Abstract

A method for fast design of broadband terahertz diffusion metasurface is presented. The proposed metasurface is composed by three kinds of simply patterned elements with different resonant properties. To obtain the best broadband performance with the lowest backward reflections, a genetic algorithm is developed to manipulate the resonances for the fast determination of element geometries. An inverse discrete Fourier transform method is used to predict the scattering pattern of the metasurface with high accuracy and low time consumption, significantly enhancing the efficiency of the array-pattern design. The proposed fast design flow will benefit a broad range of terahertz applications, such as biological detection and imaging.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2016 (5)

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, X. Liu, and S. Li, “Jigsaw puzzle metasurface for multiple functions: polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion,” Opt. Express 24(10), 11208–11217 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Song, J. Ding, C. J. Guo, Y. H. Ren, and J. K. Zhang, “Ultra-broadband backscatter radar cross section reduction based on polarization-insensitive metasurface,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 329–331 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Wideband scattering diffusion by using diffraction of periodic surfaces and optimized unit cell geometries,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25458 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yan, L. Liang, J. Yang, W. Liu, X. Ding, D. Xu, Y. Zhang, T. Cui, and J. Yao, “Broadband, wide-angle, low-scattering terahertz wave by a flexible 2-bit coding metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29128–29137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Chen, C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Birtcher, “Checkerboard EBG surfaces for wideband radar cross section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(6), 2636–2645 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, Y. M. Li, M. N. Miskiewicz, C. Oh, M. W. Kudenov, and M. J. Escuti, “Fabrication of ideal geometric-phase holograms with arbitrary wavefronts,” Optica 2(11), 958–964 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Edalati and K. Sarabandi, “Wideband, wide angle, polarization independent RCS reduction using nonabsorptive miniaturized-element frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(2), 747–754 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, J. Chen, M. Q. Qi, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “A tunable metamaterial absorber using varactor diodes,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043049 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Millimeter-wave transmitarrays for wavefront and polarization control,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4407–4417 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Fu, Y. Q. Li, and N. C. Yuan, “Wideband Composite AMC surfaces for RCS Reduction,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53(4), 712–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 387–396 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. P. M. N. Keizer, “Fast low-sidelobe synthesis for large planar array antennas utilizing successive fast Fourier transforms of the array factor,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(3), 715–722 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Ohira, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, “Multiband single-layer frequency selective surface designed by combination of genetic algorithm and geometry-refinement technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(11), 2925–2931 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. K. Yan and Y. L. Lu, “Sidelobe reduction in array-pattern synthesis using genetic algorithm,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 45(7), 1117–1122 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. L. Haupt, “An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 37(2), 7–15 (1995).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balanis, C. A.

W. G. Chen, C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Birtcher, “Checkerboard EBG surfaces for wideband radar cross section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(6), 2636–2645 (2015).
[Crossref]

Birtcher, C. R.

W. G. Chen, C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Birtcher, “Checkerboard EBG surfaces for wideband radar cross section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(6), 2636–2645 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

Capasso, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 387–396 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, F.

H. T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 387–396 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. B.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, J. Chen, M. Q. Qi, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “A tunable metamaterial absorber using varactor diodes,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. Y.

Chen, W. G.

W. G. Chen, C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Birtcher, “Checkerboard EBG surfaces for wideband radar cross section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(6), 2636–2645 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, J. Chen, M. Q. Qi, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “A tunable metamaterial absorber using varactor diodes,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Costa, F.

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Wideband scattering diffusion by using diffraction of periodic surfaces and optimized unit cell geometries,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25458 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T.

Cui, T. J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, J. Chen, M. Q. Qi, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “A tunable metamaterial absorber using varactor diodes,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043049 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, S. Shuo Liu, and L. L. Lian, “Information entropy of coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

de Falcon, J. L. M.

J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
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J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
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M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deguchi, H.

M. Ohira, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, “Multiband single-layer frequency selective surface designed by combination of genetic algorithm and geometry-refinement technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(11), 2925–2931 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Y. C. Song, J. Ding, C. J. Guo, Y. H. Ren, and J. K. Zhang, “Ultra-broadband backscatter radar cross section reduction based on polarization-insensitive metasurface,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 329–331 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

Dong, D. S.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
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A. Edalati and K. Sarabandi, “Wideband, wide angle, polarization independent RCS reduction using nonabsorptive miniaturized-element frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(2), 747–754 (2014).
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J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
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M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
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Fang, Z.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
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Fu, X. J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Fu, Y. Q. Li, and N. C. Yuan, “Wideband Composite AMC surfaces for RCS Reduction,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53(4), 712–715 (2011).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Galarregui, J. C. I.

J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
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Gao, L. H.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, C. J.

Y. C. Song, J. Ding, C. J. Guo, Y. H. Ren, and J. K. Zhang, “Ultra-broadband backscatter radar cross section reduction based on polarization-insensitive metasurface,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 329–331 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, G. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
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R. L. Haupt, “An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 37(2), 7–15 (1995).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Holloway, C. L.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
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Iriarte, J. C.

M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
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Jiang, W. X.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, J. Chen, M. Q. Qi, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “A tunable metamaterial absorber using varactor diodes,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043049 (2013).
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Jin, B. B.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Juan, T. K.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Kats, M. A.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Keizer, W. P. M. N.

W. P. M. N. Keizer, “Fast low-sidelobe synthesis for large planar array antennas utilizing successive fast Fourier transforms of the array factor,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(3), 715–722 (2007).
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Kudenov, M. W.

Kuester, E. F.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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Kung, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Li, Y. F.

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
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Li, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Fu, Y. Q. Li, and N. C. Yuan, “Wideband Composite AMC surfaces for RCS Reduction,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53(4), 712–715 (2011).
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Lian, L. L.

T. J. Cui, S. Shuo Liu, and L. L. Lian, “Information entropy of coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

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Liang, L. J.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Liu, S.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Liu, W. W.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Wideband scattering diffusion by using diffraction of periodic surfaces and optimized unit cell geometries,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25458 (2016).
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Monorchio, A.

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Wideband scattering diffusion by using diffraction of periodic surfaces and optimized unit cell geometries,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25458 (2016).
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O’Hara, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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M. Ohira, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, “Multiband single-layer frequency selective surface designed by combination of genetic algorithm and geometry-refinement technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(11), 2925–2931 (2004).
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M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
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Pereda, A. T.

J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Millimeter-wave transmitarrays for wavefront and polarization control,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4407–4417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qi, M. Q.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, J. Chen, M. Q. Qi, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “A tunable metamaterial absorber using varactor diodes,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qing Qi, M.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, S. B.

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y. H.

Y. C. Song, J. Ding, C. J. Guo, Y. H. Ren, and J. K. Zhang, “Ultra-broadband backscatter radar cross section reduction based on polarization-insensitive metasurface,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 329–331 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sarabandi, K.

A. Edalati and K. Sarabandi, “Wideband, wide angle, polarization independent RCS reduction using nonabsorptive miniaturized-element frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(2), 747–754 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

H. Chen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Transformation optics and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 387–396 (2010).
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M. Ohira, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, “Multiband single-layer frequency selective surface designed by combination of genetic algorithm and geometry-refinement technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(11), 2925–2931 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shuo Liu, S.

T. J. Cui, S. Shuo Liu, and L. L. Lian, “Information entropy of coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Simms, S.

S. Simms and V. Fusco, “Chessboard reflector for RCS reduction,” Electron. Lett. 44(4), 316–318 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. C.

Y. C. Song, J. Ding, C. J. Guo, Y. H. Ren, and J. K. Zhang, “Ultra-broadband backscatter radar cross section reduction based on polarization-insensitive metasurface,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 329–331 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. H.

Tsuji, M.

M. Ohira, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, “Multiband single-layer frequency selective surface designed by combination of genetic algorithm and geometry-refinement technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(11), 2925–2931 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wan, X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. M.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, J. F.

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wang, Q.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. K.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
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Wen, Q. Y.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. H.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

Xu, Q.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, K. K.

K. K. Yan and Y. L. Lu, “Sidelobe reduction in array-pattern synthesis using genetic algorithm,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 45(7), 1117–1122 (1997).
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Yan, X.

Yang, J.

X. Yan, L. Liang, J. Yang, W. Liu, X. Ding, D. Xu, Y. Zhang, T. Cui, and J. Yao, “Broadband, wide-angle, low-scattering terahertz wave by a flexible 2-bit coding metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29128–29137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Yao, J. Q.

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, M. J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, N. C.

Y. Q. Fu, Y. Q. Li, and N. C. Yuan, “Wideband Composite AMC surfaces for RCS Reduction,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53(4), 712–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A. X.

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. K.

Y. C. Song, J. Ding, C. J. Guo, Y. H. Ren, and J. K. Zhang, “Ultra-broadband backscatter radar cross section reduction based on polarization-insensitive metasurface,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 329–331 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Q.

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. L.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yan, L. Liang, J. Yang, W. Liu, X. Ding, D. Xu, Y. Zhang, T. Cui, and J. Yao, “Broadband, wide-angle, low-scattering terahertz wave by a flexible 2-bit coding metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29128–29137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, J. Chen, M. Q. Qi, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “A tunable metamaterial absorber using varactor diodes,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, J.

H. T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X. Y.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv Sci (Weinh) (1)

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, Q. Wang, X. Wan, J. Q. Gu, W. X. Tang, M. Qing Qi, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Convolution operations on coding metasurface to reach flexible and continuous controls of terahertz beams,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(10), 1600156 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low-reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the bandwidth of terahertz low-scattering metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. F. Li, J. Q. Zhang, S. B. Qu, J. F. Wang, H. Y. Chen, Z. Xu, and A. X. Zhang, “Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Simms and V. Fusco, “Chessboard reflector for RCS reduction,” Electron. Lett. 44(4), 316–318 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (3)

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. K. Yan and Y. L. Lu, “Sidelobe reduction in array-pattern synthesis using genetic algorithm,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 45(7), 1117–1122 (1997).
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R. L. Haupt, “An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 37(2), 7–15 (1995).
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IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

Y. C. Song, J. Ding, C. J. Guo, Y. H. Ren, and J. K. Zhang, “Ultra-broadband backscatter radar cross section reduction based on polarization-insensitive metasurface,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 329–331 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (6)

M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
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J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. de Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
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W. G. Chen, C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Birtcher, “Checkerboard EBG surfaces for wideband radar cross section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(6), 2636–2645 (2015).
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W. P. M. N. Keizer, “Fast low-sidelobe synthesis for large planar array antennas utilizing successive fast Fourier transforms of the array factor,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(3), 715–722 (2007).
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A. Edalati and K. Sarabandi, “Wideband, wide angle, polarization independent RCS reduction using nonabsorptive miniaturized-element frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(2), 747–754 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ohira, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, “Multiband single-layer frequency selective surface designed by combination of genetic algorithm and geometry-refinement technique,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 52(11), 2925–2931 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Millimeter-wave transmitarrays for wavefront and polarization control,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4407–4417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Q. Fu, Y. Q. Li, and N. C. Yuan, “Wideband Composite AMC surfaces for RCS Reduction,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53(4), 712–715 (2011).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the cross patch element and the bare element. (b) The corresponding reflection amplitude (left) and phase (right) for the cross patch element (dashed line) and the bare element (solid line). I, II, and III represent the magnetic resonance, the electric resonance, and the Fabry-Perot resonance respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The relationship between the reflection amplitude and the geometric parameter (a) W and (b) L for the cross patch element. The squares and stars represent the magnetic resonance and the electric resonance respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Design-flow for the element optimization based on GA.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The progression of (a) the best fitness value and (b) the time consumption during the optimization procedure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Reflection amplitude and (b) phase spectra for elements E1-E3.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated normalized reflectivity for the metasurface and the lossless metasurface in the spectrum range from 0.6 THz to 2.2 THz under normal incidence.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of the optimized array pattern. Scattering patterns of (b) the metasurface and (c) the PEC plate of the same dimension, based on full-wave simulation, superposition, and IDFT method. (d) Full-wave simulated results (red solid lines) and IDFT results (blue dashed lines) of the electric-field scattering patterns in the E-plane for the designed metasurface and PEC plate.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Photograph of the fabricated metasurface sample. (b) The measured specular reflection spectra of the metasurface from 0.6 to 2.2 THz at incident angles of 0°, 20°, and 40°.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Structural parameters of the basic elements E1-E3.

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Table 2 Experimental results of this paper and previous works.

Equations (14)

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r b a r e e l e m e n t = r 12 t 12 t 21 exp ( 2 j k d ) 1 + r 21 exp ( 2 j k d ) = ( 1 ε p o l y ) ( 1 + ε p o l y ) exp ( 2 j k d ) ( 1 + ε p o l y ) ( 1 ε p o l y ) exp ( 2 j k d ) .
M R F 1 < M R F 2 < F P R F 3 < E R F 1 < E R F 2 .
5 μ m W 1 W 2 L 2 5 μ m L 1 P 5 μ m , ( 50 μ m P 100 μ m ) .
R b a c k w a r d = | i a i r i | 2 , ( i = 1 , 2 , 3 ) .
f i t n e s s = 100 × 0.8 2.1 ( d B R g 1 ) g 2 d f ( dB THz ) .
d B R = dB ( R b a c k w a r d ) .
g 1 ( f ) = { 10 dB, 0 .8 THz f < 1 .0 THz 12.5 dB, 1 .0 THz f < 1 .4 THz 11 dB, 1 .5 THz f < 2 .0 THz 10 dB, 2 .0 THz f 2 .1 THz .
g 2 ( f ) = { 1 , d B R > g 1 0 , d B R g 1 .
E t o t a l = m n E m , n exp [ j k 0 ( m d x sin θ cos φ + n d y sin θ sin φ ) ] .
E 2 = a 2 e x p ( j φ 2 ) E 1 , E 3 = a 3 e x p ( j φ 3 ) E 1 .
E t o t a l = E 1 m n I m , n exp [ j k 0 ( m d x sin θ cos φ + n d y sin θ sin φ ) ] = E 1 A F .
u = sin θ cos φ , v = sin θ sin φ .
p = M d x k 0 u 2 π , q = N d y k 0 v 2 π .
A F = m n I m , n exp ( j 2 m p π M ) exp ( j 2 n q π N ) = M N IDFT 2 ( I m , n ) .

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