Abstract

In the investigation, we propose and demonstrate a wavelength-selectable C- plus L-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output. Here, a C-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is utilized to serve as gain medium together with proposed multi-cross-ring (MCR) scheme to extend the wavelength tunability to L-band range. Besides, the MCR can also suppress the multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) significantly. Therefore, the measured output power and optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of each lasing wavelength are between −10.1 and −2.7 dBm, and 26.4 and 35.0 dB/0.06 nm, respectively in the wavelength range from 1530.0 to 1584.0 nm. In addition, the output stabilities of power and wavelength in the proposed EDF MCR laser have been also analyzed experimentally.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Yin, Z. Liu, S. Feng, Y. Bai, H. Li, and S. Jian, “Stable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on structured chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 54(1), 6–11 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S.-K. Liaw, Y.-W. Lee, H.-W. Huang, and W.-F. Wu, “Multi-wavelength linear-cavity SOA-based laser array for long-haul sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3353–3358 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. M.-C. Amann, “Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28(18), 1694–1696 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  4. C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “A tunable S-Band erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1503–1504 (2003).
  5. Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 187–189 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with power-equalized output,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12828–12831 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. K. Atieh and S. Tchouragoulov, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse generation in the L-band using passive mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” in Proc. of CLEO (2000), pp. 261−262.
    [Crossref]
  8. C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “120-nm bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier module in parallel configuration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1637–1639 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. R. Supradeepa, J. W. Nichsolson, C. E. Headley, M. F. Yan, B. Palsdottir, and D. Jakobsen, “A high efficiency architecture for cascaded Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7148–7155 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Broadband wavelength-tunable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser using saturable-absorber filter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 158–163 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 41–43 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, J. S. Jeong, S.-P. Han, C. W. Lee, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, H. S. Chun, and K. H. Park, “Widely tunable dual-wavelength Er3+-doped fiber laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12291–12297 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).
  14. T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. X. Chen, J. Yao, and Z. Deng, “Ultranarrow dual-transmission-band fiber Bragg grating filter and its application in a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2068–2070 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. X. Liu, X. Yang, F. Lu, J. Ng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Stable and uniform dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(1), 142–147 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

S.-K. Liaw, Y.-W. Lee, H.-W. Huang, and W.-F. Wu, “Multi-wavelength linear-cavity SOA-based laser array for long-haul sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3353–3358 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Yin, Z. Liu, S. Feng, Y. Bai, H. Li, and S. Jian, “Stable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on structured chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 54(1), 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

2010 (2)

2006 (2)

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with power-equalized output,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12828–12831 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 187–189 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “120-nm bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier module in parallel configuration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1637–1639 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “A tunable S-Band erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1503–1504 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M.-C. Amann, “Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28(18), 1694–1696 (1992).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

M.-C. Amann, “Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28(18), 1694–1696 (1992).
[Crossref]

Atieh, A. K.

A. K. Atieh and S. Tchouragoulov, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse generation in the L-band using passive mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” in Proc. of CLEO (2000), pp. 261−262.
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

B. Yin, Z. Liu, S. Feng, Y. Bai, H. Li, and S. Jian, “Stable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on structured chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 54(1), 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-C.

P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

Chen, X.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 187–189 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, J. Yao, and Z. Deng, “Ultranarrow dual-transmission-band fiber Bragg grating filter and its application in a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2068–2070 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, B. C.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

Chi, S.

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with power-equalized output,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12828–12831 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “120-nm bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier module in parallel configuration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1637–1639 (2004).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “A tunable S-Band erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1503–1504 (2003).

Chiou, H.-Y.

P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Broadband wavelength-tunable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser using saturable-absorber filter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 158–163 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chun, H. S.

Dai, Y.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 187–189 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deng, Z.

Feng, K.-M.

P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Feng, T.

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, S.-P.

Headley, C. E.

Huang, H.-W.

S.-K. Liaw, Y.-W. Lee, H.-W. Huang, and W.-F. Wu, “Multi-wavelength linear-cavity SOA-based laser array for long-haul sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3353–3358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, D.

Jeon, M. Y.

Jeong, J. S.

Jian, S.

Kim, N.

Lee, C. W.

Lee, C.-C.

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “120-nm bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier module in parallel configuration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1637–1639 (2004).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “A tunable S-Band erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1503–1504 (2003).

Lee, Y.-W.

S.-K. Liaw, Y.-W. Lee, H.-W. Huang, and W.-F. Wu, “Multi-wavelength linear-cavity SOA-based laser array for long-haul sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3353–3358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leem, Y. A.

Li, H.

Liaw, S.-K.

S.-K. Liaw, Y.-W. Lee, H.-W. Huang, and W.-F. Wu, “Multi-wavelength linear-cavity SOA-based laser array for long-haul sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3353–3358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, M.-C.

Lin, Y. H.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

Liu, S.

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

Lu, C.

Lu, F.

Ng, J.

Nichsolson, J. W.

Nishihara, M.

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

Palsdottir, B.

Park, K. H.

Peng, P.-C.

P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peng, W.

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, W.-R.

P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Tan, S.

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tchouragoulov, S.

A. K. Atieh and S. Tchouragoulov, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse generation in the L-band using passive mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” in Proc. of CLEO (2000), pp. 261−262.
[Crossref]

Wu, W.-F.

S.-K. Liaw, Y.-W. Lee, H.-W. Huang, and W.-F. Wu, “Multi-wavelength linear-cavity SOA-based laser array for long-haul sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3353–3358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. F.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

Xie, S.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 187–189 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

Yang, X.

Yao, J.

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 187–189 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yee, D.-S.

Yeh, C. H.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Broadband wavelength-tunable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser using saturable-absorber filter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 158–163 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.-H.

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with power-equalized output,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12828–12831 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “120-nm bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier module in parallel configuration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1637–1639 (2004).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “A tunable S-Band erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1503–1504 (2003).

Yin, B.

Zhou, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M.-C. Amann, “Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28(18), 1694–1696 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, “Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser covering both C-band and L-band,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 41–43 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “A tunable S-Band erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1503–1504 (2003).

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 187–189 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Lee, and S. Chi, “120-nm bandwidth erbium-doped fiber amplifier module in parallel configuration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1637–1639 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

S.-K. Liaw, Y.-W. Lee, H.-W. Huang, and W.-F. Wu, “Multi-wavelength linear-cavity SOA-based laser array for long-haul sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3353–3358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (3)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. F. Wu, Y. H. Lin, B. C. Cheng, and J. H. Chen, “Using optimal cavity loss and saturable-absorber passive filter for stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser in single-longitudinal-mode operation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(9), 672–677 (2011).

T. Feng, F. Yan, S. Liu, Y. Bai, W. Peng, and S. Tan, “Switchable and tunable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with special subring-cavity and superimposed fiber Bragg gratings,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Broadband wavelength-tunable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser using saturable-absorber filter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 158–163 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P.-C. Peng, K.-M. Feng, W.-R. Peng, H.-Y. Chiou, C.-C. Chang, and S. Chi, “Long-distance fiber grating sensor system using a fiber ring laser with EDWA and SOA,” Opt. Commun. 252(1-3), 127–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

A. K. Atieh and S. Tchouragoulov, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse generation in the L-band using passive mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser,” in Proc. of CLEO (2000), pp. 261−262.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Proposed C- plus L-band wavelength-tunable EDF ring laser architecture. (b) Observed amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain profile of C-band EDFA.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured output wavelength spectra of proposed EDF MCR laser covering both C- and L-band.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured output power, OSNR and SMSR of proposed EDF MCR laser covering both C- and L-band ranges.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured stability performances of output power and wavelength in a 25 minutes observing time, respectively, when the lasing wavelengths are selected at (a) 1545.0 nm and (b) 1580.0 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Observed electrical spectra of proposed EDF ring laser with and without MCR structure in a frequency range of 3 GHz. Inset is the enlarged power spectrum measurement in an observing range of 10 MHz.

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