Abstract

Calibration is vital to autostereoscopic 3D displays. This paper proposes a local calibration method that copes with any type of deformation in the optical layer. The proposed method is based on visual pattern analysis. Given the observations, we manage to localize the optical slits by matching the observations to the input pattern. In a principled optimization framework, we find an efficient calibration algorithm. Experimental validation follows. The local calibration shows significant improvement in 3D visual quality over the global calibration method. This paper also finds a new intuitive insight on the calibration in terms of the light field theory.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

H. Hwang, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and I. Kweon, “3D display calibration by visual pattern analysis,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 2090–2102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 24, 686–695 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Bregović, P. T. Kovács, and A. Gotchev, “Optimization of light field display-camera configuration based on display properties in spectral domain,” Opt. Express 24, 3067–3088 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Variational light field analysis for disparity estimation and super-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 36, 606–619 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, and R. Raskar, “Construction and calibration of optically efficient LCD-based multi-layer light field displays,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415, 012071 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, “Optical devices: 3D without the glasses,” Nature 495, 316–317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Winkler and D. Min, “Stereo/multiview picture quality: Overview and recent advances,” Signal Process.: Image Commun. 28, 1358–1373 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

X.-F. Li, Q.-H. Wang, D.-H. Li, and A.-H. Wang, “Image processing to eliminate crosstalk between neighboring view images in three-dimensional lenticular display,” J. Display Technol. 7, 443–447 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, C. Lu, Y. Xu, and J. Jia, “Image smoothing via L0 gradient minimization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 174 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 18, 476–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chu and M.-C. Pan, “Thermal-deformation characterization of the panel of a TFT-LCD TV. part II: Solutions to thermal-induced extrusion degrading image quality,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 18, 357–367 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “New image multiplexing scheme for compensating lens mismatch and viewing zone shifts in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 48, 044001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 45, 017007 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. M. Meesters, W. A. IJsselsteijn, and P. J. Seuntiëns, “A survey of perceptual evaluations and requirements of three-dimensional TV,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 14, 381–391 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. Geman and C. Yang, “Nonlinear image recovery with half-quadratic regularization,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 932–946 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bregovic, R.

Chang, H. S.

H. Hwang, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and I. Kweon, “3D display calibration by visual pattern analysis,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 2090–2102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 24, 686–695 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Hwang, J. Park, H. S. Chang, Y. J. Jeong, D. Nam, and I. S. Kweon, “Lenticular lens parameter estimation using single image for crosstalk reduction of three-dimensional multi-view display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2015), pp. 1417–1420.
[Crossref]

Chellappan, K. V.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

Chu, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chu and M.-C. Pan, “Thermal-deformation characterization of the panel of a TFT-LCD TV. part II: Solutions to thermal-induced extrusion degrading image quality,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 18, 357–367 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cohen, M. F.

X. Gu, S. J. Gortler, and M. F. Cohen, “Polyhedral geometry and the two-plane parameterization,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques (Springer, 1997), pp. 1–12.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 43–54.

Cremona, L.

L. Cremona, Elements of Projective Geometry (The Clarendon Press, 1885).

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Optical devices: 3D without the glasses,” Nature 495, 316–317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durand, F.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, H. Pfister, and C. Forlines, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches (ACM, 2006), p. 107.
[Crossref]

Erden, E.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Forlines, C.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, H. Pfister, and C. Forlines, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches (ACM, 2006), p. 107.
[Crossref]

Geman, D.

D. Geman and C. Yang, “Nonlinear image recovery with half-quadratic regularization,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 932–946 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldluecke, B.

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Variational light field analysis for disparity estimation and super-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 36, 606–619 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gortler, S. J.

X. Gu, S. J. Gortler, and M. F. Cohen, “Polyhedral geometry and the two-plane parameterization,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques (Springer, 1997), pp. 1–12.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 43–54.

Gotchev, A.

Grzeszczuk, R.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 43–54.

Gu, X.

X. Gu, S. J. Gortler, and M. F. Cohen, “Polyhedral geometry and the two-plane parameterization,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques (Springer, 1997), pp. 1–12.

Hanrahan, P.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 31–42.

Hirsch, M.

M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, and R. Raskar, “Construction and calibration of optically efficient LCD-based multi-layer light field displays,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415, 012071 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2012).

Hofsetz, C.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

Hong, L.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

Hong, S.-I.

Hong, T.

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Hwang, H.

H. Hwang, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and I. Kweon, “3D display calibration by visual pattern analysis,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 2090–2102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hwang, J. Park, H. S. Chang, Y. J. Jeong, D. Nam, and I. S. Kweon, “Lenticular lens parameter estimation using single image for crosstalk reduction of three-dimensional multi-view display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2015), pp. 1417–1420.
[Crossref]

IJsselsteijn, W. A.

L. M. Meesters, W. A. IJsselsteijn, and P. J. Seuntiëns, “A survey of perceptual evaluations and requirements of three-dimensional TV,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 14, 381–391 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.-M.

Jeong, Y. J.

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 24, 686–695 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Hwang, J. Park, H. S. Chang, Y. J. Jeong, D. Nam, and I. S. Kweon, “Lenticular lens parameter estimation using single image for crosstalk reduction of three-dimensional multi-view display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2015), pp. 1417–1420.
[Crossref]

Jia, J.

L. Xu, C. Lu, Y. Xu, and J. Jia, “Image smoothing via L0 gradient minimization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 174 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiao, S.

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Jo, N.-Y.

Ju, H.

Kim, H.-S.

Kim, J.

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Kim, J.-Y.

Kim, S.-K.

Kovács, P. T.

Kuo, C.-C. J.

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 24, 686–695 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kweon, I.

H. Hwang, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and I. Kweon, “3D display calibration by visual pattern analysis,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 2090–2102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kweon, I. S.

H. Hwang, J. Park, H. S. Chang, Y. J. Jeong, D. Nam, and I. S. Kweon, “Lenticular lens parameter estimation using single image for crosstalk reduction of three-dimensional multi-view display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2015), pp. 1417–1420.
[Crossref]

Lanman, D.

M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, and R. Raskar, “Construction and calibration of optically efficient LCD-based multi-layer light field displays,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415, 012071 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2012).

Lee, H.

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Lee, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “New image multiplexing scheme for compensating lens mismatch and viewing zone shifts in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 48, 044001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 45, 017007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 31–42.

Li, D.

Li, D.-H.

Li, W.

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Li, X.-F.

Liu, L.

Liu, Y.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

Lu, C.

L. Xu, C. Lu, Y. Xu, and J. Jia, “Image smoothing via L0 gradient minimization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 174 (2011).
[Crossref]

Matusik, W.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, H. Pfister, and C. Forlines, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches (ACM, 2006), p. 107.
[Crossref]

Max, N.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

McGuinness, P.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

Meesters, L. M.

L. M. Meesters, W. A. IJsselsteijn, and P. J. Seuntiëns, “A survey of perceptual evaluations and requirements of three-dimensional TV,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 14, 381–391 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mei, X.

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Min, D.

S. Winkler and D. Min, “Stereo/multiview picture quality: Overview and recent advances,” Signal Process.: Image Commun. 28, 1358–1373 (2013).

Mitra, K.

K. Mitra and A. Veeraraghavan, “Light field denoising, light field superresolution and stereo camera based refocussing using a GMM light field patch prior,” in IEEE CVPR Workshop on Computational Cameras and Displays (IEEE, 2012), pp. 22–28.

Nam, D.

H. Hwang, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and I. Kweon, “3D display calibration by visual pattern analysis,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 2090–2102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 24, 686–695 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hwang, J. Park, H. S. Chang, Y. J. Jeong, D. Nam, and I. S. Kweon, “Lenticular lens parameter estimation using single image for crosstalk reduction of three-dimensional multi-view display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2015), pp. 1417–1420.
[Crossref]

Ng, K.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

Pan, M.-C.

C.-Y. Chu and M.-C. Pan, “Thermal-deformation characterization of the panel of a TFT-LCD TV. part II: Solutions to thermal-induced extrusion degrading image quality,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 18, 357–367 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

H. Hwang, J. Park, H. S. Chang, Y. J. Jeong, D. Nam, and I. S. Kweon, “Lenticular lens parameter estimation using single image for crosstalk reduction of three-dimensional multi-view display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2015), pp. 1417–1420.
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

Pfister, H.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, H. Pfister, and C. Forlines, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches (ACM, 2006), p. 107.
[Crossref]

Pless, R.

I. Schillebeeckx and R. Pless, “Single image camera calibration with lenticular arrays for augmented reality,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2016).

Qiao, X.

Ra, J. B.

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “New image multiplexing scheme for compensating lens mismatch and viewing zone shifts in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 48, 044001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 45, 017007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Raskar, R.

M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, and R. Raskar, “Construction and calibration of optically efficient LCD-based multi-layer light field displays,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415, 012071 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2012).

Schillebeeckx, I.

I. Schillebeeckx and R. Pless, “Single image camera calibration with lenticular arrays for augmented reality,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2016).

Seuntiëns, P. J.

L. M. Meesters, W. A. IJsselsteijn, and P. J. Seuntiëns, “A survey of perceptual evaluations and requirements of three-dimensional TV,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 14, 381–391 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sheikh, H. R.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simoncelli, E. P.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

Surman, P.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Szeliski, R.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 43–54.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 18, 476–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Teng, D.

Urey, H.

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Berkel, C.

C. Van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

Veeraraghavan, A.

K. Mitra and A. Veeraraghavan, “Light field denoising, light field superresolution and stereo camera based refocussing using a GMM light field patch prior,” in IEEE CVPR Workshop on Computational Cameras and Displays (IEEE, 2012), pp. 22–28.

Wang, A.-H.

Wang, B.

Wang, H.

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.-H.

Wang, S.

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wanner, S.

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Variational light field analysis for disparity estimation and super-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 36, 606–619 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wetzstein, G.

M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, and R. Raskar, “Construction and calibration of optically efficient LCD-based multi-layer light field displays,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415, 012071 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2012).

Winkler, S.

S. Winkler and D. Min, “Stereo/multiview picture quality: Overview and recent advances,” Signal Process.: Image Commun. 28, 1358–1373 (2013).

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L. Xu, C. Lu, Y. Xu, and J. Jia, “Image smoothing via L0 gradient minimization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 174 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

L. Xu, C. Lu, Y. Xu, and J. Jia, “Image smoothing via L0 gradient minimization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 174 (2011).
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D. Geman and C. Yang, “Nonlinear image recovery with half-quadratic regularization,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 932–946 (1995).
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Yoon, K.-H.

Yoon, S. K.

Zang, D.

Zhang, M.

Zhou, M.

M. Zhou, H. Wang, W. Li, S. Jiao, T. Hong, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. Wang, J.-Y. Kim, and D. Nam, “A unified method for crosstalk reduction in multiview displays,” J. Display Technol. 10, 500–507 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

Zwicker, M.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, H. Pfister, and C. Forlines, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches (ACM, 2006), p. 107.
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

L. Xu, C. Lu, Y. Xu, and J. Jia, “Image smoothing via L0 gradient minimization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 174 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. (1)

L. M. Meesters, W. A. IJsselsteijn, and P. J. Seuntiëns, “A survey of perceptual evaluations and requirements of three-dimensional TV,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 14, 381–391 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (3)

H. Hwang, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and I. Kweon, “3D display calibration by visual pattern analysis,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 26, 2090–2102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Geman and C. Yang, “Nonlinear image recovery with half-quadratic regularization,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 4, 932–946 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. (1)

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Variational light field analysis for disparity estimation and super-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 36, 606–619 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (3)

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, and R. Raskar, “Construction and calibration of optically efficient LCD-based multi-layer light field displays,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 415, 012071 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inform. Display (3)

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 24, 686–695 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chu and M.-C. Pan, “Thermal-deformation characterization of the panel of a TFT-LCD TV. part II: Solutions to thermal-induced extrusion degrading image quality,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 18, 357–367 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inform. Display 18, 476–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Optical devices: 3D without the glasses,” Nature 495, 316–317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 45, 017007 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “New image multiplexing scheme for compensating lens mismatch and viewing zone shifts in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng. 48, 044001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. Urey, K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

Signal Process.: Image Commun. (1)

S. Winkler and D. Min, “Stereo/multiview picture quality: Overview and recent advances,” Signal Process.: Image Commun. 28, 1358–1373 (2013).

Other (12)

W. Li, H. Wang, M. Zhou, S. Wang, S. Jiao, X. Mei, T. Hong, H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Principal observation ray calibration for tiled-lens-array integral imaging display,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2013), pp. 1019–1026.

H. Hwang, J. Park, H. S. Chang, Y. J. Jeong, D. Nam, and I. S. Kweon, “Lenticular lens parameter estimation using single image for crosstalk reduction of three-dimensional multi-view display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2015), pp. 1417–1420.
[Crossref]

K. Mitra and A. Veeraraghavan, “Light field denoising, light field superresolution and stereo camera based refocussing using a GMM light field patch prior,” in IEEE CVPR Workshop on Computational Cameras and Displays (IEEE, 2012), pp. 22–28.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2012).

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 31–42.

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. F. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1996), pp. 43–54.

M. Zwicker, W. Matusik, F. Durand, H. Pfister, and C. Forlines, “Antialiasing for automultiscopic 3D displays,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches (ACM, 2006), p. 107.
[Crossref]

L. Cremona, Elements of Projective Geometry (The Clarendon Press, 1885).

X. Gu, S. J. Gortler, and M. F. Cohen, “Polyhedral geometry and the two-plane parameterization,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques (Springer, 1997), pp. 1–12.

G. Chen, L. Hong, K. Ng, P. McGuinness, C. Hofsetz, Y. Liu, and N. Max, “Light field duality: concept and applications,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (ACM, 2002), pp. 9–16.

I. Schillebeeckx and R. Pless, “Single image camera calibration with lenticular arrays for augmented reality,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2016).

D. K. Buck and A. A. Collins, “POV-Ray – the persistence of vision raytracer,” [Online]. Available: http://www.povray.org/ .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Parameterization of a light ray in the AS3D display environment.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A horizontal 2D slice of light field in the AS3D display. (a) Real-world setting, (b) equivalent representation in the ray space. Two types of pencil functions are illustrated (DPFs: blue, CPFs: red).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Local deformation example, represented (a) in the real world and (b) in the ray space.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Observation refinement. (a) Raw image with corner detection results, (b) image after projection to the full panel, (c) image after color adjustment (final observation).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 View assignment in presence of local deformation. (a) Single user/two-view case, (b) multi-user/multi-view case. For the single user/two-view case, the eye positions (and the corresponding CPFs) are assumed to possibly move; an eye tracking device will follow them in real-time. For the multi-user/multi-view case, the eye positions (and the corresponding CPFs) are assumed to be dense and fixed.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experiments with synthetic displays. Three types of nonuniform deformation are considered. In each case, the 3D surface of the optical layer is shown. (a) Groundtruth, (b) reconstruction by GC [14], (c) reconstruction by LC. The mean-squared error (MSE) is measured and is shown below each reconstruction result (unit: mm2).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 MSE versus the number of iterations in the LC algorithm. The MSE is computed by averaging over the three cases considered in Fig. 6.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 View separation in the images observed on a real-life AS3D display (two-view rendering). (a) NC, (b) GC [14], (c) LC. The left-right pairs in each row correspond to the observations from a specific camera position. Considering the situation that the cameras move along the path shown in the top figure, we present the series of the observations (from top to bottom) actually made at four random spots numbered ①–④. Extrinsic crosstalk is measured according to Eq. (12) and is shown below each image.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Example images observed on a real-life AS3D display. The images Bonsai, BigBuck-Bunny, Mansion, Teapot (from top to bottom) are displayed using 27-view rendering and photographed nearly at the center position. (a) Reference, (b) NC, (c) GC [14], (d) LC. Two objective measures (PSNR in dB and SSIM index on a scale of 0 to 1) are given below each image. For better comparison, some regions are shown in magnification.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Visual quality assessment. The shown numbers are the mean and maximum deviation (in parenthesis) of the PSNR and the SSIM index over five display instances.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u = ( 1 d p z ) s + d p z p x ,
u = ( 1 d p n z ) s + d p n z p n x , n = 1 , , N ,
u = ( 1 d q k z ) s + d q k z q k x , k = 1 , , K ,
[ r d γ g d γ b d γ ] = T [ r c γ g c γ b c γ ] ,
f ( p n , q k ) = p n x q k z p n z q k x q k z p n z .
f ( p n , q k ) p n x β k p n z
L ( p n ) = k = 1 K D ( I ( f ( p n , q k ) ) , O k ( f ( p n , q k ) ) ) , n = 1 , , N .
L ( p n , s n , 1 , , s n , K ) = k D ( I ( s n , k ) , O k ( s n , k ) ) + λ ( s n , k f ( p n , q k ) ) 2 ,
minimize s n , k D ( I ( s n , k ) , O k ( s n , k ) ) + λ ( s n , k f ( p n , q k ) ) 2 , k = 1 , , K .
minimize p n k ( s n , k f ( p n , q k ) ) 2 .
p n = [ ( k β k ) ( k β k s n , k ) ( k β k 2 ) ( k s n , k ) ( k β k ) 2 K k β k 2 K ( k β k s n , k ) ( k β k ) ( k s n , k ) ( k β k ) 2 K k β k 2 ] .
Extrinsic crosstalk ( % ) = Incorrect view luminance Correct view luminance × 100

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