Abstract

High-speed underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) was achieved using an 80 μm blue-emitting GaN-based micro-LED. The micro-LED has a peak emission wavelength of ~440 nm and an underwater power attenuation of 1 dB/m in tap water. The −3 dB electrical-to-optical modulation bandwidth of the packaged micro-LED increases with increasing current and saturates at ~160 MHz. At an underwater distance of 0.6 m, 800 Mb/s data rate was achieved with a bit error rate (BER) of 1.3 × 10−3, below the forward error correction (FEC) criteria. And we obtained 100 Mb/s data communication speed with a received light output power of −40 dBm and a BER of 1.9 × 10−3, suggesting that UOWC with extended distance can be achieved. Through reflecting the light emission beam by mirrors within a water tank, we experimentally demonstrated a 200 Mb/s data rate with a BER of 3.0 × 10−6 at an underwater distance of 5.4 m.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2016 (7)

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Underwater optical wireless communication,” IEEE Access 4, 1518–1547 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K.-H. Park, K.-T. Ho, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

2014 (4)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Hahn, B. Galler, and K. Engl, “Development of high-efficiency and high-power vertical light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100208 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. Zabelin, D. A. Zakheim, and S. A. Gurevich, “Efficiency improvement of AlGaInN LEDs advanced by ray-tracing analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1675–1686 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M. S.

Alouini, M.-S.

Althumali, A.

P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baghdady, J.

Byrd, M.

Chen, Y.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y. C.

Chitre, M.

M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, P.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cochenour, B. M.

Cogman, A.

Corsini, R.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cossu, G.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deng, N.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detweiler, C.

M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doniec, M.

M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duran, J. R.

Engl, K.

B. Hahn, B. Galler, and K. Engl, “Development of high-efficiency and high-power vertical light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R.

Ferreira, R. X. G.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Galler, B.

B. Hahn, B. Galler, and K. Engl, “Development of high-efficiency and high-power vertical light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

Gu, E.

P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
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W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
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P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
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J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
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P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
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Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
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P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
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Hoffmann-Kuhnt, M.

M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
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W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
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A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
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P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
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R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
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S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
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Kong, M. W.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
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Laurand, N.

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Li, W.

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Lin, A. B.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
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Liu, G.

Liu, R.

P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
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McKendry, J.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
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R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
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Morgan, K.

Nakamura, K.

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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

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R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Ragusa, R.

Rajbhandari, S.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Song, Y.

Song, Y. H.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

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P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Trindade, A. J.

Tsai, C. T.

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wallis, D. J.

Wang, C.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Watson, I. M.

P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, E.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, E. Y.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Yu, X. Y.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zabelin, V.

V. Zabelin, D. A. Zakheim, and S. A. Gurevich, “Efficiency improvement of AlGaInN LEDs advanced by ray-tracing analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1675–1686 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zakheim, D. A.

V. Zabelin, D. A. Zakheim, and S. A. Gurevich, “Efficiency improvement of AlGaInN LEDs advanced by ray-tracing analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1675–1686 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(8), 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

H. Kaushal and G. Kaddoum, “Underwater optical wireless communication,” IEEE Access 4, 1518–1547 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Zabelin, D. A. Zakheim, and S. A. Gurevich, “Efficiency improvement of AlGaInN LEDs advanced by ray-tracing analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1675–1686 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(3), 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, Q. Ji, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, L. Feng, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Hahn, B. Galler, and K. Engl, “Development of high-efficiency and high-power vertical light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mar. Technol. Soc. J. (1)

M. Doniec, C. Detweiler, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “Aquaoptical: a light weight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

K. Nakamura, I. Mizukoshi, and M. Hanawa, “Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1558–1566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K.-H. Park, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K.-H. Park, K.-T. Ho, M.-S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Tian, A. Althumali, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm− 2,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(4), 045005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

ITU-T, “G.975.1, Forward error correction for high bit-rate DWDM submarine systems” (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic setup of UOWC (n represents the reflection times of the light beam); images of (b) the packaged micro-LED, (c) the communication link and (d) the PIN receiver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The I-V and P-I characteristics; (b) the EL spectra of the micro-LED under different injection currents.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Frequency response of the micro-LED at injection currents from 1 mA to 88 mA, and (b) the extracted −3dB modulation bandwidth versus current characteristics.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The BER at different driving currents; (b) the BER at different received light output powers (driving current: 61 mA) with a PIN or APD (inset figure) as the receiver.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Eye diagrams at data rates of (a) 400 Mb/s and (b)700 Mb/s using a PIN photodetector with received light output power of 1.1 mW. Eye diagrams with received light output powers of (c) ~80 μW and (d) ~0.1 μW at 100 Mb/s using a high-sensitivity APD. The UOWC distance is 0.6 m, and the received light output power was adjusted by a neutral density filter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental demonstration of UOWC using a micro-LED at distances of 0.6 m, 3.0 m, and 5.4 m.

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