Abstract

Through analyzing the structure of the phase-shifted helical long-period fiber grating (HLPG), which is fabricated based on the thermally twisting method, we have shown that there exists a phase-diffusion effect when the thermal region is larger than the grating period itself, i.e., the inserted phase preset at particular period will be diffused to several neighboring periods, which causes a large distortion in the transmission spectrum. We have analytically proved that this kind of phase-diffusion effect can be quantified by doing the convolution between the preset phase function and the phase-diffusion function in spatial domain. According to the analytical results, we have proposed and successfully demonstrated a pre-compensation method to solve the phase diffusion effect. As an example, a phase-shifted HLPG with π phase-shift precisely inserted at middle position of the grating has been presented.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

P. Wang, L. Xian, and H. Li, “Fabrication of phase-shifted long-period fiber grating and its application to strain measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 557–560 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. Ashrafi, M. H. Asghari, and J. Azaña, “Ultrafast optical arbitrary-order differentiators based on apodized long-period gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 353–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fibergratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Writing of apodized phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings with a computer-controlled CO2 laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 657–659 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Cuadrado-Laborde and M. V. Andrés, “In-fiber all-optical fractional differentiator,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 833–835 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

O. V. Ivanov, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by twisting a standard single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3290–3292 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, “Design of a phase-shifted long-period grating using the partial-etching technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 45(1), 18–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce long-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. R. Chen, “Design of flat-top bandpass filter based on symmetric multiple phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 205(4–6), 271–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4(11), 457–466 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Canning and M. Sceats, “π-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in optical fibers by UV post-processing,” Electron. Lett. 30(16), 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

Andrés, M. V.

Arregui, F. J.

Asghari, M. H.

R. Ashrafi, M. H. Asghari, and J. Azaña, “Ultrafast optical arbitrary-order differentiators based on apodized long-period gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 353–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, R.

R. Ashrafi, M. H. Asghari, and J. Azaña, “Ultrafast optical arbitrary-order differentiators based on apodized long-period gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 353–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Azaña, J.

R. Ashrafi, M. H. Asghari, and J. Azaña, “Ultrafast optical arbitrary-order differentiators based on apodized long-period gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 353–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bae, J.

H. Kim, J. Bae, and J. Chun, “Synthesis of flat-top bandpass filters using two-band rejection long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1466–1468 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bhatia, V.

Biancalana, F.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucholtz, F.

Canning, J.

J. Canning and M. Sceats, “π-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in optical fibers by UV post-processing,” Electron. Lett. 30(16), 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. R.

L. R. Chen, “Design of flat-top bandpass filter based on symmetric multiple phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 205(4–6), 271–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

Y. Gu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Writing of apodized phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings with a computer-controlled CO2 laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 657–659 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chun, J.

H. Kim, J. Bae, and J. Chun, “Synthesis of flat-top bandpass filters using two-band rejection long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1466–1468 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chung, K. W.

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, “Design of a phase-shifted long-period grating using the partial-etching technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 45(1), 18–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y.

Churikov, V. M.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conti, C.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuadrado-Laborde, C.

Cusano, A.

Cutolo, A.

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Del Villar, I.

Dianov, E.

Digonnet, M. J. K.

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Everall, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fabris, J. L.

Falate, R.

Fernandes, J. R. A.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce long-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Frazão, O.

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Genack, A. Z.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fibergratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Writing of apodized phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings with a computer-controlled CO2 laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 657–659 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, C. Zhou, Q. Guo, and T. Wang, “Sensing Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings Written in Thinned Cladding Fiber,” IEEE Sensor 16(5), 1217–1223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hishiki, K.

Ivanov, O. V.

James, S. W.

Ju, H.

Judkins, J. B.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 883–885 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kang, M. S.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke, H.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Bae, and J. Chun, “Synthesis of flat-top bandpass filters using two-band rejection long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1466–1468 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

Kong, X.

Kopp, V. I.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fibergratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Krcmarík, D.

Kulishov, M.

Lee, H. W.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. R.

Lemaire, P. J.

M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, S.

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

Liu, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, C. Zhou, Q. Guo, and T. Wang, “Sensing Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings Written in Thinned Cladding Fiber,” IEEE Sensor 16(5), 1217–1223 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

Marques, P. V. S.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce long-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matias, I. R.

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

Murphy, R. P.

Nelson, K. T.

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

Neugroschl, D.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fibergratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, J.

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ngo, N.

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.

Okhotnikov, O.

Paek, U. C.

Paladino, D.

Patrick, H. J.

Peng, J.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. Gu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Writing of apodized phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings with a computer-controlled CO2 laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 657–659 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rego, G.

Ren, K.

Ren, L.

Russell, P. St. J.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salgado, H. M.

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce long-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Santos, J. L.

R. Falate, O. Frazão, G. Rego, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Santos, “Refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5066–5072 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce long-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Savin, S.

Sceats, M.

J. Canning and M. Sceats, “π-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in optical fibers by UV post-processing,” Electron. Lett. 30(16), 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shaw, H. J.

Shum, P.

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fibergratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Singer, J.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Slavík, R.

Slusher, R. E.

Stark, J. B.

Subramanian, R.

Sulimov, V.

Tatam, R. P.

Townsend, C. D.

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

Trendafilov, S.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fibergratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Vengsarkar, M.

M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, T.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, C. Zhou, Q. Guo, and T. Wang, “Sensing Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings Written in Thinned Cladding Fiber,” IEEE Sensor 16(5), 1217–1223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, J. A. R.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wong, G. K. L.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Xian, L.

P. Wang, L. Xian, and H. Li, “Fabrication of phase-shifted long-period fiber grating and its application to strain measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 557–560 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Xian, P. Wang, and H. Li, “Power-interrogated and simultaneous measurement of temperature and torsion using paired helical long-period fiber gratings with opposite helicities,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20260–20267 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Xu, Y.

Yang, L.

Yin, S.

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, “Design of a phase-shifted long-period grating using the partial-etching technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 45(1), 18–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, C. Zhou, Q. Guo, and T. Wang, “Sensing Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings Written in Thinned Cladding Fiber,” IEEE Sensor 16(5), 1217–1223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, C. Zhou, Q. Guo, and T. Wang, “Sensing Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings Written in Thinned Cladding Fiber,” IEEE Sensor 16(5), 1217–1223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Canning and M. Sceats, “π-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in optical fibers by UV post-processing,” Electron. Lett. 30(16), 1344–1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 302–303 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Design and realization of long-period grating devices in conventional and high birefringence fibers and their novel applications as fiber-optic load sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1373–1378 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

R. Ashrafi, M. H. Asghari, and J. Azaña, “Ultrafast optical arbitrary-order differentiators based on apodized long-period gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 353–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

J. Zhang, P. Shum, S. Li, N. Ngo, X. Cheng, and J. Ng, “Design and fabrication of flat-band long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1558–1560 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. Bae, and J. Chun, “Synthesis of flat-top bandpass filters using two-band rejection long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1466–1468 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Writing of apodized phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings with a computer-controlled CO2 laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 657–659 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, L. Xian, and H. Li, “Fabrication of phase-shifted long-period fiber grating and its application to strain measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 557–560 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. Peng, “Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(11), 1596–1598 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sensor (1)

Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, C. Zhou, Q. Guo, and T. Wang, “Sensing Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings Written in Thinned Cladding Fiber,” IEEE Sensor 16(5), 1217–1223 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, and V. Sulimov, “High temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings producedusing an electric arc,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1574–1579 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Multiplexing of fiber-optic long-period grating-based interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 825–829 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. D. Poole, C. D. Townsend, and K. T. Nelson, “Helical-grating two-mode fiber spatial-mode coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 598–604 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, V. I. Kopp, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Polarization properties of chiral fibergratings,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. W. Chung and S. Yin, “Design of a phase-shifted long-period grating using the partial-etching technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 45(1), 18–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

L. R. Chen, “Design of flat-top bandpass filter based on symmetric multiple phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 205(4–6), 271–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Rego, J. R. A. Fernandes, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, and P. V. S. Marques, “New technique to mechanically induce long-period fibre gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 111–118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 164(1–3), 27–31 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (9)

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1464–1466 (2004).
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O. V. Ivanov, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by twisting a standard single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3290–3292 (2005).
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S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1464–1466 (2004).
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H. Xu and L. Yang, “Conversion of orbital angular momentum of light in chiral fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1978–1980 (2013).
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V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
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C. Cuadrado-Laborde and M. V. Andrés, “In-fiber all-optical fractional differentiator,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 833–835 (2009).
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M. Kulishov, D. Krcmarík, and R. Slavík, “Design of terahertz-bandwidth arbitrary-order temporal differentiators based on long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2978–2980 (2007).
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S. Savin, M. J. K. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and H. J. Shaw, “Tunable mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25(10), 710–712 (2000).
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B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “All-optical switching in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 883–885 (1997).
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Science (2)

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of orbital angular momentum resonances in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber,” Science 337(6093), 446–449 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science 305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle scheme for the formation of a phase-shifted HLPG (a) Index-change profile with a phase-shift inserted, and (b) without phase-shift inserted.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmission spectrum of the πphase-shifted HLPG.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measurement results for the phase distribution of the phase-shifted HLPGs vs the grating positions, where (a) within the whole length of the grating, and (b) the amplified parts within the central 12-period region of the HLPGs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation results for the distribution of the phases and periods in a π phase-shifted HLPG, where (a) the objective phase, (b) the fitting result for phase-diffusion function, (c) the resulted phases, (d) the result periods.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation results for the transmission spectrum of the πphase-shifted HLPG.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Distribution of the pre-compensated periods for the π phase-shifted HLPG.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measurement results for transmission spectra of the fabricated π phase-shifted HLPGs with and without utilization of the pre-compensated phases.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ= P Λ ×2π.
Λ 1 =Λ(1+ Φ 2π ).
Φ o (z)= Φ i (z) Φ b (z) ,
Φ i (z)= β p δ(z z p ) .
Φ o (z)= β p Φ b (z z p ) .
F{ Φ o (z) }=F{ Φ i (z) }{ Φ b (z) },
Φ i (z)= F 1 { F{ β p δ(z z p ) }/F{ Φ b (z) } } ,
Φ o (z)= β p δ(z z p ) .

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