Abstract

Polarization speckle is a fine granular light pattern having spatially varying random polarization profile. We generate these speckle patterns by using the scattering of Poincaré beams, a special class of vector vortex beams, through a ground glass plate. Here, the Poincaré beams are generated using a polarization sensitive spatial light modulator displaying an on-axis hologram corresponding to an optical vortex phase profile. The different inhomogeneities of the rough surface experience different polarizations, which control the ability for scattered waves to interfere at the detection plane and causes a spatially varying polarization profile. We experimentally determined the spatial variation of local degree of polarization and orientation of the polarization ellipse for these speckle patterns from the Stokes analysis. We also determined the size of scalar speckles using the auto-correlation function of Stokes parameter S0 and the size of polarization speckles using the sum of auto-correlation functions of remaining three Stokes parameters. We found that the change in scalar speckle size with the index of the vector beam is very small and of the order of 1 pixel size of the camera but the size of polarization speckles decreases with the increase in index of the vector beam.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  20. D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. Ndagano, H. Sroor, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Beam quality measure for vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3407 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  28. L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, and M. Takeda, “Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment,” Proceedings of IX international conference on Correlation Optics, 738803 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

A. Aadhi, P. Vaity, P. Chithrabhanu, S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1107 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Ndagano, H. Sroor, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Beam quality measure for vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (4)

V. Kumar and N. K. Viswanathan, “Topological structures in vector-vortex beam fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 40–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New. J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Higher order optical vortices and formation of speckles,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4364 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. G. Reddy, A. Kumar, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Experimental generation of ring-shaped beams with random sources,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4441 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Kumar, G. M. Philip, and N. K. Viswanathan, “Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar,” J. Opt. 15, 044027 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. D. Lisio, and E. Santamato, “Polarization pattern of vector vortex beams generated by q-plates with different topological charges,” Appl. Opt. 51, C1–6 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Hanbury Brown-Twiss-type experiments with optical vortices and observation of modulated intensity correlation on scattering from rotating ground glass,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013825 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Han, W. Cheng, and Q. Zhan, “Flattop focusing with full Poincaré beams under low numerical aperture illumination,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1605 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, Yu. A. Ushenko, and Ye. G. ushenko, “Investigation of 2D Mueller matrix structure of biological tissues for pre-clinical diagnostics of their pathological states,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 3547 (2006).

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. R. Dennis, “Polarization singularities in paraxial vector fields: morphology and statistics,” Opt. Commun. 213, 201 (2002).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. Pohl, ‘Operation of a Ruby Laser in the Purely Transverse Electric Mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266 (1972).
[Crossref]

Aadhi, A

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aadhi, A.

Aiello, A.

S. B. Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2, 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New. J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New. J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbits/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alonso, M. A.

Angelsky, O. V.

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, Yu. A. Ushenko, and Ye. G. ushenko, “Investigation of 2D Mueller matrix structure of biological tissues for pre-clinical diagnostics of their pathological states,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 3547 (2006).

Banerji, J.

S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Higher order optical vortices and formation of speckles,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4364 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Hanbury Brown-Twiss-type experiments with optical vortices and observation of modulated intensity correlation on scattering from rotating ground glass,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Banzer, P.

Beckley, A. M.

Brown, T. G.

Cardano, F.

Cheng, W.

Chithrabhanu, P

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chithrabhanu, P.

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer Verlag, 1984).

Dennis, M. R.

M. R. Dennis, “Polarization singularities in paraxial vector fields: morphology and statistics,” Opt. Commun. 213, 201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dhadwal, G.

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dudley, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dupont, J.

Evans, S.

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Ndagano, H. Sroor, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Beam quality measure for vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galvez, E. J.

B. Khajavi and E. J. Galvez, “Preparation of Poincar beams with a same-path polarization/spatial-mode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 54, 111305 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giacobino, E.

S. B. Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2, 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New. J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New. J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (W. H. Freeman, 2008), Indian Edition.

Han, W.

Hanson, S. G.

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, and M. Takeda, “Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment,” Proceedings of IX international conference on Correlation Optics, 738803 (2009).

M. Takeda, W. Wang, and S. G. Hanson, “Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review,” Proc. SPIE7387, Speckle 2010: Optical Metrology, 73870V (2010).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Aranda, R. I.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Itou, H.

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johansen, S. B.

Kalia, S.

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

Khajavi, B.

B. Khajavi and E. J. Galvez, “Preparation of Poincar beams with a same-path polarization/spatial-mode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 54, 111305 (2015).
[Crossref]

Konrad, T.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

Kumar, V.

V. Kumar and N. K. Viswanathan, “Topological structures in vector-vortex beam fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 40–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Kumar, G. M. Philip, and N. K. Viswanathan, “Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar,” J. Opt. 15, 044027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P. J.

Lee, T. K.

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New. J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2, 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New. J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lisio, C. D.

Litvin, I.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lui, H.

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquardt, C.

S. B. Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2, 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New. J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New. J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

McLaren, M.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Ndagano, H. Sroor, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Beam quality measure for vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milione, G.

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbits/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, Y.

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mouane, O.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

Naidoo, D.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Naik, D. N.

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ndagano, B.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Ndagano, H. Sroor, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzmán, and A. Forbes, “Beam quality measure for vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3407 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. A.

Nolan, D. A.

G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbits/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1980 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Orlik, X.

Ornigotti, M.

Perez-Garcia, B.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

Philip, G. M.

V. Kumar, G. M. Philip, and N. K. Viswanathan, “Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar,” J. Opt. 15, 044027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Piccirillo, B.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pohl, D.

D. Pohl, ‘Operation of a Ruby Laser in the Purely Transverse Electric Mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266 (1972).
[Crossref]

Prabhakar, S.

Prabhakar, Shashi

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. G. Reddy, A. Kumar, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Experimental generation of ring-shaped beams with random sources,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4441 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pravin, V

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reddy, S. G.

Reddy, S.G.

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

Rosales-Guzman, C.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rosales-Guzmán, C.

Roux, F. S.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Santamato, E.

Singh, R. K.

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. P.

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, P. Vaity, P. Chithrabhanu, S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams,” Appl. Opt. 55, 1107 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Reddy, S. Prabhakar, A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Higher order optical vortices and formation of speckles,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4364 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Reddy, A. Kumar, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Experimental generation of ring-shaped beams with random sources,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4441 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Hanbury Brown-Twiss-type experiments with optical vortices and observation of modulated intensity correlation on scattering from rotating ground glass,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

Sroor, H.

Stiller, B.

Sztul, H. I.

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, and M. Takeda, “Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment,” Proceedings of IX international conference on Correlation Optics, 738803 (2009).

M. Takeda, W. Wang, and S. G. Hanson, “Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review,” Proc. SPIE7387, Speckle 2010: Optical Metrology, 73870V (2010).
[Crossref]

Tchvialeva, L.

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Töppel, F.

S. B. Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2, 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New. J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New. J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ushenko, A. G.

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, Yu. A. Ushenko, and Ye. G. ushenko, “Investigation of 2D Mueller matrix structure of biological tissues for pre-clinical diagnostics of their pathological states,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 3547 (2006).

ushenko, Ye. G.

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, Yu. A. Ushenko, and Ye. G. ushenko, “Investigation of 2D Mueller matrix structure of biological tissues for pre-clinical diagnostics of their pathological states,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 3547 (2006).

Ushenko, Yu. A.

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, Yu. A. Ushenko, and Ye. G. ushenko, “Investigation of 2D Mueller matrix structure of biological tissues for pre-clinical diagnostics of their pathological states,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 3547 (2006).

Vaity, P.

Viswanathan, N. K.

V. Kumar and N. K. Viswanathan, “Topological structures in vector-vortex beam fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 40–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Kumar, G. M. Philip, and N. K. Viswanathan, “Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar,” J. Opt. 15, 044027 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

M. Takeda, W. Wang, and S. G. Hanson, “Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review,” Proc. SPIE7387, Speckle 2010: Optical Metrology, 73870V (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, and M. Takeda, “Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment,” Proceedings of IX international conference on Correlation Optics, 738803 (2009).

Willner, A. E.

Xie, G.

Zeng, H.

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, Y.

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Pohl, ‘Operation of a Ruby Laser in the Purely Transverse Electric Mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Tchvialeva, G. Dhadwal, H. Lui, S. Kalia, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and T. K. Lee, “Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18,061211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (3)

R. K. Singh, D. N. Naik, H. Itou, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Characterization of spatial polarization fluctuations in scattered field,” J. Opt. 16,105010 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.G. Reddy, P Chithrabhanu, V Pravin, A Aadhi, Shashi Prabhakar, and R. P. Singh, “Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam,” J. Opt. 18, 055602 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Kumar, G. M. Philip, and N. K. Viswanathan, “Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar,” J. Opt. 15, 044027 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

V. Kumar and N. K. Viswanathan, “Topological structures in vector-vortex beam fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 40–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, Yu. A. Ushenko, and Ye. G. ushenko, “Investigation of 2D Mueller matrix structure of biological tissues for pre-clinical diagnostics of their pathological states,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 3547 (2006).

Nat. Phys. (1)

B. Ndagano, B. Perez-Garcia, F. S. Roux, M. McLaren, C. Rosales-Guzman, Y. Zhang, O. Mouane, R. I. Hernandez-Aranda, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light,” Nat. Phys. 13, 397 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (1)

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nature Photon. 10, 327 (2016).
[Crossref]

New. J. Phys. (2)

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New. J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New. J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. R. Dennis, “Polarization singularities in paraxial vector fields: morphology and statistics,” Opt. Commun. 213, 201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Khajavi and E. J. Galvez, “Preparation of Poincar beams with a same-path polarization/spatial-mode interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 54, 111305 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Hanbury Brown-Twiss-type experiments with optical vortices and observation of modulated intensity correlation on scattering from rotating ground glass,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 190401 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer Verlag, 1984).

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (W. H. Freeman, 2008), Indian Edition.

M. Takeda, W. Wang, and S. G. Hanson, “Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review,” Proc. SPIE7387, Speckle 2010: Optical Metrology, 73870V (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, and M. Takeda, “Statistics of polarization speckle: theory versus experiment,” Proceedings of IX international conference on Correlation Optics, 738803 (2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental set-up for the generation of Poincaré beams and their scattering to generate polarization speckles. Here M–Mirror, HWP–Half wave plate, BS–Beam splitter, SLM–Spatial light modulator, QWP–Quarter wave plate, GGP–Ground glass plate, P–Polarizer, CCD–Camera.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The experimentally generated polarization profiles of vector vortex beams for different HWP fast axis orientations θ for m=1. Cyan and magenta colour ellipses represent the left circular and right circular nature of the polarization states respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental results for polarization speckles obtained by the scattering of vector vortex beam of order m=1 for different HWP fast axis orientations. Cyan and magenta colour ellipses represent the left circular and right circular nature of the polarization states respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The spatial variation of Stokes parameters and degree of polarization (DOP) of polarization speckles corresponding to the index m=1 at HWP fast axis orientation of 0° (top) and 20° (bottom).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The Stokes parameters and DOP of polarization speckles corresponding to different indices of Poincaré beams at 20° fast axis orientation of the HWP.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The 2-D auto-correlation functions for the Stokes parameters.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The correlation lengths for Stokes parameters (left) and the size of polarization speckles (right) vs order m.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The nature of the generated beam and the incident polarization states for different fast axis orientations of HWP.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| Ψ > = c 1 | R , 0 > + c 2 | L , m >
c 1 = sin 2 θ ; c 2 = cos 2 θ
C s = < S 0 S 0 >
C p = < S 1 S 1 > + < S 2 S 2 > + < S 3 S 3 >

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