hirose, H. Tominaga, K. Takubo, Y. Kondo, and S. Sugawa, “A global-shutter CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1-Tpixel/s burst and 780Mpixel/s continuous,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 48(1), 329–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tominaga, H.

Y. Tochigi, K. Hanzawa, Y. Kato, R. Kuroda, H. Mutoh, R. Hirose, H. Tominaga, K. Takubo, Y. Kondo, and S. Sugawa, “A global-shutter CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1-Tpixel/s burst and 780Mpixel/s continuous,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 48(1), 329–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsukamoto, A.

N. Nakagawa, A. Iwasaki, Y. Oishi, R. Horisaki, A. Tsukamoto, A. Nakamura, K. Hirosawa, H. Liao, T. Ushida, K. Goda, F. Kannari, and I. Sakuma, “Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP),” Nat. Photonics 8, 695–700 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tumblin, J.

R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, and J. Tumblin, “Coded exposure photography: motion deblurring using fluttered shutter,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 25(3), 795–804 (2006).
[Crossref]

Umebayashi, T.

S. Sukegawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakajima, H. Kawanobe, K. Koseki, I. Hirota, T. Haruta, M. Kasai, K. Fukumoto, T. Wakano, K. Inoue, H. Takahashi, T. Nagano, Y. Nitta, T. Hirayama, and N. Fukushima, “A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel back-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2013), 484–485.

Ushida, T.

N. Nakagawa, A. Iwasaki, Y. Oishi, R. Horisaki, A. Tsukamoto, A. Nakamura, K. Hirosawa, H. Liao, T. Ushida, K. Goda, F. Kannari, and I. Sakuma, “Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP),” Nat. Photonics 8, 695–700 (2014).
[Crossref]

Usui, T.

K. Yasutomi, T. Usui, S. Han, T. Takasawa, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “A 0.3mm-resolution time-of-flight CMOS range imager with column-gating clock-skew calibration,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2014), 132–133.

van Kujik, H.

T. Arai, J. Yonai, T. Hayashida, H. Ohtake, H. van Kujik, and T. G. Etoh, “A 252-V/lux·s, 16.7-million-frames-per-second 312-kpixel back-side-illuminated ultrahigh-speed charge-coupled device,” IEEE Electron Devices 60, 3450–3458 (2013).
[Crossref]

Veeraraghavan, A.

J. Holloway, A. C. Sankaranarayanan, A. Veeraraghavan, and S. Tambe, “Flutter shutter video camera for compressive sensing of videos,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computational Photography (IEEE2012), pp. 1–9.

Velten, A.

A. Velten, Di Wu, A. Jarabo, B. Masia, C. Barsi, C. Joshi, E. Lawson, M. Bawendi, D. Gutierrez, and R. Raskar, “Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wakano, T.

S. Sukegawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakajima, H. Kawanobe, K. Koseki, I. Hirota, T. Haruta, M. Kasai, K. Fukumoto, T. Wakano, K. Inoue, H. Takahashi, T. Nagano, Y. Nitta, T. Hirayama, and N. Fukushima, “A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel back-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2013), 484–485.

Wakin, M. B.

E. J. Cades and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

M. Seo, T. Sawamoto, T. Akahori, Z. Liu, T. Iida, T. Takasawa, T. Kosugi, T. Watanabe, K. Isobe, and S. Kawahito, “A low-noise high dynamic-range 17b 1.3-Megapixel 30-fps CMOS image sensor with column-parallel two stage folding integration/cyclic ADC,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(12), 3396–3400 (2012).
[Crossref]

Whyte, R.

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wieland, M.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wong, H.-S. P.

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multi-aperture image sensor with 0.7μ m pixels in 0.11μ m CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 43(12), 2990–3005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, Di

A. Velten, Di Wu, A. Jarabo, B. Masia, C. Barsi, C. Joshi, E. Lawson, M. Bawendi, D. Gutierrez, and R. Raskar, “Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu and R. Pournaghi, “High frame rate video capture by multiple cameras with coded exposure,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 577–580.

Yamada, K.

Yamada, T.

T. G. Etoh, V. T. SonDao, T. Yamada, and E. Charbon, “Toward one giga frames per second ? evolution of in situ storage image sensors,” MDPI Sensors 13(4), 4640–4658 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yasutomi, K.

M. Seo, S. Kawahito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and N. Teranishi, “A low dark leakage current high-sensitivity CMOS image sensor with STI-less shared pixel design,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(6), 2093–2097 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, K. Kagawa, T. Takasawa, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “RTS noise and dark current white defects reduction using selective averaging based on a multi-aperture system,” MDPI Sensors 14(1), 1528–1543 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Mochizuki, K. Kagawa, S. Okihara, M. Seo, Z. Bo, T. Takasawa, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “Single-shot 200Mfps 5×3-aperture compressive CMOS imager,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 116–117.

K. Yasutomi, T. Usui, S. Han, T. Takasawa, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “A 0.3mm-resolution time-of-flight CMOS range imager with column-gating clock-skew calibration,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2014), 132–133.

S. Kawahito, G. Baek, Z. Li, S. Han, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and K. Kagawa, “CMOS lock-in pixel image sensors with lateral electric field control for time-resolved imaging,” in Int’l Image Sensor Workshop (2013), pp. 1417–1429.

M. Seo, K. Kagawa, K. Yasutomi, T. Takasawa, Y. Kawata, N. Teranishi, Z. Li, I.A. Halin, and S. Kawahito, “10.8ps-time-resolution 256× 512 image sensor with 2-tap true-CDS lock-in pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2015), 198–199.

Yonai, J.

T. Arai, J. Yonai, T. Hayashida, H. Ohtake, H. van Kujik, and T. G. Etoh, “A 252-V/lux·s, 16.7-million-frames-per-second 312-kpixel back-side-illuminated ultrahigh-speed charge-coupled device,” IEEE Electron Devices 60, 3450–3458 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, K. Kagawa, T. Takasawa, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “RTS noise and dark current white defects reduction using selective averaging based on a multi-aperture system,” MDPI Sensors 14(1), 1528–1543 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

A. Kadambi, R. Whyte, A. Bhandari, L. Streeter, C. Barsi, A. Dorrington, and R. Raskar, “Coded time of flight cameras: sparse deconvolution to address multipath interference and recover time profiles,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 167 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) (4)

F. Heide, M. B. Hullin, J. Gregson, and W. Heidrich, “Low-budget transient imaging using photonic mixer devices,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 45 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Velten, Di Wu, A. Jarabo, B. Masia, C. Barsi, C. Joshi, E. Lawson, M. Bawendi, D. Gutierrez, and R. Raskar, “Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 32(4), 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Green, W. Sun, W. Matusik, and F. Durand, “Multi-aperture photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 26(3), 68 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Raskar, A. Agrawal, and J. Tumblin, “Coded exposure photography: motion deblurring using fluttered shutter,” ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH) 25(3), 795–804 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Electron Devices (1)

T. Arai, J. Yonai, T. Hayashida, H. Ohtake, H. van Kujik, and T. G. Etoh, “A 252-V/lux·s, 16.7-million-frames-per-second 312-kpixel back-side-illuminated ultrahigh-speed charge-coupled device,” IEEE Electron Devices 60, 3450–3458 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. (2)

Y. Tochigi, K. Hanzawa, Y. Kato, R. Kuroda, H. Mutoh, R. Hirose, H. Tominaga, K. Takubo, Y. Kondo, and S. Sugawa, “A global-shutter CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1-Tpixel/s burst and 780Mpixel/s continuous,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 48(1), 329–338 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multi-aperture image sensor with 0.7μ m pixels in 0.11μ m CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circ. 43(12), 2990–3005 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Jo. Solid-State Circ. (1)

M. Furuta, Y. Nishikawa, T. Inoue, and S. Kawahito, “A high-speed, high-sensitivity digital CMOS image sensor with a global shutter and 12-bit column-parallel cyclic A/D converter,” IEEE Jo. Solid-State Circ. 42, 766–774 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

E. J. Cades and M. B. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21–30 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (3)

C. Canali, G. Majni, R. Minder, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron and hole drift velocity measurements in silicon and their empirical relation to electric field and temperature,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 22(11), 1045–1047 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Seo, S. Kawahito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and N. Teranishi, “A low dark leakage current high-sensitivity CMOS image sensor with STI-less shared pixel design,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(6), 2093–2097 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Seo, T. Sawamoto, T. Akahori, Z. Liu, T. Iida, T. Takasawa, T. Kosugi, T. Watanabe, K. Isobe, and S. Kawahito, “A low-noise high dynamic-range 17b 1.3-Megapixel 30-fps CMOS image sensor with column-parallel two stage folding integration/cyclic ADC,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(12), 3396–3400 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

S. Gleichman and Y. C. Eldar, “Blind compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 57(10), 6958–6975 (2011).
[Crossref]

MDPI Sensors (3)

B. Zhang, K. Kagawa, T. Takasawa, M. Seo, K. Yasutomi, and S. Kawahito, “RTS noise and dark current white defects reduction using selective averaging based on a multi-aperture system,” MDPI Sensors 14(1), 1528–1543 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. G. Etoh, V. T. SonDao, T. Yamada, and E. Charbon, “Toward one giga frames per second ? evolution of in situ storage image sensors,” MDPI Sensors 13(4), 4640–4658 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Dadkhah, M. J. Deen, and S. Shirani, “Compressive sensing image sensor-hardware implementation,” MDPI Sensors 13, 4961–4978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

N. Nakagawa, A. Iwasaki, Y. Oishi, R. Horisaki, A. Tsukamoto, A. Nakamura, K. Hirosawa, H. Liao, T. Ushida, K. Goda, F. Kannari, and I. Sakuma, “Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP),” Nat. Photonics 8, 695–700 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plönjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz field driven x-ray streak-camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

L. Gao, J. Liang, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second,” Nature 516, 74–77 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (12)

K. Yasutomi, T. Usui, S. Han, T. Takasawa, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “A 0.3mm-resolution time-of-flight CMOS range imager with column-gating clock-skew calibration,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2014), 132–133.

S. Sukegawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakajima, H. Kawanobe, K. Koseki, I. Hirota, T. Haruta, M. Kasai, K. Fukumoto, T. Wakano, K. Inoue, H. Takahashi, T. Nagano, Y. Nitta, T. Hirayama, and N. Fukushima, “A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel back-illuminated stacked CMOS image sensor,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE2013), 484–485.

Y. Hitomi, J. Gu, M. Gupta, T. Mitsunaga, and S. K. Nayar, “Video from a single coded exposure photograph using a learned over-complete dictionary,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE2011), 287–294.

X. Wu and R. Pournaghi, “High frame rate video capture by multiple cameras with coded exposure,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 577–580.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Multi-aperture imaging system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Procedure of the proposed method.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Image sensor architecture.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A CCD UHS image sensor.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A CMOS UHS image sensor.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation results of the proposed method. (a) Original consecutive images and (b) compressed images for 6 apertures.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Relationship between compression ratio and PSNR.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Original and reconstructed images with different compression ratios. (a) Original images, and reconstructed images for compression ratios of (b) 400%, (c) 200%, and (d) 133%.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Reconstructed images for (a) the best PSNR and (b) the worst PSNR for the compression ratio of 200%.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Block diagram of a prototype CMOS image sensor.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Photograph of a prototype CMOS image sensor.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Simplified LEFM pixel structure and (b) its potential diagram.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Block diagram of one aperture.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Timing chart of the shutter controller.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Operation flow of the MA temporally compressive imaging.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Impulse response of every aperture.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 (a) Experimental configuration for observing plasma emission and (b) the applied shutter patterns.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Optical setup.
Fig. 19
Fig. 19 A fabricated lens array.
Fig. 20
Fig. 20 (a) Fifteen captured compressed images, (b) images for registration, and (c) aligned and cropped compressed images.
Fig. 21
Fig. 21 Temporally resolved images by (a) using ideal shutter pattern as observation matrix, (b) convoluting impulse response of each aperture, and (c) non-compressive temporally resolved images.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Summary of parameters and frame rates.

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Table 2 Summary of PSNR.

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Table 3 Specifications of the prototype image sensor.

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Table 4 Specifications of the prototype camera.

Equations (10)

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y = Ax ,
min x i D i x p s . t . y = Ax ,
( y 1 y 2 y m ) = ( a 1 a 2 a m ) ( x 1 x 2 x n ) = ( s 11 s 1 n s m 1 s m n ) ( x 1 x 2 x n ) .
f C C D = 1 max { t m , N C C D × t C C D } .
f C M O S = 1 t m + t C D S + N C M O S × t C M E M .
f p r o p o s e d = 1 t m .
N e = a η A R T 4 F n 2 E o τ
N e = C A F n 2 .
N e m , t o t = C A m F n m 2 M = C A s F n m 2 .
μ ( A ) = max ( 1 i < j N ) | a i , a j | a i 2 a j 2 .

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