Abstract

A method to tune fluorescence lifetime of Eu-PMMA films is proposed, which consists of self-assembled gold nanorods on glass substrate covered by Eu-PMMA shell. The fluorescence lifetime is tunable in a wide range, and depends on aspect ratio and mutual distance of gold nanorods. In a single red color emission channel, more than six distinct fluorescence lifetime populations ranging from 356 to 513 μs are obtained. Through theoretical calculation, we attribute tunable fluorescence lifetime to the change of radiative and nonradiative decay rate and density of photon states. In addition, we use these as-prepared Eu-PMMA films for security data storage to demonstrate optical multiplexing applications. The optical multiplexing experiments show an interesting pseudo-information “8” and conceal the real messages “2” and “6”.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

B. Chen and J. Feng, “White-light-emitting polymer composite film based on carbon dots and lanthanide complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7865–7872 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rowinska, S. M. Kelleher, F. Soberon, A. J. Ricco, and S. Daniels, “Fabrication and characterisation of spin coated oxidised PMMA to provide a robust surface for on-chip assays,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Beater, P. Holzmeister, B. Lalkens, and P. Tinnefeld, “Simple and aberration-free 4color-STED--multiplexing by transient binding,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8630–8638 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Guo, S. Derom, A. I. Väkeväinen, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, P. Liljeroth, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and P. Törmä, “Controlling quantum dot emission by plasmonic nanoarrays,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28206–28215 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

M. Zhao, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “Parallel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime confocal microscopy for live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10221–10232 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Taylor, P. Michaux, A. S. M. Mohsin, and J. W. M. Chon, “Electron-beam lithography of plasmonic nanorod arrays for multilayered optical storage,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13234–13243 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, Q. Ruan, R. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Macroscale colloidal noble metal nanocrystal arrays and their refractive index-based sensing characteristics,” Small 10(4), 802–811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Deng and X. Liu, “Optical multiplexing: tunable lifetime nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 10–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. E. Lohse and C. J. Murphy, “The quest for shape control: a history of gold nanorod synthesis,” Chem. Mater. 25(8), 1250–1261 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Lee and K. C. Choi, “Distance-dependent plasmonic enhancement via radiative transitions of europium complex,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1355–1357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

K. C. Goss, G. G. Messier, and M. E. Potter, “Data detection algorithms for multiplexed quantum dot encoding,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5762–5774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. 23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, F. Song, S. Lin, J. Liu, H. Zhao, C. Zhang, C. Ming, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Optical properties of silver nanoprisms and their influences on fluorescence of europium complex,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6999–7006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2003 (1)

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Barnakov, Y.

Batentschuk, M.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. 23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beater, S.

Brabec, C. J.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. 23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, L.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

B. Chen and J. Feng, “White-light-emitting polymer composite film based on carbon dots and lanthanide complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7865–7872 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K. C.

Chon, J. W. M.

A. B. Taylor, P. Michaux, A. S. M. Mohsin, and J. W. M. Chon, “Electron-beam lithography of plasmonic nanorod arrays for multilayered optical storage,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13234–13243 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, B.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Crawford, G. A.

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cross, W. M.

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cusido, J.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniels, S.

M. Rowinska, S. M. Kelleher, F. Soberon, A. J. Ricco, and S. Daniels, “Fabrication and characterisation of spin coated oxidised PMMA to provide a robust surface for on-chip assays,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. A.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Deng, R.

R. Deng and X. Liu, “Optical multiplexing: tunable lifetime nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 10–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Derom, S.

El-Sayed, M. A.

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

B. Chen and J. Feng, “White-light-emitting polymer composite film based on carbon dots and lanthanide complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7865–7872 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, D.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, G.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldys, E. M.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, P.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goss, K. C.

Grabar, K. C.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

Guthrie, A. P.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzmeister, P.

Hong, B. Z.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hong, L. S.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, W.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huo, Y.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jackson, M. A.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jiang, R.

L. Shao, Q. Ruan, R. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Macroscale colloidal noble metal nanocrystal arrays and their refractive index-based sensing characteristics,” Small 10(4), 802–811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, D.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kellar, J. J.

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelleher, S. M.

M. Rowinska, S. M. Kelleher, F. Soberon, A. J. Ricco, and S. Daniels, “Fabrication and characterisation of spin coated oxidised PMMA to provide a robust surface for on-chip assays,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lalkens, B.

Lee, S. M.

Lee, S. T.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leif, R. C.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, R.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liang, C.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liljeroth, P.

Lin, S.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, F. Song, S. Lin, J. Liu, H. Zhao, C. Zhang, C. Ming, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Optical properties of silver nanoprisms and their influences on fluorescence of europium complex,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6999–7006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

R. Deng and X. Liu, “Optical multiplexing: tunable lifetime nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 10–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lohse, S. E.

S. E. Lohse and C. J. Murphy, “The quest for shape control: a history of gold nanorod synthesis,” Chem. Mater. 25(8), 1250–1261 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luu, Q.

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meruga, J. M.

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messier, G. G.

Michaux, P.

Ming, C.

Mohsin, A. S. M.

Murphy, C. J.

S. E. Lohse and C. J. Murphy, “The quest for shape control: a history of gold nanorod synthesis,” Chem. Mater. 25(8), 1250–1261 (2013).
[Crossref]

Musick, M. D.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Natan, M. J.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nikoobakht, B.

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M. A.

Noginova, N.

Osvet, A.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. 23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paul Robinson, J.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

Pinna, L.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. 23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piper, J. A.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Potter, M. E.

Pun, E. Y. B.

Raymo, F. M.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ricco, A. J.

M. Rowinska, S. M. Kelleher, F. Soberon, A. J. Ricco, and S. Daniels, “Fabrication and characterisation of spin coated oxidised PMMA to provide a robust surface for on-chip assays,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. P.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rowinska, M.

M. Rowinska, S. M. Kelleher, F. Soberon, A. J. Ricco, and S. Daniels, “Fabrication and characterisation of spin coated oxidised PMMA to provide a robust surface for on-chip assays,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Q.

L. Shao, Q. Ruan, R. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Macroscale colloidal noble metal nanocrystal arrays and their refractive index-based sensing characteristics,” Small 10(4), 802–811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, L.

L. Shao, Q. Ruan, R. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Macroscale colloidal noble metal nanocrystal arrays and their refractive index-based sensing characteristics,” Small 10(4), 802–811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. C.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Soberon, F.

M. Rowinska, S. M. Kelleher, F. Soberon, A. J. Ricco, and S. Daniels, “Fabrication and characterisation of spin coated oxidised PMMA to provide a robust surface for on-chip assays,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, F.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, F. Song, S. Lin, J. Liu, H. Zhao, C. Zhang, C. Ming, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Optical properties of silver nanoprisms and their influences on fluorescence of europium complex,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6999–7006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley May, P.

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sunna, A.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. B.

Tinnefeld, P.

Törmä, P.

Tsang, K. C.

Väkeväinen, A. I.

van Dijk-Moes, R. J. A.

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

Walter, D. G.

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Q.

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. 23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

L. Shao, Q. Ruan, R. Jiang, and J. Wang, “Macroscale colloidal noble metal nanocrystal arrays and their refractive index-based sensing characteristics,” Small 10(4), 802–811 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, C. Y.

Xi, P.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zang, F.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, F. Song, Z. He, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Lin, L. Huang, and W. Huang, “Wide-range tunable fluorescence lifetime and ultrabright luminescence of Eu-grafted plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles for multiplexing,” Small 12(3), 397–404 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, J.

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Q. Wang, M. Batentschuk, A. Osvet, L. Pinna, and C. J. Brabec, “Rare-earth ion doped up-conversion materials for photovoltaic applications,” Adv. Mater. 23(22-23), 2675–2680 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Z. Hong, C. Liang, R. Li, W. Li, D. Zhao, D. Fan, D. Wang, B. Chu, F. Zang, L. S. Hong, and S. T. Lee, “Rare earth complex as a high-efficiency emitter in an electroluminescent device,” Adv. Mater. 13(16), 1241–1245 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, P. Zhang, G. Gao, D. Gao, Y. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Gong, and L. Cai, “Near-infrared-emitting two-dimensional codes based on lattice-strained core/(doped) shell quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetime,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6313–6317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater. 15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. E. Lohse and C. J. Murphy, “The quest for shape control: a history of gold nanorod synthesis,” Chem. Mater. 25(8), 1250–1261 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. C. Grabar, P. C. Smith, M. D. Musick, J. A. Davis, D. G. Walter, M. A. Jackson, A. P. Guthrie, and M. J. Natan, “Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: rational nanometer-scale architecture,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(5), 1148–1153 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. (1)

M. Rowinska, S. M. Kelleher, F. Soberon, A. J. Ricco, and S. Daniels, “Fabrication and characterisation of spin coated oxidised PMMA to provide a robust surface for on-chip assays,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

B. Chen and J. Feng, “White-light-emitting polymer composite film based on carbon dots and lanthanide complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7865–7872 (2015).
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Nanotechnology (1)

J. M. Meruga, W. M. Cross, P. Stanley May, Q. Luu, G. A. Crawford, and J. J. Kellar, “Security printing of covert quick response codes using upconverting nanoparticle inks,” Nanotechnology 23(39), 395201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Lu, J. Lu, J. Zhao, J. Cusido, F. M. Raymo, J. Yuan, S. Yang, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. A. Piper, J. Paul Robinson, E. M. Goldys, and D. Jin, “On-the-fly decoding luminescence lifetimes in the microsecond region for lanthanide-encoded suspension arrays,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. Deng and X. Liu, “Optical multiplexing: tunable lifetime nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 10–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, J. Zhao, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, D. Liu, E. M. Goldys, X. Yang, P. Xi, A. Sunna, J. Lu, Y. Shi, R. C. Leif, Y. Huo, J. Shen, J. A. Piper, J. P. Robinson, and D. Jin, “Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 32–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
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Opt. Express (7)

N. Noginova, Y. Barnakov, H. Li, and M. A. Noginov, “Effect of metallic surface on electric dipole and magnetic dipole emission transitions in Eu3+ doped polymeric film,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10767–10772 (2009).
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K. C. Goss, G. G. Messier, and M. E. Potter, “Data detection algorithms for multiplexed quantum dot encoding,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5762–5774 (2012).
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S. Beater, P. Holzmeister, B. Lalkens, and P. Tinnefeld, “Simple and aberration-free 4color-STED--multiplexing by transient binding,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8630–8638 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhao, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “Parallel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime confocal microscopy for live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10221–10232 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Colloidal gold nanorods solutions with six different colors. (b) UV-vis extinction spectra of these gold nanorods. TEM images of these gold nanorods with (c) AR 1.1, (d) AR 1.5, (e) AR 2.0, (f) AR 2.3, (g) AR 2.6, and (h) AR 2.8. The scale bar is 50 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic illustration of Eu-PMMA films with gold nanorods. (b) AFM image of representative gold nanorods (AR 2.0) self-assemble onto the surface of glass substrate. (c) PL spectra of these Eu-PMMA films with various gold nanorods, and without gold nanorods (ref). The inset plots radiative decay rate vs. AR. (d) The fluorescence lifetimes of these Eu-PMMA films are 356 ± 2.8%, 375 ± 2.6%, 420 ± 3.2%, 442 ± 2.0%, 471 ± 2.9% and 513 ± 3.1% μs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 AFM images of gold nanorods (AR 2.0) self-assemble onto the surface of substrate under different immersion time of (a) 2 hours, (b) 6 hours and (c) 18 hours.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Fluorescence decay curves and (b) PL spectra of Eu-PMMA films with AR 2.0 under different immersion time. The inset plots relative radiative decay rate vs. self-assembly time. The fluorescence lifetimes of these Eu-PMMA films are 430 ± 2.3%, 445 ± 2.1%, 461 ± 2.7%, 486 ± 2.9% and 511 ± 2.9% μs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The electric field distribution around gold nanorods (AR 2.0) coated by Eu-PMMA shell with different distance of (a) 50 nm, (b) 20 nm, and (c) 5 nm. (d) The calculated extinction spectra of these gold nanorods in Eu-PMMA films with decreasing distances. The incident light propagates along the z direction, and the electric field polarizes along x direction.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fluorescence-lifetime optical multiplexing. (a) A photograph of a pattern consists of seven-segment Eu-PMMA films, (b) which is easily translated into “8”. (c)-(e) Recovered real messages are “2” and “6” due to their distinct fluorescence lifetime.

Equations (2)

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τ= 1 A r + K nr ,
τ= 1 R = nc 4 π 2 ω 1 | μ | 2 ρ(ω) | E ex | 2 ,

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