Abstract

We present a simple configuration incorporating single polarization-sensitive phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) to facilitate polarization-insensitive free-space optical communications employing orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. We experimentally demonstrate several polarization-insensitive optical communication subsystems by propagating a single OAM mode, multicasting 4 and 10 OAM modes, and multiplexing 8 OAM modes, respectively. Free-space polarization-insensitive optical communication links using OAM modes that carry four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal are demonstrated in the experiment. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties are less than 1 dB in both polarization-insensitive N-fold OAM modes multicasting and multiple OAM modes multiplexing at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2e-3 (enhanced forward-error correction (EFEC) threshold).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (7)

D. Sadot, G. Dorman, A. Gorshtein, E. Sonkin, and O. Vidal, “Single channel 112Gbit/sec PAM4 at 56Gbaud with digital signal processing for data centers applications,” Opt. Express 23(2), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu and J. Wang, “Demonstration of polarization-insensitive spatial light modulation using a single polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9959 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Adaptive power-controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9677 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26221–26233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A different angle on light communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “Space division multiplexed transmission of 109-Tb/s data signals using homogeneous seven-core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 658–665 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “High capacity/spectral efficiency 101.7-Tb/s WDM transmission using PDM-128QAM-OFDM over 165-km SSMF within C- and L-bands,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(10), 1540–1548 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Richter, E. Palushani, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, M. Nölle, and C. Schubert, “Transmission of single-channel 16-QAM data signals at terabaud symbol rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 504–511 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

P. J. Winzer, “Modulation and multiplexing in optical communication systems,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 23, 4–10 (2009).

2007 (1)

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, “Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6×10 Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1166–1168 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Awaji, Y.

Bai, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Bickham, S.

Bigot-Astruc, M.

Birnbaum, K. M.

Bolle, C.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buhl, L. L.

Burrows, E. C.

Cartledge, J.

Chen, S.

J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Lv, L. Zhu, D. Wang, S. Li, A. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Long, J. Du, X. Hu, N. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Fang, and F. Zhang, “Ultra-high 435-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using N-dimentional multiplexing and modulation link with pol-muxed 52 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes carrying Nyquist 32-QAM signals,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2015), paper Th.2.5.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delgado-Mendinueta, J.-M.

Doerr, C. R.

Dolinar, S.

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S. J.

Dorman, G.

Downie, J. D.

Du, C.

Du, J.

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Lv, L. Zhu, D. Wang, S. Li, A. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Long, J. Du, X. Hu, N. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Fang, and F. Zhang, “Ultra-high 435-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using N-dimentional multiplexing and modulation link with pol-muxed 52 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes carrying Nyquist 32-QAM signals,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2015), paper Th.2.5.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Erkmen, B. I.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fang, L.

J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Lv, L. Zhu, D. Wang, S. Li, A. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Long, J. Du, X. Hu, N. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Fang, and F. Zhang, “Ultra-high 435-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using N-dimentional multiplexing and modulation link with pol-muxed 52 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes carrying Nyquist 32-QAM signals,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2015), paper Th.2.5.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fini, J.

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, “Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6×10 Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1166–1168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Gnauck, A. H.

Gorshtein, A.

Hayashi, T.

Hu, J.

Hu, X.

J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Lv, L. Zhu, D. Wang, S. Li, A. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Long, J. Du, X. Hu, N. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Fang, and F. Zhang, “Ultra-high 435-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using N-dimentional multiplexing and modulation link with pol-muxed 52 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes carrying Nyquist 32-QAM signals,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2015), paper Th.2.5.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A different angle on light communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.-F.

Huang, Y.-K.

Hurley, J.

Ip, E.

Kanno, A.

Kawanishi, T.

Klaus, W.

Kobayashi, T.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavery, M. P.

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Lee, B. G.

Li, C.

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S. Li and J. Wang, “Adaptive power-controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9677 (2015).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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J. Liu and J. Wang, “Demonstration of polarization-insensitive spatial light modulation using a single polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9959 (2015).
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A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
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J. Wang, S. Li, M. Luo, J. Liu, L. Zhu, C. Li, D. Xie, Q. Yang, S. Yu, and J. Sun, “N-Dimentional multiplexing link with 1.036-Pbit/s transmission capacity and 112.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using OFDM-8QAM signals over 368 WDM pol-muxed 26 OAM modes,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2014), paper Mo.4.5.1 (2014).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
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Yan, L.

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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J. Wang, S. Li, M. Luo, J. Liu, L. Zhu, C. Li, D. Xie, Q. Yang, S. Yu, and J. Sun, “N-Dimentional multiplexing link with 1.036-Pbit/s transmission capacity and 112.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using OFDM-8QAM signals over 368 WDM pol-muxed 26 OAM modes,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2014), paper Mo.4.5.1 (2014).
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Yu, S.

J. Wang, S. Li, M. Luo, J. Liu, L. Zhu, C. Li, D. Xie, Q. Yang, S. Yu, and J. Sun, “N-Dimentional multiplexing link with 1.036-Pbit/s transmission capacity and 112.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using OFDM-8QAM signals over 368 WDM pol-muxed 26 OAM modes,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2014), paper Mo.4.5.1 (2014).
[Crossref]

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H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Lv, L. Zhu, D. Wang, S. Li, A. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Long, J. Du, X. Hu, N. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Fang, and F. Zhang, “Ultra-high 435-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using N-dimentional multiplexing and modulation link with pol-muxed 52 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes carrying Nyquist 32-QAM signals,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2015), paper Th.2.5.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
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J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Lv, L. Zhu, D. Wang, S. Li, A. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Long, J. Du, X. Hu, N. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Fang, and F. Zhang, “Ultra-high 435-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using N-dimentional multiplexing and modulation link with pol-muxed 52 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes carrying Nyquist 32-QAM signals,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2015), paper Th.2.5.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Gao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Zhou, N.

J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Lv, L. Zhu, D. Wang, S. Li, A. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Long, J. Du, X. Hu, N. Zhou, S. Chen, L. Fang, and F. Zhang, “Ultra-high 435-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using N-dimentional multiplexing and modulation link with pol-muxed 52 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes carrying Nyquist 32-QAM signals,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2015), paper Th.2.5.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26221–26233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Wang, S. Li, M. Luo, J. Liu, L. Zhu, C. Li, D. Xie, Q. Yang, S. Yu, and J. Sun, “N-Dimentional multiplexing link with 1.036-Pbit/s transmission capacity and 112.6-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using OFDM-8QAM signals over 368 WDM pol-muxed 26 OAM modes,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC2014), paper Mo.4.5.1 (2014).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Li, C. Li, L. Zhu, C. Gui, D. Xie, Y. Qiu, Q. Yang, and S. Yu, “Ultra-high 230-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using OFDM/OQAM 64-QAM signals over pol-muxed 22 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC2014), paper W1H.4 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept of polarization-insensitive optical communications using space dimension of photons.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for polarization-insensitive single OAM mode transmission. ECL: external cavity laser; PC: polarization controller; PAM-4: 4-level pulse-amplitude modulation; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; Col.: collimator; Pol.: polarizer; HWP: half-wave plate; BS: non-polarization beam splitter; PBS: polarization beam splitter; SLM: spatial light modulator; M1-M6: mirror; VOA: variable optical attenuator; PD: photodetector. Insets show intensity profiles of modulated and demodulated OAM beam (l = 8) after the polarization-insensitive modulation and demodulation, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured intensity profiles of output OAM beam (l = 4) after the polarization-insensitive configuration under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (a) 0, (b) 30, (c) 45, (d) 60, (e) 90, (f) 100, (g) 120, (h) 135, (i) 150 and (j) 180 degree, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(e) Measured intensity profiles of demodulated OAM beam (l = 4) with angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (a) 0, (b) 45, (c) 90, (d) 135, (e) 150 degree, respectively. (f)-(j) Measured eye diagrams of 4-Gbit/s PAM-4 signal for the demodulated OAM beam (l = 4) with different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (f) 20, (g) 45, (h) 160, (i) 180 degree, respectively. (j) Measured eye diagram of back-to-back (B-to-B) 4-Gbit/s PAM-4 signal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup for polarization-insensitive N-fold OAM modes multicasting. Insets show intensity profiles of multicasted 10 OAM modes after polarization-insensitive modulation and demodulated OAM mode (l = 6) after polarization-insensitive demodulation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a)-(e) Measured intensity profiles of 4-fold OAM modes multicasting ( l = 3 ,   6 ,   9 ,   12 ) under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (a) 0, (b) 30, (c) 45, (d) 90 and (e) 120 degree, respectively. (f)-(j) Measured intensity profiles of 10-fold OAM modes multicasting ( l = 18 ,   15 ,   12 ,   9 ,   6 ,   6 ,   9 ,   12 ,   15 ,   18 ) under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (f) 0, (g) 30, (h) 45, (i) 90 and (j) 120 degree, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)-(e) Measured intensity profiles of demodulated OAM mode ( l = 12 ) among 4 multicasted OAM modes under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of 0, 30, 45, 90 and 120 degree, respectively. (f)-(j) Measured intensity profiles of demodulated OAM mode ( l = 6 ) among 10 multicasted OAM modes under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of 0, 30, 45, 90 and 120 degree, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured power distribution of 4-fold multicasted OAM channels ( l = 3 ,   6 ,   9 ,   12 ) under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (a) 0 and (b) 150 degree, respectively. Measured power distribution of 10-fold multicasted OAM channels ( l = 18 ,   15 ,   12 ,   9 ,   6 ,   6 ,   9 ,   12 ,   15 ,   18 ) under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (c) 60 and (d) 90 degree, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured BER curves of (a) 4 OAM modes and (b) 10 OAM modes polarization-insensitive multicasting of PAM-4 signal. Measured eye diagrams of (c) B-to-B PAM-4 signal, demodulated OAM modes ( l = 3 ,   12 ) for 4 OAM modes multicasting with angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (d)120 and (e) 60 degree, demodulated OAM modes ( l = 6 ,   18 ) for 10 OAM modes multicasting with angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (f)120 and (g) 60 degree.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental setup for polarization-insensitive OAM modes multiplexing. Insets show intensity profiles of polarization-insensitive two paths of 4 OAM modes, 8 OAM modes multiplexing, and demodulated OAM mode.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a)-(c) Measured intensity profiles of superimposed OAM modes (−3, −6, −9, −12) generated from the SLM1 path under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of 0, 30 and 60 degree, respectively. (d)-(f) Measured intensity profiles of superimposed OAM modes (3, 6, 9, 12) generated from the SLM2 path are displayed in Fig. 11(d)-(f) under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of 90, 120, and 150 degree, respectively. (g)-(i) Measured intensity profiles for multiplexing of superimposed 8 OAM modes under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of 180, 45, and 135 degree, respectively. (j)-(l) Measured intensity profiles for demultiplexing of OAM modes (−6, −12, + 6) with varying polarization states (50, 110, 70 degree).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Measured power distribution of 8 OAM modes multiplexing under different angles between the incident polarization and x-polarization of (a) 30 and (b) 90 degree, respectively. (c) Measured BER performance of PAM-4 signal for polarization-insensitive 8 OAM modes multiplexing.

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