Abstract

Optical vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) are widely investigated for their unique performance in recent years. They can be used to extend the capacity of optical communications system due to the orthogonality of different channels. In the receiver side of a multiplexing optical vortices system, verifying the OAM spectrum is of great importance. A new kind of diffraction element called Dammann vortex grating can distribute energies among different diffraction orders equally. Based on this unique characteristic, we reported a new algorithm to analyze the spot of each diffraction order. The OAM spectrum in the receiver side can then be obtained. In the experiment, the OAM spectrum measurement of at most six-channel multiplexing optical vortices is realized. The experimental results illustrate that the OAM spectrum gained by this approach is highly consistent with the theoretical value.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. S. Fu, T. Wang, S. Zhang, and C. Gao, “Integrating 5 × 5 Dammann gratings to detect orbital angular momentum states of beams with the range of −24 to +24,” Appl. Opt. 55(7), 1514–1517 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (6)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

M. P. J. Lavery, G. C. G. Berkbout, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the light orbital angular momentum spectrum using an optical geometric transformation,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064006 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Qi and C. Gao, “Experimental study of detecting orbital angular momentum states of spiral phase beams,” Wuli Xuebao 60(1), 014208 (2011).

C. Gao, X. Qi, Y. Liu, J. Xin, and L. Wang, “Sorting and detecting orbital angular momentum states by using a Dove prism embedded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and amplitude gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 48–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, N. Zhang, and X. C. Yuan, “High-volume optical vortex multiplexing and de-multiplexing for free-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 19(2), 482–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhang, X. C. Yuan, and R. E. Burge, “Extending the detection range of optical vortices by Dammann vortex gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3495–3497 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 063401 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Ahmed, N.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkbout, G. C. G.

M. P. J. Lavery, G. C. G. Berkbout, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the light orbital angular momentum spectrum using an optical geometric transformation,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064006 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berkhout, G. C.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

Birnbaum, K. M.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Boyd, R. W.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burge, R. E.

Cao, Y.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Chu, S.

Courtial, J.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2110–2115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, G. C. G. Berkbout, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the light orbital angular momentum spectrum using an optical geometric transformation,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064006 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, K.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S. J.

Du, J.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Erkmen, B. I.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, S.

Gao, C.

Hirano, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ireland, D. G.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jack, B.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jha, A. K.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jhe, W.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 063401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jones, P. H.

Kim, K.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 063401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuga, T.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kwon, N.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 063401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2110–2115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, G. C. G. Berkbout, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the light orbital angular momentum spectrum using an optical geometric transformation,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064006 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, L.

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Li, S.

Liao, P.

Liu, C.

Liu, Y.

C. Gao, X. Qi, Y. Liu, J. Xin, and L. Wang, “Sorting and detecting orbital angular momentum states by using a Dove prism embedded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and amplitude gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 48–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

Love, G. D.

Makita, M.

Maragò, O. M.

Mirhosseini, M.

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Padgett, M. J.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2110–2115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, G. C. G. Berkbout, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the light orbital angular momentum spectrum using an optical geometric transformation,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064006 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

C. Gao, X. Qi, Y. Liu, J. Xin, and L. Wang, “Sorting and detecting orbital angular momentum states by using a Dove prism embedded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and amplitude gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 48–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Qi and C. Gao, “Experimental study of detecting orbital angular momentum states of spiral phase beams,” Wuli Xuebao 60(1), 014208 (2011).

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rashid, M.

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Robertson, D. J.

Rogawski, D.

Romero, J.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasada, H.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Shimizu, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shiokawa, N.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torii, Y.

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

S. Li and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an orbital angular momentum multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 760–763 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

C. Gao, X. Qi, Y. Liu, J. Xin, and L. Wang, “Sorting and detecting orbital angular momentum states by using a Dove prism embedded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and amplitude gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 48–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. J.

Willner, M. J.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.

Xin, J.

J. Xin, C. Gao, C. Li, and Z. Wang, “Generation of polarization vortices with a Wollaston prism and an interferometric arrangement,” Appl. Opt. 51(29), 7094–7097 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gao, X. Qi, Y. Liu, J. Xin, and L. Wang, “Sorting and detecting orbital angular momentum states by using a Dove prism embedded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and amplitude gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 48–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 063401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Willner, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Reconfigurable orbital angular momentum and polarization manipulation of 100 Gbit/s QPSK data channels,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5240–5243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

Yuan, X. C.

Yue, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, L.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (2)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. (1)

M. P. J. Lavery, G. C. G. Berkbout, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the light orbital angular momentum spectrum using an optical geometric transformation,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064006 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Gao, X. Qi, Y. Liu, J. Xin, and L. Wang, “Sorting and detecting orbital angular momentum states by using a Dove prism embedded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and amplitude gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 48–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (9)

S. Li and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an orbital angular momentum multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 760–763 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fu, C. Gao, Y. Shi, K. Dai, L. Zhong, and S. Zhang, “Generating polarization vortices by using helical beams and a Twyman Green interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1775–1778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Willner, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Z. Zhao, Y. Cao, L. Li, N. Ahmed, Z. Wang, Y. Yan, P. Liao, C. Liu, M. Mirhosseini, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s data encoding and 2 ns channel hopping using orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5810–5813 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The concept of the OAM spectrum measurement in the receiver side of multiplexing optical vortices communications based on Dammann vortex grating and gray-scale algorithm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The flow chart of the gray-scale algorithm. This flow chart is an example of 25 diffraction orders.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental setup of the OAM spectrum measurement of multiplexing optical vortices. LD, laser diode. SMF, single mode fiber. Col.,collimater. PBS, polarized beam splitter. BE, beam expander. SLM, spatial light modular. AS, aperture stop. NDF, neutral density filter. L, convex lens. CCD, infrared CCD camera.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The far-field diffraction pattern when Gaussian beams propagate through Dammann vortex grating. And the location corresponding relationship between the diffraction order of Dammann vortex grating and the OAM states it can detect. (b) The intensity spectrum of different diffraction order in our experiment.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The SPP used to generate multiplexing optical vortices that consist of 4th order and −4th order single OAM mode with intensity proportion of 1:2. (b) The generated multiplexing optical vortices. (c) The far-field diffraction patterns when the beams shown in (b) propagate through Dammann vortex grating. (d) The collection dimension in our experiment. (e) The measured OAM spectrum.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The measurement results of OAM spectrum. (a) The result of three-channel multiplexing optical vortices. (b) The result of four-channel multiplexing optical vortices. (c) The result of six-channel multiplexing optical vortices.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The simulation to illustrate the relationship between the measuring accuracy and the mode spacing. (a) LG01 + LG02. (b) LG01 + LG03. (c) LG01 + LG04. (d) LG01 + LG05. (e) LG01 + LG06. (f) – (j) The optical field distribution when optical vortices shown in (a) – (e) propagate through −1st order SPP. (k) The line chart to show the relationship between the measured LG01 mode’s weight and the channel spacing of the adjacent channels in multiplexing optical vortices.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The 3 × 5 binary Dammann vortex grating, whose difference value of adjacent diffraction orders’ topological charge is 5 (b) The simulated far-field diffraction patterns when Gaussian beams propagate through the grating show in (a). (c) The values of the topological charge at different orders.

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