Abstract

We present a disposable low cost paper-based metamaterial for sensing liquids based on their dielectric properties. The sensor is based on resonance shift due to the change in the effective capacitance of each resonator in the metamaterial array. Key novelty in the design is the implementation of metamaterial on low cost and ubiquitous paper substrate. This metamaterial-on-paper sensor is fabricated in a totally cleanroom-free process using wax printing and screen printing. Wax patterning of paper enables creation of microfluidic channels such that liquid analytes can be delivered to each metamaterial unit cell for sensing. Screen printing is used to implement disc shaped resonator unit cells. We demonstrate sensing of liquids: Oil, methanol, glycerol and water each showing an average resonance frequency shift of 1.12 (9.6%), 4.12 (35.4%), 8.76 (75.3%) and 11.63 GHz (100%) around the center frequency of around 94 GHz respectively. Being label-free, this approach can be expanded to sense other liquids based on their dielectric constants.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14618–14631 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired rotation sensor with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(8), 2609–2614 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(5), 1–7 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Yoo, H. K. Kim, and S. Lim, “Electromagnetic-based ethanol chemical sensor using metamaterial absorber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 173–180 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Gupta, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, and R. Singh, “Sensing with toroidal metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121108 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. Y.-H. Kim, D.-G. Moon, and J.-I. Han, “Organic TFT array on a paper substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(10), 702–704 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).
  28. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. See http://www.toptica.com for Toptica Photonics website.
  31. S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “A low-voltage high-speed terahertz spatial light modulator using active metamaterial,” APL Photonics 1(8), 086102 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Gupta, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, and R. Singh, “Sensing with toroidal metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121108 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

M. Yoo, H. K. Kim, and S. Lim, “Electromagnetic-based ethanol chemical sensor using metamaterial absorber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 173–180 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “A low-voltage high-speed terahertz spatial light modulator using active metamaterial,” APL Photonics 1(8), 086102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14618–14631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(5), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired rotation sensor with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(8), 2609–2614 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y.-H. Kim, D.-G. Moon, and J.-I. Han, “Organic TFT array on a paper substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(10), 702–704 (2004).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(5), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired rotation sensor with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(8), 2609–2614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Naib, I.

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Al-Sarawi, S.

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(5), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

Al-Sarawi, S. F.

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired rotation sensor with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(8), 2609–2614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arigong, B.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baena, J. D.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Benz, A.

A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonache, J.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brenckle, M. A.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campione, S.

A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chai, Y.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-J.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chieffo, L. R.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cong, L.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
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R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demir, H.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ebrahimi, A.

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired rotation sensor with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(8), 2609–2614 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(5), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

Falcone, F.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-García, J.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gil, I.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, and R. Singh, “Sensing with toroidal metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

Han, J.-I.

Y.-H. Kim, D.-G. Moon, and J.-I. Han, “Organic TFT array on a paper substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(10), 702–704 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hashemi, M. R. M.

M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. P.

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jarrahi, M.

M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanikaev, A. B.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. K.

M. Yoo, H. K. Kim, and S. Lim, “Electromagnetic-based ethanol chemical sensor using metamaterial absorber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 173–180 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-T.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim, D.-G. Moon, and J.-I. Han, “Organic TFT array on a paper substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(10), 702–704 (2004).
[Crossref]

Klem, J. F.

A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
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Laso, M. A. G.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S.

M. Yoo, H. K. Kim, and S. Lim, “Electromagnetic-based ethanol chemical sensor using metamaterial absorber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 173–180 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopetegi, T.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.-Y.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manekkathodi, A.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manjappa, M.

M. Gupta, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, and R. Singh, “Sensing with toroidal metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121108 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marqués Sillero, R.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Martín, F.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Melik, R.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Min, B.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, D.-G.

Y.-H. Kim, D.-G. Moon, and J.-I. Han, “Organic TFT array on a paper substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(10), 702–704 (2004).
[Crossref]

O’Hara, J. F.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Omenetto, F. G.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perkgoz, N.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pitchappa, P.

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Portillo, M. F.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Puttlitz, C.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rout, S.

S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “A low-voltage high-speed terahertz spatial light modulator using active metamaterial,” APL Photonics 1(8), 086102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14618–14631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sepúlveda, N.

M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, J.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, K.

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siebert, S. M.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinclair, M. B.

A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Gupta, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, and R. Singh, “Sensing with toroidal metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121108 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnova, E.

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonkusale, S.

S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14618–14631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “A low-voltage high-speed terahertz spatial light modulator using active metamaterial,” APL Photonics 1(8), 086102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sorolla, M.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

Srivastava, Y. K.

M. Gupta, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, and R. Singh, “Sensing with toroidal metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, S.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unal, E.

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[Crossref]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. W.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withayachumnankul, W.

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(5), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired rotation sensor with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(8), 2609–2614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yahiaoui, R.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-H.

M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, M.

M. Yoo, H. K. Kim, and S. Lim, “Electromagnetic-based ethanol chemical sensor using metamaterial absorber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 173–180 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, M.

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

APL Photonics (1)

S. Rout and S. Sonkusale, “A low-voltage high-speed terahertz spatial light modulator using active metamaterial,” APL Photonics 1(8), 086102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. Melik, E. Unal, N. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Gupta, Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, and R. Singh, “Sensing with toroidal metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121108 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Y.-H. Kim, D.-G. Moon, and J.-I. Han, “Organic TFT array on a paper substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(10), 702–704 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(5), 1–7 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ebrahimi, W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired rotation sensor with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Sens. J. 14(8), 2609–2614 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martín, R. Marqués Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. García-García, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Shih, P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, “Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Benz, S. Campione, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Control of strong light-matter coupling using the capacitance of metamaterial nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1959–1966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).

Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

M. R. M. Hashemi, S.-H. Yang, T. Wang, N. Sepúlveda, and M. Jarrahi, “Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, M. Lu, Y. Chai, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

M. Yoo, H. K. Kim, and S. Lim, “Electromagnetic-based ethanol chemical sensor using metamaterial absorber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 222, 173–180 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

See http://www.toptica.com for Toptica Photonics website.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) split ring resonator and (b) equivalent circuit diagram of the SRR (single unit cell) (c) disks using different liquid analytes in the gap (d) Shows transmission spectrum with resonant frequency shift by using different liquid analytes (ε3 > ε2 > ε1).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic figures showing the fabrication process (a) Wax printer used for printing wax on chromatography paper (b) Polyimide Sheet cut by CO2 laser used for adhering on wax-printed paper (c) painting silver ink (d) peeling polyimide sheet off the paper (e) silver-painted paper after peeling off polyimide sheet (f) flow of water through the microfluidic channels (g) Unit cell of the metamaterial, the thickness of the chromatography paper and conductive silver disks are 90μm and 100μm respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Theoretical result versus experimental result (b) electric field (c) surface current.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Paper-based metamaterial-inspired sensor with dimensions of 11.5 × 11.5 cm2, inhomogeneity of the silver disks due to low resolution in painting are shown on the inset figure (b) flow of dye on microfluidic channel (c) channels are filled with dye, also the source of the dye is shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The experimental setup of the cw Terahertz spectrometer showing sample in THz beam path for detection.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmission spectrum for different samples with different dielectric constant. For example in (b) sample2 shows resonance frequency shift of 1.14 GHz for oil, in (d) sample5 shows resonance frequency shift of 3.94 GHz for methanol, (f) sample7 shows resonance frequency of 8.65 GHz for glycerol (h) sample11 shows resonance frequency shift of 11.44 GHz for water.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Error bar plot extracted from 10 different samples for each analytes labeled with their known low frequency relative permittivity.

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