Abstract

We demonstrate the first self-referenced full stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) frequency comb with a GHz repetition rate. The Yb:CALGO DPSSL delivers an average output power of up to 2.1 W with a typical pulse duration of 96 fs and a center wavelength of 1055 nm. A carrier-envelope offset (CEO) beat with a signal-to-noise ratio of 40 dB (in 10-kHz resolution bandwidth) is detected after supercontinuum generation and f-to-2f interferometry directly from the output of the oscillator, without any external amplification or pulse compression. The repetition rate is stabilized to a reference synthesizer with a residual integrated timing jitter of 249 fs [10 Hz – 1 MHz] and a relative frequency stability of 10−12/s. The CEO frequency is phase-locked to an external reference via pump current feedback using home-built modulation electronics. It achieves a loop bandwidth of ~150 kHz, which results in a tight CEO lock with a residual integrated phase noise of 680 mrad [1 Hz – 1 MHz]. We present a detailed characterization of the GHz frequency comb that combines a noise analysis of the repetition rate frep, of the CEO frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line at 1030 nm obtained from a virtual beat with a narrow-linewidth laser at 1557 nm using a transfer oscillator. An optical comb linewidth of about 800 kHz is assessed at 1-s observation time, for which the dominant noise sources of frep and fCEO are identified.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123116 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18440–18451 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

2010 (2)

G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4801–4807 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (3)

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 19–26 (2008).

2007 (2)

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1756–1770 (2007).

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).

2004 (2)

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Pulse-energy dynamics of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers above the Q-switching threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1469–1478 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: From frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).

2002 (3)

S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 766–768 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fortier, D. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, “Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 10(24), 1404–1410 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, ““Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys,” B Lasers Opt. 74(1), 1–6 (2002).

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

Alexandre, C.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Allan, D. U.

D. A. Howe, D. U. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of Signal Sources and Measurement Methods,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 669–716.

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Barnes, J. A.

D. A. Howe, D. U. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of Signal Sources and Measurement Methods,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 669–716.

Bartels, A.

Benedick, A. J.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bennès, J.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bouchand, R.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Bucalovic, N.

Buchs, G.

Cundiff, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Datta, S.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Degenhardt, C.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Di Domenico, G.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18440–18451 (2011).
[PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 19–26 (2008).

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

Diebold, A.

Dolgovskiy, V.

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

Emaury, F.

Endo, M.

Feldman, A.

Fendel, P.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Fortier, T.

Fortier, T. M.

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Gaeta, A. L.

Giunta, M.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Glenday, A. G.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Golling, M.

Grange, R.

Gürel, K.

Hakobyan, S.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hänsel, W.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Harvey, T.

Heinecke, D.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[PubMed]

Heinecke, D. C.

Helmcke, J.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Hoffmann, M.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[PubMed]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Hollberg, L. W.

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: From frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).

Holzwarth, R.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Howe, D. A.

D. A. Howe, D. U. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of Signal Sources and Measurement Methods,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 669–716.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ito, I.

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Johnson, A. R.

Jones, D.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

Joshi, A.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Kärtner, F. X.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Keller, U.

A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb offset stabilization based on supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(10), 11043–11053 (2016).
[PubMed]

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Klenner, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31008–31019 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).

A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Pulse-energy dynamics of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers above the Q-switching threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1469–1478 (2004).

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Klenner, A.

Kobayashi, Y.

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kundermann, S.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Le Coq, Y.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Lecomte, S.

N. Torcheboeuf, G. Buchs, S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, J. Bennès, and S. Lecomte, “Repetition rate stabilization of an optical frequency comb based on solid-state laser technology with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2215–2220 (2017).

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Lezius, M.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Li, C.-H.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lipphardt, B.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, ““Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys,” B Lasers Opt. 74(1), 1–6 (2002).

Lipson, M.

Lisdat, C.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Lours, M.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Luke, K.

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mayer, A. S.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[PubMed]

Meyer, S. A.

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 19–26 (2008).

Mirin, R. P.

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicolodi, D.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Oates, C.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Oehler, A. E. H.

Okawachi, Y.

Paschotta, R.

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pekarek, S.

Phillips, D. F.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Portuondo-Campa, E.

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

Riehle, F.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Santarelli, G.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Saraceno, C. J.

Sasselov, D.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schiller, S.

Schilt, S.

K. Gürel, V. J. Wittwer, S. Hakobyan, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier envelope offset frequency detection and stabilization of a diode-pumped mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1035–1038 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Schilt and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-Envelope Offset Stabilized Ultrafast Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 787–816 (2015).

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Klenner, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31008–31019 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
[PubMed]

V. Dolgovskiy, N. Bucalovic, P. Thomann, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, and S. Schilt, “Cross-influence between the two servo loops of a fully stabilized Er: fiber optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2944–2957 (2012).

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123116 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[PubMed]

G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4801–4807 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schlatter, A.

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: From frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).

Schori, C.

Shoji, T. D.

Silverman, K. L.

Spielmann, C.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 19–26 (2008).

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, ““Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys,” B Lasers Opt. 74(1), 1–6 (2002).

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sterr, U.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Stoehr, H.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Stumpf, M. C.

Südmeyer, T.

K. Gürel, V. J. Wittwer, S. Hakobyan, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier envelope offset frequency detection and stabilization of a diode-pumped mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1035–1038 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Schilt and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-Envelope Offset Stabilized Ultrafast Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 787–816 (2015).

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Klenner, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31008–31019 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

Swann, W. C.

Szentgyorgyi, A.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, ““Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys,” B Lasers Opt. 74(1), 1–6 (2002).

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Thomann, P.

Tombez, L.

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123116 (2011).
[PubMed]

Torcheboeuf, N.

Tremblin, P.-A.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Walsworth, R. L.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wilpers, G.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wittwer, V. J.

Xie, W.

Xie, X.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Ye, J.

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: From frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fortier, D. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, “Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 10(24), 1404–1410 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zaffalon, M.

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123116 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zeller, S. C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referencable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-μm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).

Appl. Sci. (1)

S. Schilt and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-Envelope Offset Stabilized Ultrafast Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 787–816 (2015).

B Lasers Opt. (1)

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, ““Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys,” B Lasers Opt. 74(1), 1–6 (2002).

C. R. Phys. (1)

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 19–26 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: From frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).

Nature (2)

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18440–18451 (2011).
[PubMed]

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24171–24181 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. Torcheboeuf, G. Buchs, S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, J. Bennès, and S. Lecomte, “Repetition rate stabilization of an optical frequency comb based on solid-state laser technology with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2215–2220 (2017).

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fortier, D. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, “Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 10(24), 1404–1410 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Endo, I. Ito, and Y. Kobayashi, “Direct 15-GHz mode-spacing optical frequency comb with a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:Y(2)O(3) ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1276–1282 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Klenner, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31008–31019 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Klenner, A. S. Mayer, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb offset stabilization based on supercontinuum generation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(10), 11043–11053 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123116 (2011).
[PubMed]

Science (4)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–640 (2000).
[PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[PubMed]

Other (5)

C.-C. Lee, Y. Hayashi, D. Hou, K. Silverman, A. Feldman, T. Harvey, R. Mirin, and T. R. Schibli, “Highly phase-coherent stabilization of carrier-envelope-offset frequency with graphene modulator on SESAM,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper SM3H.7.

A. S. Mayer, A. Klenner, A. Johnson, K. Luke, M. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Low-noise Gigahertz Frequency Comb from diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser using Silicon Nitride Waveguides,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper ATh4A–5.

S. Hakobyan, V. J. Wittwer, K. Gürel, P. Brochard, S. Schilt, A. S. Mayer, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Opto-Optical Modulator for CEO Control and Stabilization in an Yb:CALGO GHz Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser,” in The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper CF-1.1.

D. A. Howe, D. U. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of Signal Sources and Measurement Methods,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 669–716.

M. Beck, A. Cox, T. Plötzing, M. Indlekofer, T. Mandhyani, P. Leiprecht, and A. Bartels, “Turn-key 1 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb with enhanced offset locking bandwidth,” in 8th Frequency Standard and Metrology Symposium (2015), poster D04.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overall scheme of the fully-stabilized Yb:CALGO GHz frequency comb and of its noise characterization. The laser cavity (center) is pumped by a 980-nm fiber-coupled diode array (left). One output beam of the laser is launched into a PCF for SC spectrum generation, followed by an f-to-2f interferometer for CEO detection (top). The stabilization of fCEO is implemented by a phase-lock loop with feedback applied to the pump diode current through a home-built voltage-to-current (V→I) modulator (middle-bottom), whereas frep is stabilized to an H-maser (through frequency synthesizers) by cavity length control with a PZT (top left). Finally, an optical line of the GHz comb is characterized from its heterodyne beat with an ultra-stable laser (USL) at 1.56 µm using an Er:fiber comb as a transfer oscillator (bottom). PD: photodiode; PPLN: periodically-poled lithium niobate; PCF: photonic-crystal fiber; HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber; PID: proportional-integral-derivative controller; DBM: double-balanced mixer; HVA: high-voltage amplifier. Yellow lines represent singlemode (SM) optical fiber connections, red, pink and green lines schematize free-space optical beams, and black lines are electrical connections.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) Average output power vs pump power for CW and modelocked (ML) operations; b) Optical spectrum of the laser in ML operation; c) Normalized RF spectrum of the laser in ML operation, offset from the fundamental frep = 1.05 GHz; inset c) first five harmonics of frep; d) Autocorrelation (AC) trace of an optical pulse of the laser (blue trace) with a sech2 fit (dashed red line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Full octave-spanning SC spectrum measured at the output of the PCF. The f and 2f frequency components used for CEO detection in the f-to-2f interferometer are indicated by the black and red vertical lines, respectively. The spectrum is normalized with respect to the maximum spectral power achieved at 1350 nm; the total power at the output of the PCF is ~670 mW.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 RF spectrum of the signal at the output of the f-to-2f interferometer showing a CEO frequency of ~265 MHz. The inset displays a zoom on the CEO beat showing an SNR of 40 dB in a RBW of 10 kHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Amplitude of the transfer function of frep for PZT modulation (blue) and calculated mean value (gray); inset: static tuning of frep as a function of the PZT voltage. b) Phase of the transfer function of frep for PZT modulation (dashed red). c) Relative amplitude of the transfer functions of fCEO (red), of the laser output power (blue), and of the pump optical power (green) for pump current modulation, and calculated relaxation frequency (frel) of the laser (straight black line); inset: static tuning of fCEO as a function of pump current. d) Phase of the transfer functions of fCEO (red), of the laser output power (blue), and of the pump optical power (green) for pump current modulation, and calculated relaxation frequency (frel) of the laser (straight black line).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the RIN of the pump diode measured without (blue) and with (red) the RC filter placed between the high current source and the pump diode. The cut-off frequency of the RC filter is indicated by the straight vertical line. The RC filter efficiently suppresses the discrete noise peaks of electrical origin located between 10 and 100 Hz, and in the range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz. The broadband excess noise present at f > 10 Hz is not affected by the filter as it arises from a different origin that is discussed in detail in Section 5.2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Noise performance of the fully-stabilized GHz comb obtained using a PID controller for the CEO feedback loop and a PI controller for the repetition rate. a) Frequency noise power spectral density (FN-PSD) of the CEO beat in free-running (blue) and stabilized (red) conditions, and corresponding integrated phase noise as a function of the upper cut-off frequency (right vertical axis); inset: RF spectrum of the CEO beat showing a coherent peak with an SNR of 50 dB at a RBW of 1 Hz. b) FN-PSD of the free-running (blue) and phase-locked (red) repetition rate stabilized using a PI servo gain. The FN-PSD of the reference synthesizer is also shown for comparison (gray). Right vertical axis: integrated timing jitter as a function of the lower cut-off frequency.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Noise performance of the fully-stabilized GHz comb obtained with the same CEO feedback loop as in Fig. 7, but with mechanical damping of the laser breadboard and a derivative filter added to the repetition rate feedback loop. a) FN-PSD of the CEO beat in free-running (blue) and stabilized (red) conditions, and corresponding integrated phase noise as a function of the upper cut-off frequency (right vertical axis). b) FN-PSD of the free-running (blue) and phase-locked (red) repetition rate stabilized using a PID servo controller. The FN-PSD of the reference synthesizer is also shown for comparison (gray). Right vertical axis: integrated timing jitter as a function of the lower cut-off frequency.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 a) FN-PSD measured for the free-running fCEO (yellow) compared with the contributions of the current noise of the pump diode driver (red) and of the pump RIN (blue). The last two curves were obtained by converting the measured current noise and RIN into an equivalent frequency noise of the CEO by taking into account the slope efficiency of the pump diode and its pump-power-to-CEO-frequency transfer function. The water cooling chiller was in operation in this measurement. b) Comparison of the RIN of the pump diode measured with the water cooling chiller on (blue) and off (red).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Frequency stability of the fully-stabilized GHz comb: overlapped Allan deviation of fCEO (a) and relative (overlapped) Allan deviation of frep (b) calculated from the recorded time series displayed in the bottom of the figure. The mean values and standard deviations of fCEO and frep are also indicated on the plots.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 a) Comparison of the FN-PSD of the repetition rate assessed from the direct measurement of frep in the RF domain (solid blue curve) and from the optical CEO-free virtual beat (dashed red curve), with a mode number N ≈276’600, and of the reference synthesizer up-scaled by N2 (gray). b) FN-PSD of an optical mode of the fully-stabilized GHz comb (blue), and comparison with the individual contribution of fCEO (yellow), N·frep (red dashed) and of the reference synthesizer up-scaled by N2 (gray). The inset shows a zoom in the frequency range of the CEO servo bump, where the noise of the optical comb line is lower than the individual contributions of frep and fCEO. c) FWHM linewidth of the optical comb line calculated from the FN-PSD as a function of the low cut-off frequency (inverse of the observation time).

Equations (2)

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f virt .beat 2 = | 2 ( ν 1030 GHz N 1030 Er f rep Er f CEO Er ) 3 ( ν 1557 N 1557 Er f rep Er f CEO Er ) | | 2 ν 1030 GHz 3 ν 1557 + f CEO Er |
f virt .beat 2 CEO-free | 2 ν 1030 GHz 3 ν 1557 + f CEO Er | 2 f CEO 2 N f rep 3 ν 1557 + f CEO Er

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