Abstract

In this work, novel hybrid Fresnel lenses for infrared (IR) optical applications were designed and fabricated. The Fresnel structures were replicated from an ultraprecision diamond-turned aluminum mold to an extremely thin layer (tens of microns) of high-density polyethylene polymer, which was directly bonded onto a flat single-crystal silicon wafer by press molding without using adhesives. Night mode imaging results showed that the fabricated lenses were able to visualize objects in dark fields with acceptable image quality. The capability of the lenses for thermography imaging was also demonstrated. This research provides a cost-effective method for fabricating ultrathin IR optical components.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. A. Kulakova, A. R. Nasyrov, and I. M. Nesmelova, “Current trends in creating optical systems for the IR region,” J. Opt. Technol. 77(5), 324–330 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Grulois, G. Druart, H. Sauer, M. Chambon, N. Guérineau, S. Magli, G. Lasfargues, and P. Chavel, “Reduction of material mass of optical component in cryogenic camera by using high-order Fresnel lens on a thin germanium substrate,” Appl. Opt. 54(20), 6313–6320 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Grulois, G. Druart, N. Guérineau, A. Crastes, H. Sauer, and P. Chavel, “Extra-thin infrared camera for low-cost surveillance applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3169–3172 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Yan, K. Maekawa, J. Tamaki, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), 1925–1931 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Yan, K. Syoji, and J. Tamaki, “Some observations on the wear of diamond tools in ultra-precision cutting of single-crystal silicon,” Wear 255(7-12), 1380–1387 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. N. Claytor, N. E. Claytor, W. M. Drive, and F. Worth, “Low-cost polymer infrared imaging lens,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 855–866 (2003).
  8. D. Vicker and R. LeBlanc, “Midwave infrared imager with plastic laminated diffractive / aspheric surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 4369, 642–648 (2001).
  9. D. Vicker, “Molded and laminated infrared imager Laminated Kino / Asphere,” SPIE 5074, 814–817 (2003).
  10. A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Press molding of a Si–HDPE hybrid lens substrate and evaluation of its infrared optical properties,” Precis. Eng. 43, 429–438 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).
  12. L. Peng, Y. Deng, P. Yi, and X. Lai, “Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 013001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Yan, T. Zhou, N. Yoshihara, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Shape transferability and microscopic deformation of molding dies in aspherical glass lens molding press,” J. Manuf. Technol. Res. 1, 85–102 (2009).
  14. T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.
  16. J. W. Horwitz, “Infrared refractive index of polyethylene and a polyethylene-based material,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 93603 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Improvement of form accuracy and surface integrity of Si-HDPE hybrid micro-lens arrays in press molding,” Precis. Eng. 47, 469–479 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. He, J.-Z. Fu, and Z.-C. Chen, “Optimization of control parameters in micro hot embossing,” Microsyst. Technol. 14(3), 325–329 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Liu, J. M. Li, J. S. Liu, and L. D. Wang, “Deformation behavior of solid polymer during hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(2), 200–207 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. X. Zhu, T. W. Simon, and T. Cui, “Hot embossing at viscous state to enhance filling process for complex polymer structures,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(3), 257–265 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

2017 (1)

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Improvement of form accuracy and surface integrity of Si-HDPE hybrid micro-lens arrays in press molding,” Precis. Eng. 47, 469–479 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Press molding of a Si–HDPE hybrid lens substrate and evaluation of its infrared optical properties,” Precis. Eng. 43, 429–438 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

T. Grulois, G. Druart, N. Guérineau, A. Crastes, H. Sauer, and P. Chavel, “Extra-thin infrared camera for low-cost surveillance applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3169–3172 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Peng, Y. Deng, P. Yi, and X. Lai, “Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 013001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Horwitz, “Infrared refractive index of polyethylene and a polyethylene-based material,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 93603 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, T. W. Simon, and T. Cui, “Hot embossing at viscous state to enhance filling process for complex polymer structures,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(3), 257–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Liu, J. M. Li, J. S. Liu, and L. D. Wang, “Deformation behavior of solid polymer during hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(2), 200–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

N. A. Kulakova, A. R. Nasyrov, and I. M. Nesmelova, “Current trends in creating optical systems for the IR region,” J. Opt. Technol. 77(5), 324–330 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Yan, T. Zhou, N. Yoshihara, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Shape transferability and microscopic deformation of molding dies in aspherical glass lens molding press,” J. Manuf. Technol. Res. 1, 85–102 (2009).

2007 (1)

Y. He, J.-Z. Fu, and Z.-C. Chen, “Optimization of control parameters in micro hot embossing,” Microsyst. Technol. 14(3), 325–329 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Yan, K. Maekawa, J. Tamaki, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), 1925–1931 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

J. Yan, K. Syoji, and J. Tamaki, “Some observations on the wear of diamond tools in ultra-precision cutting of single-crystal silicon,” Wear 255(7-12), 1380–1387 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. N. Claytor, N. E. Claytor, W. M. Drive, and F. Worth, “Low-cost polymer infrared imaging lens,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 855–866 (2003).

D. Vicker, “Molded and laminated infrared imager Laminated Kino / Asphere,” SPIE 5074, 814–817 (2003).

2001 (2)

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Vicker and R. LeBlanc, “Midwave infrared imager with plastic laminated diffractive / aspheric surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 4369, 642–648 (2001).

Abdul Manaf, A. R.

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Improvement of form accuracy and surface integrity of Si-HDPE hybrid micro-lens arrays in press molding,” Precis. Eng. 47, 469–479 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Press molding of a Si–HDPE hybrid lens substrate and evaluation of its infrared optical properties,” Precis. Eng. 43, 429–438 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bibikov, S.

A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.

Bosmans, R.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

Chambon, M.

Chavel, P.

Chen, Z.-C.

Y. He, J.-Z. Fu, and Z.-C. Chen, “Optimization of control parameters in micro hot embossing,” Microsyst. Technol. 14(3), 325–329 (2007).
[Crossref]

Claytor, N. E.

R. N. Claytor, N. E. Claytor, W. M. Drive, and F. Worth, “Low-cost polymer infrared imaging lens,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 855–866 (2003).

Claytor, R. N.

R. N. Claytor, N. E. Claytor, W. M. Drive, and F. Worth, “Low-cost polymer infrared imaging lens,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 855–866 (2003).

Crastes, A.

Cui, T.

X. Zhu, T. W. Simon, and T. Cui, “Hot embossing at viscous state to enhance filling process for complex polymer structures,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(3), 257–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dambon, O.

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

L. Peng, Y. Deng, P. Yi, and X. Lai, “Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 013001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dinglreiter, H.

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

Drive, W. M.

R. N. Claytor, N. E. Claytor, W. M. Drive, and F. Worth, “Low-cost polymer infrared imaging lens,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 855–866 (2003).

Druart, G.

Fu, J.-Z.

Y. He, J.-Z. Fu, and Z.-C. Chen, “Optimization of control parameters in micro hot embossing,” Microsyst. Technol. 14(3), 325–329 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

Fursov, V.

A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.

Georgiadis, K.

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goulet, A.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

Grulois, T.

Guérineau, N.

Hattori, K.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

He, P.

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. He, J.-Z. Fu, and Z.-C. Chen, “Optimization of control parameters in micro hot embossing,” Microsyst. Technol. 14(3), 325–329 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heilig, M.

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

Horwitz, J. W.

J. W. Horwitz, “Infrared refractive index of polyethylene and a polyethylene-based material,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 93603 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klocke, F.

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kolew, A.

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

Komanduri, R.

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

Konno, K.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

Kulakova, N. A.

Kuriagawa, T.

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuriyagawa, T.

T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, T. Zhou, N. Yoshihara, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Shape transferability and microscopic deformation of molding dies in aspherical glass lens molding press,” J. Manuf. Technol. Res. 1, 85–102 (2009).

J. Yan, K. Maekawa, J. Tamaki, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), 1925–1931 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lai, X.

L. Peng, Y. Deng, P. Yi, and X. Lai, “Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 013001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lasfargues, G.

LeBlanc, R.

D. Vicker and R. LeBlanc, “Midwave infrared imager with plastic laminated diffractive / aspheric surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 4369, 642–648 (2001).

Li, J. M.

C. Liu, J. M. Li, J. S. Liu, and L. D. Wang, “Deformation behavior of solid polymer during hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(2), 200–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, J. M. Li, J. S. Liu, and L. D. Wang, “Deformation behavior of solid polymer during hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(2), 200–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. S.

C. Liu, J. M. Li, J. S. Liu, and L. D. Wang, “Deformation behavior of solid polymer during hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(2), 200–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maekawa, K.

J. Yan, K. Maekawa, J. Tamaki, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), 1925–1931 (2005).
[Crossref]

Magli, S.

Masuda, J.

T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mohr, J.

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

Nasyrov, A. R.

Nesmelova, I. M.

Nikonorov, A.

A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.

Oowada, T.

T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peng, L.

L. Peng, Y. Deng, P. Yi, and X. Lai, “Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 013001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Petrov, M.

A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.

Sauer, H.

Sawada, M.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

Schneider, M.

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

Shirakashi, T.

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

Simon, T. W.

X. Zhu, T. W. Simon, and T. Cui, “Hot embossing at viscous state to enhance filling process for complex polymer structures,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(3), 257–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Skidanov, R.

A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.

Syoji, K.

J. Yan, K. Syoji, and J. Tamaki, “Some observations on the wear of diamond tools in ultra-precision cutting of single-crystal silicon,” Wear 255(7-12), 1380–1387 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, J.

J. Yan, K. Maekawa, J. Tamaki, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), 1925–1931 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, K. Syoji, and J. Tamaki, “Some observations on the wear of diamond tools in ultra-precision cutting of single-crystal silicon,” Wear 255(7-12), 1380–1387 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, A.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

Vicker, D.

D. Vicker, “Molded and laminated infrared imager Laminated Kino / Asphere,” SPIE 5074, 814–817 (2003).

D. Vicker and R. LeBlanc, “Midwave infrared imager with plastic laminated diffractive / aspheric surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 4369, 642–648 (2001).

Wang, F.

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. D.

C. Liu, J. M. Li, J. S. Liu, and L. D. Wang, “Deformation behavior of solid polymer during hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(2), 200–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Worgull, M.

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

Worth, F.

R. N. Claytor, N. E. Claytor, W. M. Drive, and F. Worth, “Low-cost polymer infrared imaging lens,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 855–866 (2003).

Yan, J.

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Improvement of form accuracy and surface integrity of Si-HDPE hybrid micro-lens arrays in press molding,” Precis. Eng. 47, 469–479 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Press molding of a Si–HDPE hybrid lens substrate and evaluation of its infrared optical properties,” Precis. Eng. 43, 429–438 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, T. Zhou, N. Yoshihara, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Shape transferability and microscopic deformation of molding dies in aspherical glass lens molding press,” J. Manuf. Technol. Res. 1, 85–102 (2009).

J. Yan, K. Maekawa, J. Tamaki, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), 1925–1931 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, K. Syoji, and J. Tamaki, “Some observations on the wear of diamond tools in ultra-precision cutting of single-crystal silicon,” Wear 255(7-12), 1380–1387 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yazawa, H.

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

Yi, A. Y.

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yi, P.

L. Peng, Y. Deng, P. Yi, and X. Lai, “Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 013001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoshihara, N.

J. Yan, T. Zhou, N. Yoshihara, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Shape transferability and microscopic deformation of molding dies in aspherical glass lens molding press,” J. Manuf. Technol. Res. 1, 85–102 (2009).

Yoshino, M.

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yuzifovich, Y.

A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.

Zhou, T.

T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, T. Zhou, N. Yoshihara, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Shape transferability and microscopic deformation of molding dies in aspherical glass lens molding press,” J. Manuf. Technol. Res. 1, 85–102 (2009).

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, T. W. Simon, and T. Cui, “Hot embossing at viscous state to enhance filling process for complex polymer structures,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(3), 257–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (1)

T. Fujii, A. Goulet, K. Hattori, K. Konno, A. Tanaka, R. Bosmans, M. Sawada, and H. Yazawa, “Fresnel lens sidewall design for imaging optics,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 10, 15017 (2015).

J. Manuf. Technol. Res. (1)

J. Yan, T. Zhou, N. Yoshihara, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Shape transferability and microscopic deformation of molding dies in aspherical glass lens molding press,” J. Manuf. Technol. Res. 1, 85–102 (2009).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

L. Peng, Y. Deng, P. Yi, and X. Lai, “Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers: a review,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 013001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, K. Maekawa, J. Tamaki, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(10), 1925–1931 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

L. Li, P. He, F. Wang, K. Georgiadis, O. Dambon, F. Klocke, and A. Y. Yi, “A hybrid polymer–glass achromatic microlens array fabricated by compression molding,” J. Opt. 13(5), 55407 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

J. Yan, M. Yoshino, T. Kuriagawa, T. Shirakashi, K. Syoji, and R. Komanduri, “On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 297(1-2), 230–234 (2001).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

C. Liu, J. M. Li, J. S. Liu, and L. D. Wang, “Deformation behavior of solid polymer during hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(2), 200–207 (2010).
[Crossref]

Microsyst. Technol. (2)

X. Zhu, T. W. Simon, and T. Cui, “Hot embossing at viscous state to enhance filling process for complex polymer structures,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(3), 257–265 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. He, J.-Z. Fu, and Z.-C. Chen, “Optimization of control parameters in micro hot embossing,” Microsyst. Technol. 14(3), 325–329 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. W. Horwitz, “Infrared refractive index of polyethylene and a polyethylene-based material,” Opt. Eng. 50(9), 93603 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Precis. Eng. (3)

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Improvement of form accuracy and surface integrity of Si-HDPE hybrid micro-lens arrays in press molding,” Precis. Eng. 47, 469–479 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Zhou, J. Yan, J. Masuda, T. Oowada, and T. Kuriyagawa, “Investigation on shape transferability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves,” Precis. Eng. 35(2), 214–220 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. R. Abdul Manaf and J. Yan, “Press molding of a Si–HDPE hybrid lens substrate and evaluation of its infrared optical properties,” Precis. Eng. 43, 429–438 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. N. Claytor, N. E. Claytor, W. M. Drive, and F. Worth, “Low-cost polymer infrared imaging lens,” Proc. SPIE 5074, 855–866 (2003).

D. Vicker and R. LeBlanc, “Midwave infrared imager with plastic laminated diffractive / aspheric surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 4369, 642–648 (2001).

SPIE (2)

D. Vicker, “Molded and laminated infrared imager Laminated Kino / Asphere,” SPIE 5074, 814–817 (2003).

M. Worgull, M. Schneider, M. Heilig, A. Kolew, H. Dinglreiter, and J. Mohr, “Replication of optical components by hot embossing,” SPIE 7716, 771604 (2010).

Wear (1)

J. Yan, K. Syoji, and J. Tamaki, “Some observations on the wear of diamond tools in ultra-precision cutting of single-crystal silicon,” Wear 255(7-12), 1380–1387 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Nikonorov, R. Skidanov, V. Fursov, M. Petrov, S. Bibikov, and Y. Yuzifovich, “Fresnel lens imaging with post-capture image processing,” in IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Work. (2015), pp. 33–41.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Refractive index of HDPE for different IR wavelengths.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of (a) Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel lens design and (b) Fresnel structure surface geometry.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of a double Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel lens system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Zemax lens design data: (a) ray trace of lens system, (b) spot diagram at lens focal point, (c) transverse ray fan plot, (d) original picture of 288 × 384 pixels, and (e) simulated Zemax image of picture (d) of the designed lens.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Photograph of an aluminum mold insert with a spherical Fresnel structure, (b)-(d) microscope images of the spherical Fresnel structure, (e) mold insert cross section of a spherical Fresnel structure obtained by UV curing, (f) photograph of an aluminum mold insert with an aspherical Fresnel structure, (g)-(i) microscope images of an aspherical Fresnel structure, and (j) mold insert cross section of an aspherical Fresnel structure obtained by UV curing.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Press molding process of a Si-HDPE hybrid lens: (a)-(c) hybrid substrate press molding, and (d)-(f) press molding of the Fresnel structure.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Camera setup for night imaging performance evaluation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Zone depth change of the Fresnel structure for different temperatures under the pressing force of 0.2 kN.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Microscope images of formed Fresnel lens under different pressing forces at a temperature of 130 °C.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Zone height of the Fresnel under different pressing forces at a temperature of 130 °C.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Microscope images of formed Fresnel lens under different pressing forces at a temperature of 131 °C.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Zone height of the Fresnel under different pressing forces at a temperature of 131 °C.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) Cross-sectional profile of lens geometry, (b) a press molded Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel lens and a Japanese coin.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a) Cross-sectional SEM images of a Si-HDPE Fresnel lens; (b) magnified view of rectangle (i) showing the interface.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Comparison of geometric MTF calculated by Zemax and measured results for different field angles: (a) θ = 0°, (b) θ = 5°, (c) θ = 10°, and (d) θ = 15°.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 (a) Zemax-simulated and measured image distortion, (b) focal length measurement results at a wavelength of 10 μm.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Visible light and night vision images at different distances; (a)-(b) 400 mm and (c)-(d) 2 m, and rectangle (i) showing image aberration.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Schematic diagram of stray light formation from the lens system.
Fig. 19
Fig. 19 (a) Schematic diagram of combining a Si-HDPE hybrid lens and germanium lens, (b) night vision images captured by combining a Si-HDPE hybrid lens and a germanium lens at different distances; (b) 400 mm and (c) 2 m, and rectangle (i) showing image aberration.
Fig. 20
Fig. 20 Image sharpness evaluation between double Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel and a combination of a spherical Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel (Lens 1) + Ge.
Fig. 21
Fig. 21 Thermography images of different lens systems: (a) standard germanium lens and (b) uncalibrated double Si-HDPE hybrid Fresnel.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Double Si-HDPE hybrid lens design parameters.

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Table 2 Design results of lens unit.

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Table 3 MTF measurement parameters.

Equations (6)

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n= n 0 + a λ+b /( λ 3.5 )
1 f =( n lens 1)( 1 r )
f T =( f 1 . f 2 f 1 + f 2 d )
Z(s)= C s 2 1+ 1(1+k) C 2 s 2 + A 4 s 4 + A 6 s 6 + A 8 s 8
x j = j.h( 2 c j.h )
F= f D

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