Abstract

A novel glass matrix doped with phthalocyanine or naphthalocyanine is prepared by a modified sol-gel technique. The photophysical and optical limiting properties of the phthalocyanine compounds both in glass matrix and in THF solution were investigated. The obtained glass matrix is homogeneous and transparent, as well as mechanically and thermodynamically stable enough to withstand very high laser fluence; the optical limiting performances of these compound samples are better than that of benchmark materials like C60 in toluene, carbon black in water, and graphene oxide in water or ethanol under nanosecond pulsed laser at 532 nm. Two prototypes of optical limiters doped in the glass matrix have very good optical limiting performances, which may provide potential practical use for optical limiting materials in a near future.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. G.-J. Zhou and W.-Y. Wong, “Organometallic acetylides of PtII, AuI and HgII as new generation optical power limiting materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2541–2566 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 299–338 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev. 104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. F. Sun, H. J. Zhu, and P. M. Barron, “Binuclear cyclometalated platinum(II) 4,6-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine complexes: interesting photoluminescent and optical limiting materials,” Chem. Mater. 18(10), 2602–2610 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Chen, M. Fujitsuka, S. M. O’Flaherty, M. Hanack, O. Ito, and W. J. Blau, “Strong optical limiting of soluble axially substituted Gallium and Indium phthalocyanines,” Adv. Mater. 15(11), 899–902 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. G.-J. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, D. M. Cui, and C. Ye, “Large optical-limiting response in some solution-processable polyplatinaynes,” Chem. Mater. 17(20), 5209–5217 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219–221, 235–258 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. D. Dini, M. Meneghetti, M. J. F. Calvete, T. Arndt, C. Liddiard, and M. Hanack, “Tetrabrominated lead naphthalocyanine for optical power limiting,” Chemistry 16(4), 1212–1220 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Chen, M. Hanack, Y. Araki, and O. Ito, “Axially modified gallium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(6), 517–529 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Q. Gan, S. Li, F. Morlet-Savary, S. Wang, S. Shen, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Photophysical properties and optical limiting property of a soluble chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5424–5433 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. J.-K. Kim, D. J. Kang, and B.-S. Bae, “Wavelength-dependent photosensitivity in a Germanium-doped Sol-Gel hybrid material for direct photopatterning,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1870–1876 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Sanchez, F. Ribot, and B. Lebeau, “Molecular design of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel chemistry,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 35–44 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. Dubois, W. Volksen, T. Magbitang, R. D. Miller, D. M. Gage, and R. H. Dauskardt, “Molecular network reinforcement of sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3989–3994 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. Bonneau, I. Carmichael, and G. L. Hug, “Molar absorption coefficients of transient species in solution,” Pure Appl. Chem. 63(2), 289–299 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Bensasson, C. R. Goldschmidt, E. J. Land, and T. G. Truscott, “Laser intensity and the comparative method for determination of triplet quantum yields,” Photochem. Photobiol. 28(2), 277–281 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  31. B. Lintner, N. Arfsten, H. Dislich, H. Schmidt, G. Philipp, and B. Seiferling, “A first look at the optical properties of ormosils,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100(1–3), 378–382 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  32. D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, F. Bentivegna, and A. Brun, “Impregnated ORMOSIL matrices for efficient solid state optical gain media,” Opt. Commun. 110(1–2), 125–130 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  34. P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. C. Zheng, W. Z. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, X. Q. Xiao, and X. Y. Ye, “Graphene oxide-noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticle composites as optical limiters,” RSC Advances 4(75), 39697–39703 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Dou, X. D. Sun, X. J. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, and E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(7), 1004–1014 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  38. J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  39. W. Zhao and B. S. Zhao, “Broadband optical limiter based on nano-graphene and method of fabricating same,” US Patent Application. 13/176506, Jul. 5, 2011.
  40. V. Gulbinas, “Transient absorption of photoexcited titanylphthalocyanine in various molecular arrangements,” Chem. Phys. 261(3), 469–479 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  41. P. P. Levin, S. M. B. Costa, J. M. Lopes, F. N. Serralha, and F. R. Ribeiro, “Effect of zeolite properties on ground-state and triplet-triplet absorption, prompt and oxygen induced delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin at gas/solid interface,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 56(9), 1745–1757 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zheng, W. Z. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, X. Q. Xiao, and X. Y. Ye, “Graphene oxide-noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticle composites as optical limiters,” RSC Advances 4(75), 39697–39703 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

G.-J. Zhou and W.-Y. Wong, “Organometallic acetylides of PtII, AuI and HgII as new generation optical power limiting materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2541–2566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. Dini, M. Meneghetti, M. J. F. Calvete, T. Arndt, C. Liddiard, and M. Hanack, “Tetrabrominated lead naphthalocyanine for optical power limiting,” Chemistry 16(4), 1212–1220 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Dubois, W. Volksen, T. Magbitang, R. D. Miller, D. M. Gage, and R. H. Dauskardt, “Molecular network reinforcement of sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3989–3994 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. F. Sun, H. J. Zhu, and P. M. Barron, “Binuclear cyclometalated platinum(II) 4,6-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine complexes: interesting photoluminescent and optical limiting materials,” Chem. Mater. 18(10), 2602–2610 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

G.-J. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, D. M. Cui, and C. Ye, “Large optical-limiting response in some solution-processable polyplatinaynes,” Chem. Mater. 17(20), 5209–5217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Gan, S. Li, F. Morlet-Savary, S. Wang, S. Shen, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Photophysical properties and optical limiting property of a soluble chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5424–5433 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Hanack, Y. Araki, and O. Ito, “Axially modified gallium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(6), 517–529 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Kim, D. J. Kang, and B.-S. Bae, “Wavelength-dependent photosensitivity in a Germanium-doped Sol-Gel hybrid material for direct photopatterning,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1870–1876 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev. 104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Y. Chen, M. Fujitsuka, S. M. O’Flaherty, M. Hanack, O. Ito, and W. J. Blau, “Strong optical limiting of soluble axially substituted Gallium and Indium phthalocyanines,” Adv. Mater. 15(11), 899–902 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219–221, 235–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

V. Gulbinas, “Transient absorption of photoexcited titanylphthalocyanine in various molecular arrangements,” Chem. Phys. 261(3), 469–479 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. P. Levin, S. M. B. Costa, J. M. Lopes, F. N. Serralha, and F. R. Ribeiro, “Effect of zeolite properties on ground-state and triplet-triplet absorption, prompt and oxygen induced delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin at gas/solid interface,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 56(9), 1745–1757 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

K. Dou, X. D. Sun, X. J. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, and E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(7), 1004–1014 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Sanchez, F. Ribot, and B. Lebeau, “Molecular design of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel chemistry,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 35–44 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, F. Bentivegna, and A. Brun, “Impregnated ORMOSIL matrices for efficient solid state optical gain media,” Opt. Commun. 110(1–2), 125–130 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(19), 225–226 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. Bonneau, I. Carmichael, and G. L. Hug, “Molar absorption coefficients of transient species in solution,” Pure Appl. Chem. 63(2), 289–299 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

B. Lintner, N. Arfsten, H. Dislich, H. Schmidt, G. Philipp, and B. Seiferling, “A first look at the optical properties of ormosils,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100(1–3), 378–382 (1988).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R. Bensasson, C. R. Goldschmidt, E. J. Land, and T. G. Truscott, “Laser intensity and the comparative method for determination of triplet quantum yields,” Photochem. Photobiol. 28(2), 277–281 (1978).
[Crossref]

Agulló-López, F.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev. 104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

Andraud, C.

P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
[Crossref]

Araki, Y.

Y. Chen, M. Hanack, Y. Araki, and O. Ito, “Axially modified gallium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(6), 517–529 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arfsten, N.

B. Lintner, N. Arfsten, H. Dislich, H. Schmidt, G. Philipp, and B. Seiferling, “A first look at the optical properties of ormosils,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100(1–3), 378–382 (1988).
[Crossref]

Arndt, T.

D. Dini, M. Meneghetti, M. J. F. Calvete, T. Arndt, C. Liddiard, and M. Hanack, “Tetrabrominated lead naphthalocyanine for optical power limiting,” Chemistry 16(4), 1212–1220 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, B.-S.

J.-K. Kim, D. J. Kang, and B.-S. Bae, “Wavelength-dependent photosensitivity in a Germanium-doped Sol-Gel hybrid material for direct photopatterning,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1870–1876 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barron, P. M.

W. F. Sun, H. J. Zhu, and P. M. Barron, “Binuclear cyclometalated platinum(II) 4,6-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine complexes: interesting photoluminescent and optical limiting materials,” Chem. Mater. 18(10), 2602–2610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barthel, M.

M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219–221, 235–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bartoli, F. J.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bedworth, P. V.

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D. Dini, M. Meneghetti, M. J. F. Calvete, T. Arndt, C. Liddiard, and M. Hanack, “Tetrabrominated lead naphthalocyanine for optical power limiting,” Chemistry 16(4), 1212–1220 (2010).
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A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
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A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
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J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
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J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
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J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
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J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
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J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
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P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
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C. Zheng, W. Z. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, X. Q. Xiao, and X. Y. Ye, “Graphene oxide-noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticle composites as optical limiters,” RSC Advances 4(75), 39697–39703 (2014).
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Y. Chen, M. Hanack, Y. Araki, and O. Ito, “Axially modified gallium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(6), 517–529 (2005).
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S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
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Y. Chen, M. Fujitsuka, S. M. O’Flaherty, M. Hanack, O. Ito, and W. J. Blau, “Strong optical limiting of soluble axially substituted Gallium and Indium phthalocyanines,” Adv. Mater. 15(11), 899–902 (2003).
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G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
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S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
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G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
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Y. Chen, M. Fujitsuka, S. M. O’Flaherty, M. Hanack, O. Ito, and W. J. Blau, “Strong optical limiting of soluble axially substituted Gallium and Indium phthalocyanines,” Adv. Mater. 15(11), 899–902 (2003).
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G. Dubois, W. Volksen, T. Magbitang, R. D. Miller, D. M. Gage, and R. H. Dauskardt, “Molecular network reinforcement of sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3989–3994 (2007).
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G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
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R. Bensasson, C. R. Goldschmidt, E. J. Land, and T. G. Truscott, “Laser intensity and the comparative method for determination of triplet quantum yields,” Photochem. Photobiol. 28(2), 277–281 (1978).
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J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
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J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
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K. Dou, X. D. Sun, X. J. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, and E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(7), 1004–1014 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.-X.

J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
[Crossref]

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D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
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Hanack, M.

D. Dini, M. Meneghetti, M. J. F. Calvete, T. Arndt, C. Liddiard, and M. Hanack, “Tetrabrominated lead naphthalocyanine for optical power limiting,” Chemistry 16(4), 1212–1220 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Hanack, Y. Araki, and O. Ito, “Axially modified gallium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(6), 517–529 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Fujitsuka, S. M. O’Flaherty, M. Hanack, O. Ito, and W. J. Blau, “Strong optical limiting of soluble axially substituted Gallium and Indium phthalocyanines,” Adv. Mater. 15(11), 899–902 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219–221, 235–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hawker, C. J.

A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
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Henbest, K.

A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ho, P. K. H.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hold, S. V.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Y.

C. Zheng, W. Z. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, X. Q. Xiao, and X. Y. Ye, “Graphene oxide-noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticle composites as optical limiters,” RSC Advances 4(75), 39697–39703 (2014).
[Crossref]

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R. Bonneau, I. Carmichael, and G. L. Hug, “Molar absorption coefficients of transient species in solution,” Pure Appl. Chem. 63(2), 289–299 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ito, O.

Y. Chen, M. Hanack, Y. Araki, and O. Ito, “Axially modified gallium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(6), 517–529 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Fujitsuka, S. M. O’Flaherty, M. Hanack, O. Ito, and W. J. Blau, “Strong optical limiting of soluble axially substituted Gallium and Indium phthalocyanines,” Adv. Mater. 15(11), 899–902 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kamada, K.

P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
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J.-K. Kim, D. J. Kang, and B.-S. Bae, “Wavelength-dependent photosensitivity in a Germanium-doped Sol-Gel hybrid material for direct photopatterning,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1870–1876 (2005).
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A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
[Crossref]

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A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
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J.-K. Kim, D. J. Kang, and B.-S. Bae, “Wavelength-dependent photosensitivity in a Germanium-doped Sol-Gel hybrid material for direct photopatterning,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1870–1876 (2005).
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K. Dou, X. D. Sun, X. J. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, and E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(7), 1004–1014 (1999).
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A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
[Crossref]

Land, E. J.

R. Bensasson, C. R. Goldschmidt, E. J. Land, and T. G. Truscott, “Laser intensity and the comparative method for determination of triplet quantum yields,” Photochem. Photobiol. 28(2), 277–281 (1978).
[Crossref]

Larrue, D.

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, F. Bentivegna, and A. Brun, “Impregnated ORMOSIL matrices for efficient solid state optical gain media,” Opt. Commun. 110(1–2), 125–130 (1994).
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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. W.

G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
[Crossref]

Levin, P. P.

P. P. Levin, S. M. B. Costa, J. M. Lopes, F. N. Serralha, and F. R. Ribeiro, “Effect of zeolite properties on ground-state and triplet-triplet absorption, prompt and oxygen induced delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin at gas/solid interface,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 56(9), 1745–1757 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, S. Li, F. Morlet-Savary, S. Wang, S. Shen, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Photophysical properties and optical limiting property of a soluble chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5424–5433 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S. Y.

J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liddiard, C.

D. Dini, M. Meneghetti, M. J. F. Calvete, T. Arndt, C. Liddiard, and M. Hanack, “Tetrabrominated lead naphthalocyanine for optical power limiting,” Chemistry 16(4), 1212–1220 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, G.-K.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lintner, B.

B. Lintner, N. Arfsten, H. Dislich, H. Schmidt, G. Philipp, and B. Seiferling, “A first look at the optical properties of ormosils,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100(1–3), 378–382 (1988).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
[Crossref]

Loiseaux, B.

P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lopes, J. M.

P. P. Levin, S. M. B. Costa, J. M. Lopes, F. N. Serralha, and F. R. Ribeiro, “Effect of zeolite properties on ground-state and triplet-triplet absorption, prompt and oxygen induced delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin at gas/solid interface,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 56(9), 1745–1757 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J. S.

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Magbitang, T.

G. Dubois, W. Volksen, T. Magbitang, R. D. Miller, D. M. Gage, and R. H. Dauskardt, “Molecular network reinforcement of sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3989–3994 (2007).
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Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
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Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mathkar, A.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maury, O.

P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meneghetti, M.

D. Dini, M. Meneghetti, M. J. F. Calvete, T. Arndt, C. Liddiard, and M. Hanack, “Tetrabrominated lead naphthalocyanine for optical power limiting,” Chemistry 16(4), 1212–1220 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikhailovsky, A.

A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

G. Dubois, W. Volksen, T. Magbitang, R. D. Miller, D. M. Gage, and R. H. Dauskardt, “Molecular network reinforcement of sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3989–3994 (2007).
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D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[Crossref]

Morlet-Savary, F.

Narayanan, N. T.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
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Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ng, W.-H.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Flaherty, S. M.

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Fujitsuka, S. M. O’Flaherty, M. Hanack, O. Ito, and W. J. Blau, “Strong optical limiting of soluble axially substituted Gallium and Indium phthalocyanines,” Adv. Mater. 15(11), 899–902 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. F.

G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
[Crossref]

Parkhill, R.

K. Dou, X. D. Sun, X. J. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, and E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(7), 1004–1014 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pelliccioli, A. P.

A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
[Crossref]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[Crossref]

Philip, R.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
[Crossref]

Philipp, G.

B. Lintner, N. Arfsten, H. Dislich, H. Schmidt, G. Philipp, and B. Seiferling, “A first look at the optical properties of ormosils,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100(1–3), 378–382 (1988).
[Crossref]

Pong, R. G. S.

M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219–221, 235–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ribeiro, F. R.

P. P. Levin, S. M. B. Costa, J. M. Lopes, F. N. Serralha, and F. R. Ribeiro, “Effect of zeolite properties on ground-state and triplet-triplet absorption, prompt and oxygen induced delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin at gas/solid interface,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 56(9), 1745–1757 (2000).
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C. Sanchez, F. Ribot, and B. Lebeau, “Molecular design of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel chemistry,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 35–44 (1999).
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Riggs, J. E.

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
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Rodgers, M. A. J.

A. P. Pelliccioli, K. Henbest, G. Kwag, T. R. Carvagno, M. E. Kenney, and M. A. J. Rodgers, “Synthesis and excited state dynamics of μ-oxo group IV metal phthalocyanine dimers: A laser photoexcitation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105(10), 1757–1766 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rollins, H. W.

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
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Sanchez, C.

C. Sanchez, F. Ribot, and B. Lebeau, “Molecular design of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel chemistry,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 35–44 (1999).
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Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, H.

B. Lintner, N. Arfsten, H. Dislich, H. Schmidt, G. Philipp, and B. Seiferling, “A first look at the optical properties of ormosils,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100(1–3), 378–382 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schneider, T.

M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219–221, 235–258 (2001).
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Seiferling, B.

B. Lintner, N. Arfsten, H. Dislich, H. Schmidt, G. Philipp, and B. Seiferling, “A first look at the optical properties of ormosils,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 100(1–3), 378–382 (1988).
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Serralha, F. N.

P. P. Levin, S. M. B. Costa, J. M. Lopes, F. N. Serralha, and F. R. Ribeiro, “Effect of zeolite properties on ground-state and triplet-triplet absorption, prompt and oxygen induced delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin at gas/solid interface,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 56(9), 1745–1757 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, S.

Shirk, J. S.

M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219–221, 235–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[Crossref]

Snow, A. W.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[Crossref]

Strandwitz, N. C.

A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stucky, G. D.

A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
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Sudeep, P. M.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
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W. F. Sun, H. J. Zhu, and P. M. Barron, “Binuclear cyclometalated platinum(II) 4,6-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine complexes: interesting photoluminescent and optical limiting materials,” Chem. Mater. 18(10), 2602–2610 (2006).
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P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. D.

K. Dou, X. D. Sun, X. J. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, and E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(7), 1004–1014 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, H.-W.

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. S. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

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P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
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Thomas, J.

P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Toprak, M.

A. Khan, L. M. Campos, A. Mikhailovsky, M. Toprak, N. C. Strandwitz, G. D. Stucky, and C. J. Hawker, “Holographic recording in cross-linked polymeric matrices through photoacid generation,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3669–3674 (2008).
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Torres, T.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev. 104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. O’Flaherty, S. V. Hold, M. J. Cook, T. Torres, Y. Chen, M. Hanack, and W. J. Blau, “Molecular engineering of peripherally and axially modified phthalocyanines for optical limiting and nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 15(1), 19–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Toupet, L.

P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
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D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[Crossref]

Vázquez, P.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev. 104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volksen, W.

G. Dubois, W. Volksen, T. Magbitang, R. D. Miller, D. M. Gage, and R. H. Dauskardt, “Molecular network reinforcement of sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 3989–3994 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, S. Li, F. Morlet-Savary, S. Wang, S. Shen, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Photophysical properties and optical limiting property of a soluble chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5424–5433 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. Q.

J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. J.

K. Dou, X. D. Sun, X. J. Wang, R. Parkhill, Y. Guo, and E. T. Knobbe, “Optical limiting and nonlinear absorption of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(7), 1004–1014 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.-H.

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, G.

P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wong, W.-Y.

G.-J. Zhou and W.-Y. Wong, “Organometallic acetylides of PtII, AuI and HgII as new generation optical power limiting materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2541–2566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-J. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, D. M. Cui, and C. Ye, “Large optical-limiting response in some solution-processable polyplatinaynes,” Chem. Mater. 17(20), 5209–5217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.-L.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X. Q.

C. Zheng, W. Z. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, X. Q. Xiao, and X. Y. Ye, “Graphene oxide-noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticle composites as optical limiters,” RSC Advances 4(75), 39697–39703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, S. Li, F. Morlet-Savary, S. Wang, S. Shen, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Photophysical properties and optical limiting property of a soluble chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5424–5433 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H. J.

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, S. Li, F. Morlet-Savary, S. Wang, S. Shen, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Photophysical properties and optical limiting property of a soluble chloroaluminum-phthalocyanine,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5424–5433 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G. Q.

J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. Y.

G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. P.

J. Chen, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Photophysics and triplet-triplet annihilation analysis for axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine doped in solid matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11943–11951 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Gan, S. Y. Li, F. B. Gong, Q. Wang, Z. P. Yang, S. Q. Wang, H. J. Xu, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “The effects of central metals and peripheral substituents on the photophysical properties and optical limiting performance of phthalocyanines with axial chloride ligand,” J. Photochem. Photobio. A 207(1), 58–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

G.-J. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, D. M. Cui, and C. Ye, “Large optical-limiting response in some solution-processable polyplatinaynes,” Chem. Mater. 17(20), 5209–5217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ye, X. Y.

C. Zheng, W. Z. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, X. Q. Xiao, and X. Y. Ye, “Graphene oxide-noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticle composites as optical limiters,” RSC Advances 4(75), 39697–39703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zarzycki, J.

D. Larrue, J. Zarzycki, M. Canva, P. Georges, F. Bentivegna, and A. Brun, “Impregnated ORMOSIL matrices for efficient solid state optical gain media,” Opt. Commun. 110(1–2), 125–130 (1994).
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Zhang, P.

J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, C.

C. Zheng, W. Z. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, X. Q. Xiao, and X. Y. Ye, “Graphene oxide-noble metal (Au, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticle composites as optical limiters,” RSC Advances 4(75), 39697–39703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.-J.

G.-J. Zhou and W.-Y. Wong, “Organometallic acetylides of PtII, AuI and HgII as new generation optical power limiting materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2541–2566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-J. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, D. M. Cui, and C. Ye, “Large optical-limiting response in some solution-processable polyplatinaynes,” Chem. Mater. 17(20), 5209–5217 (2005).
[Crossref]

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W. F. Sun, H. J. Zhu, and P. M. Barron, “Binuclear cyclometalated platinum(II) 4,6-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine complexes: interesting photoluminescent and optical limiting materials,” Chem. Mater. 18(10), 2602–2610 (2006).
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Zhu, Y.

J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
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J.-K. Kim, D. J. Kang, and B.-S. Bae, “Wavelength-dependent photosensitivity in a Germanium-doped Sol-Gel hybrid material for direct photopatterning,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1870–1876 (2005).
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G. Y. Yang, M. Hanack, Y. W. Lee, D. Dini, and J. F. Pan, “Fluorinated naphthalocyanines displaying simultaneous reverse saturable absorption at 532 and 1064 nm,” Adv. Mater. 17(7), 875–879 (2005).
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P.-A. Bouit, G. Wetzel, G. Berginc, B. Loiseaux, L. Toupet, P. Feneyrou, Y. Bretonnière, K. Kamada, O. Maury, and C. Andraud, “Near IR nonlinear absorbing chromophores with optical limiting properties at telecommunication wavelengths,” Chem. Mater. 19(22), 5325–5335 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. F. Sun, H. J. Zhu, and P. M. Barron, “Binuclear cyclometalated platinum(II) 4,6-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine complexes: interesting photoluminescent and optical limiting materials,” Chem. Mater. 18(10), 2602–2610 (2006).
[Crossref]

G.-J. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, D. M. Cui, and C. Ye, “Large optical-limiting response in some solution-processable polyplatinaynes,” Chem. Mater. 17(20), 5209–5217 (2005).
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G.-J. Zhou and W.-Y. Wong, “Organometallic acetylides of PtII, AuI and HgII as new generation optical power limiting materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2541–2566 (2011).
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Chemistry (1)

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S. Wang, Q. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Xu, and G. Yang, “Optical-limiting and photophysical properties of two soluble chloroindium phthalocyanines with α- and β-alkoxyl substituents,” ChemPhysChem 7(4), 935–941 (2006).
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J. Xu, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Hu, S. Q. Wang, S. Y. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Q. Yang, “Enhanced optical limiting performance of substituted metallo-naphthalocyanines with wide optical limiting window,” Dyes Pigments 109, 144–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. Chantharasupawong, R. Philip, N. T. Narayanan, P. M. Sudeep, A. Mathkar, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Thomas, “Optical power limiting in fluorinated graphene oxide: An insight into the nonlinear optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(49), 25955–25961 (2012).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Li, Y. Zhu, M. Cui, Y. Liu, P. Zhang, and Z.-X. Guo, “Significant optical-limiting properties of fulleropyrrolidine loaded Nafion membrane,” Opt. Mater. 30(12), 1854–1860 (2008).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, T.-H. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
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Science (1)

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic Optical Limiter with a Strong Nonlinear Absorptive Response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (2)

J. Chen, T. Zhang, S. Wang, R. Hu, S. Li, J. S. Ma, and G. Yang, “Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 149, 426–433 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Levin, S. M. B. Costa, J. M. Lopes, F. N. Serralha, and F. R. Ribeiro, “Effect of zeolite properties on ground-state and triplet-triplet absorption, prompt and oxygen induced delayed fluorescence of tetraphenylporphyrin at gas/solid interface,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 56(9), 1745–1757 (2000).
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Other (1)

W. Zhao and B. S. Zhao, “Broadband optical limiter based on nano-graphene and method of fabricating same,” US Patent Application. 13/176506, Jul. 5, 2011.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structures of Pcs 1-3 and Nc 4.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Formation of glass matrix with the modified sol-gel technique.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The glass matrix devices doped with 2 (left) and 4 (right).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical limiting behaviors of Pcs 1-3 and Nc 4 doped in glass matrix and in THF solution.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absorption spectra of Pcs 1-3 and Nc 4 in THF solution and in glass matrix.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transient absorption spectra of Pcs 1-3 and Nc 4 in glass matrix.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Triplet state decay profiles of Pcs 1-3 and Nc 4 in glass matrix.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Limiting Parameters of 1-4 in THF Solution and in Glass Matrix

Tables Icon

Table 2 S1 State Energy Levels of 1-4 in THF Solution and in Glass Matrix

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters of Triplet State for 1-4 in THF Solution and in Glass Matrix

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