Abstract

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is one of the main limits for fiber lasers further power scaling. We report on the suppression of the stimulated Raman scattering in fiber laser amplifier using chirped and tilted fiber Bragg gratings (CTFBGs) for the first time. In this paper, we design and fabricate a CTFBG used to suppress the SRS in 1090 nm fiber laser output, and establish a system to test the effect of suppression. A maximum suppression ratio nearly 25 dB is achieved. Experimental results demonstrate that CTFBGs can increase the Raman threshold and promote the slope efficiency of the whole system, which is significant for further power scaling in high power oscillators and amplifiers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, and J. Albert, “The sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thickness,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3117–3122 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. Wang, C. Xu, and H. Po, “Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 242(4), 487–502 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Baek, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Characteristics of short-period blazed fiber Bragg gratings for use as macro-bending sensors,” Appl. Opt. 41(4), 631–636 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. W. Haggans, H. Singh, W. F. Varner, Y. Li, and M. Zippin, “Narrow-band rejection filters with negligible back reflection using tilted photoinduced gratings in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(5), 690–692 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, “Wideband gain flattened erbium fibre amplifier using a photosensitive fibre blazed grating,” Electron. Lett. 29(2), 154–156 (1993).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fuji, D. C. Johnson, and B. C. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(10), 647–649 (1978).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

F. Liu, T. Guo, C. Wu, B. O. Guan, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, and J. Albert, “Wideband-adjustable reflection-suppressed rejection filters using chirped and tilted fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24430–24438 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, and J. Albert, “The sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thickness,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3117–3122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Andrejco, M. J.

Baek, S.

Bennion, I.

Bise, R. T.

Campbell, R. J.

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, “Wideband gain flattened erbium fibre amplifier using a photosensitive fibre blazed grating,” Electron. Lett. 29(2), 154–156 (1993).
[Crossref]

Caucheteur, C.

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, and J. Albert, “The sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thickness,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3117–3122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, and J. Albert, “The sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thickness,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3117–3122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Clarkson, W. A.

Codemard, C.

Dai, X.

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

De Barros, C.

Ding, H.

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

Douay, M.

Dupriez, P.

Erdogan, T.

Fini, J. M.

Fuji, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fuji, D. C. Johnson, and B. C. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(10), 647–649 (1978).
[Crossref]

Guan, B. O.

Guo, T.

Haggans, C. W.

C. W. Haggans, H. Singh, W. F. Varner, Y. Li, and M. Zippin, “Narrow-band rejection filters with negligible back reflection using tilted photoinduced gratings in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(5), 690–692 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hidayat, A.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fuji, D. C. Johnson, and B. C. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(10), 647–649 (1978).
[Crossref]

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jeong, Y.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fuji, D. C. Johnson, and B. C. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(10), 647–649 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, “Wideband gain flattened erbium fibre amplifier using a photosensitive fibre blazed grating,” Electron. Lett. 29(2), 154–156 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, B. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fuji, D. C. Johnson, and B. C. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(10), 647–649 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kerrinckx, E.

Kim, J.

Lee, B.

Li, Y.

C. W. Haggans, H. Singh, W. F. Varner, Y. Li, and M. Zippin, “Narrow-band rejection filters with negligible back reflection using tilted photoinduced gratings in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(5), 690–692 (1998).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Liu, F.

Lu, C.

Lu, P.

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mégret, P.

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, and J. Albert, “The sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thickness,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3117–3122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mermelstein, M. D.

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

Niay, P.

Nilsson, J.

Nodop, D.

Po, H.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, and H. Po, “Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 242(4), 487–502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quiquempois, Y.

Ramachandran, S.

J. Nilsson, S. Ramachandran, T. Shay, and A. Shirakawa, “High-power fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 1–2 (2009).
[Crossref]

Riant, I.

Richardson, D. J.

Sahu, J. K.

Shay, T.

J. Nilsson, S. Ramachandran, T. Shay, and A. Shirakawa, “High-power fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 1–2 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shirakawa, A.

J. Nilsson, S. Ramachandran, T. Shay, and A. Shirakawa, “High-power fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 1–2 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simpson, G.

Singh, H.

C. W. Haggans, H. Singh, W. F. Varner, Y. Li, and M. Zippin, “Narrow-band rejection filters with negligible back reflection using tilted photoinduced gratings in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(5), 690–692 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smelser, C.

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

Tünnermann, A.

Varner, W. F.

C. W. Haggans, H. Singh, W. F. Varner, Y. Li, and M. Zippin, “Narrow-band rejection filters with negligible back reflection using tilted photoinduced gratings in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(5), 690–692 (1998).
[Crossref]

Walker, R. B.

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, and H. Po, “Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 242(4), 487–502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wisk, P. W.

Wu, C.

Wyatt, R.

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, “Wideband gain flattened erbium fibre amplifier using a photosensitive fibre blazed grating,” Electron. Lett. 29(2), 154–156 (1993).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, and H. Po, “Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 242(4), 487–502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, M. F.

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Zippin, M.

C. W. Haggans, H. Singh, W. F. Varner, Y. Li, and M. Zippin, “Narrow-band rejection filters with negligible back reflection using tilted photoinduced gratings in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(5), 690–692 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fuji, D. C. Johnson, and B. C. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(10), 647–649 (1978).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, “Wideband gain flattened erbium fibre amplifier using a photosensitive fibre blazed grating,” Electron. Lett. 29(2), 154–156 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, X. Dai, R. B. Walker, C. Smelser, P. Lu, and L. Chen, “UV-induced polarisation-dependent loss in tilted fiber bragg gratings: application of a PDL equalizer,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149(5), 211–216 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Nilsson, S. Ramachandran, T. Shay, and A. Shirakawa, “High-power fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 1–2 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. W. Haggans, H. Singh, W. F. Varner, Y. Li, and M. Zippin, “Narrow-band rejection filters with negligible back reflection using tilted photoinduced gratings in single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(5), 690–692 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, and J. Albert, “The sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thickness,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3117–3122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Wang, C. Xu, and H. Po, “Analysis of Raman and thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 242(4), 487–502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

V. P. Gapontsev, E. Shcherbakov, and V. Fomin, “Method and apparatus for preventing distortion of powerful fiber-laser systems by backreflected signals,” U.S. Patent, 7912099B2 (2011)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “In-fiber Bragg grating tap,” in Optical Fiber Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1990), TUG1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structure diagram of a TFBG.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated transmission spectrum of (a) TFBG and CTFBG with tilt angle 4°, (b) CTFBGs in different tilt angles, (c) CTFBGs with different index modulation amplitudes, (d) CTFBGs with different chirp rates.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Fabrication system based on phase mask and (b) configurations used to “tilt” the grating planes inside the fiber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The measured spectrum of the CTFBG fabricated for the following experiments.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup for the suppression of the SRS in fiber amplifier.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Changing spectrum of the output as the pump power increases (a) without CTFBG and (b) with CTFBG, (c) real suppression spectrum corresponding to experimental data at pump power 36.3W, (d) comparison of the slope efficiency with and without the CTFBG.

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